Yalova

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Yalova
Municipality
Yalova is located in Turkey
Yalova
Yalova
Coordinates: 40°39′20″N 29°16′30″E / 40.65556°N 29.27500°E / 40.65556; 29.27500Coordinates: 40°39′20″N 29°16′30″E / 40.65556°N 29.27500°E / 40.65556; 29.27500
Country Turkey
Province Yalova
Area[1]
 • District 166.85 km2 (64.42 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
 • Urban 102,874
 • District 121,479
 • District density 730/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
Website www.yalova.bel.tr
Tourists at the Sudüşen Waterfall, near Termal, Yalova

Yalova is a city located in northwestern Turkey, near the eastern coast of the Sea of Marmara. Yalova has a city population of 100,863, while the population of the Yalova Province is 118,998.[3] as of 2011. Currently there is a controversy around the municipal election results in Yalova especially after the Supreme Election Board invalidated the 2014 Municipal Election results on April 24, 2014 after a few recounts that changed results. [4]

Etymology[edit]

In general, it is assumed that the name "Yalova" comes from "Yalıova"[5] "Yalı" which means "plain at the coast while "ova" means plain in Turkish. It may also come from slovonic language (Jalowa - baren (land))

History[edit]

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk with Ali Fethi Okyar and Okyar's daughter in Yalova, on August 13, 1930

The first settlement in the region dates back to the Prehistoric Period, in around 3000 BC. The Hittites ruled the region in the 21st century BC,[citation needed] followed by the Phrygians in the 13th century BC. The region was conquered by the Romans in 74 BC.

In Antiquity and for most of the Middle Ages, the town was known as Pylae or Pylai (Greek: Πύλαι), which is Greek for "gates", as it was at the start of one of the main routes leading into Asia for whomever crossed the Sea of Marmara from Europe.[6]

In the Byzantine period the town remained of some importance due to its geographic location, and emperors frequently used it as a disembarkation point from Constantinople. Thus Emperor Heraclius landed here in 622, at the beginning of his counter-offensive against the Persians, and Romanos IV Diogenes did the same in 1071, on his way to the Battle of Manzikert.[6] In the 9th century, the town was also the site of one of the beacons that transmitted news from the frontier with the Abbasid Caliphate, and included an imperial hostel for travellers. In the late 10th century, however, Leo of Synada described Pylae as little more than a village, where cattle, horses, pigs and other animals were gathered to be shipped to Constantinople.[6]

The town and the surrounding district were raided by the Seljuk Turks after Manzikert, but soon recovered. In 1147, Greek refugees from Phrygia were settled there. In 1199 charter of privileges to Venetian merchants, it is attested along with neighbouring Pythia Therma as a separate fiscal district (episkepsis), and was a separate province by the time of the Fourth Crusade (1204).[6] Following the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders, Pylae formed part of the Empire of Nicaea, and served as the main port for Nicaea itself.[6] Pylae remained in Byzantine hands until ca. 1302, when Turkish attacks grew in intensity, forcing much of the population to abandon it and seek refuge in the Princes' Islands.[6]

Shortly after, Yalova was incorporated into the territory of the Ottoman Empire.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk occasionally lived in Yalova in his final years. In one of his speeches he famously said: "Yalova is my city."[citation needed]

Tourist attractions[edit]

Yalova has a number of tourist attractions, such as the "Yalova Atatürk Mansion" used by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the modern Turkey, during his visits to the city.

The city is famous for its hot springs in Termal district, which gets its name from the Latin word thermae.

Another attraction is the Karaca Arboretum on the way to Termal.

Climate[edit]

Yalova has a borderline mediterranean/humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification: Csa/Cfa), with cold winters and hot, humid summers.

Climate data for Yalova
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 25.1
(77.2)
27.2
(81)
31.4
(88.5)
36.5
(97.7)
34.2
(93.6)
42.1
(107.8)
45.4
(113.7)
40.0
(104)
37.5
(99.5)
36.6
(97.9)
29.0
(84.2)
27.4
(81.3)
45.4
(113.7)
Average high °C (°F) 10.3
(50.5)
10.5
(50.9)
12.7
(54.9)
17.2
(63)
21.7
(71.1)
26.4
(79.5)
28.8
(83.8)
28.9
(84)
25.4
(77.7)
20.7
(69.3)
15.8
(60.4)
12.0
(53.6)
19.2
(66.56)
Average low °C (°F) 3.3
(37.9)
3.1
(37.6)
4.5
(40.1)
8.0
(46.4)
11.9
(53.4)
15.9
(60.6)
18.0
(64.4)
18.3
(64.9)
15.0
(59)
11.8
(53.2)
7.7
(45.9)
5.2
(41.4)
10.23
(50.4)
Record low °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4)
−11.0
(12.2)
−7.4
(18.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
1.2
(34.2)
8.0
(46.4)
10.8
(51.4)
10.6
(51.1)
6.2
(43.2)
1.3
(34.3)
−3.2
(26.2)
−5.6
(21.9)
−11
(12.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 86.9
(3.421)
69.8
(2.748)
69.5
(2.736)
53.0
(2.087)
33.8
(1.331)
41.7
(1.642)
22.4
(0.882)
36.9
(1.453)
52.9
(2.083)
89.0
(3.504)
89.2
(3.512)
107.2
(4.22)
752.3
(29.619)
Avg. rainy days 15.6 13.3 12.3 11.1 7.6 6.0 4.2 4.3 6.3 10.8 12.6 14.5 118.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 58.9 86.8 133.3 171 235.6 273 294.5 279 222 155 78 46.5 2,033.6
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [7]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns—Sister cities[edit]

Yalova is twinned with:[8]

Notable natives[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05. 
  2. ^ "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2]
  5. ^ TDK Online - Yalı entry
  6. ^ a b c d e f Foss, Clive (1991). "Pylai". In Kazhdan, Alexander. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 1760. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. 
  7. ^ http://www.dmi.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=YALOVA
  8. ^ Administration
  9. ^ "Batumi - Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Batumi City Hall. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04. Retrieved 2013-08-10. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Yalova at Wikimedia Commons