Yana language

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The article is about a Californian language. For the Chinese city, see Yan'an.
Yana
Native to USA
Region California
Ethnicity Yana
Extinct 1916
Hokan?
  • Yana
Dialects
Yahi
Language codes
ISO 639-3 ynn
Linguist list
ynn
Glottolog yana1271[1]
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Pre-contact distribution of the Yana language

Yana (also Yanan) is an extinct language formerly spoken in north-central California between the Feather and Pit rivers in what is now Shasta and Tehama counties.

The language perished in 1916 with the death of Ishi, who spoke the Yahi dialect. Yana is fairly well-documented (mostly by Edward Sapir) compared to other extinct American languages.

The names Yana and Yahi are derived from the word for "people" in the respective dialects.

Regional variation[edit]

There are four known dialects:

  • Northern Yana
  • Central Yana
  • Southern Yana
    • South Yana
    • Yahi

Classification[edit]

Yana is often classified as a branch of the Hokan family. Sapir suggested a grouping of Yana within a Northern Hokan sub-family with Karuk, Chimariko, Shastan, Palaihnihan, and Pomoan. For those who do not accept the validity of Hokan, Yana is a language isolate.

Characteristics[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Goddard, Ives (Ed.). (1996). Languages. Handbook of North American Indians (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Sapir, Edward. 1910. Yana Texts. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 1, no. 9. Berkeley: University Press. (Online version at the Internet Archive).
  • Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978–present). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1–20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1–3, 16, 18–20 not yet published).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Yana". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 

External links[edit]