Yanakuna

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Yanakuna[1] (Quechua yana black / slave, -kuna, a suffix to indicate the plural,[2] "black ones" or "slaves", hispanicized spelling Yanacona, also Yanaconas) were originally individuals in the Inca Empire who left the ayllu system[3] and worked full-time at a variety of tasks for the Inca, the quya (Inca queen) or the religious establishment. A few members of this serving class enjoyed high social status and were appointed officials by the Sapa Inca.[4] They could own property and sometimes had their own farms, before and after the conquest.

Inca Empire[edit]

In the Inca Empire yanakuna was the name of the servants to the Inca elites. The word servant, however, is misleading about the identity and function of the yanakuna.[5] It is important to note that they were not forced to work as slaves.[citation needed] Some were born into the category of yanakuna (like many other professions, it was a hereditary one), some chose to leave ayllus to work, and some were selected by nobles.[6] They were to care for the herds of the nobles, do fishing, and were dedicated to other work, like the making of pottery, construction, and domestic service. Yanakuna were sometimes given high positions in the Inca government. Mitma is a term commonly associated with yanakuna, but its meaning is different, as the mitmaqkuna were used as labor for large projects. Yanakuna were specifically not a part of an ayllu and were relocated individually instead of in large labor groups. An example of the differences of the classes is that mitmaqkuna were labor that built Machu Picchu, but yanakuna lived and served the Inca there.[7]

Spanish Empire[edit]

When the Spanish conquistadors arrived in modern-day Peru, the yanakuna declared themselves "friends of the Spaniards."[8] They assisted the Spaniards to take control of the empire. These people, who the Spaniards, during the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, began to use the name for the indigenous people they had in servitude, in encomiendas, or in military forces as indios auxiliares (Indian auxiliaries).

After the conquest, the yanakuna population exploded with people leaving ayllus to work in mining. Spaniards favored the individual yanakuna (as they were an alternative labor force) instead of the ayllu-based encomienda system, so the population continued to increase. The Spaniards did not share the same views of yanakuna as the elites did in the Incan Empire. Sometimes, Indians had to ayllus to pay off debts and other forms of economic dependence. The population was not large enough, however, to replace the encomienda system but rather to supplement it.[9] The term yanakuna also was used during the conquest of Chile and other areas of South America.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Alan L. Kolata, Ancient Inca, Cambridge University Press, 2013
  2. ^ Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary)
  3. ^ Lewellen, Ted C. (2003). Political anthropology: An introduction. ABC-CLIO. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-89789-891-1. 
  4. ^ Childress, D. (2000). Who's who in Inca society. Calliope, 10(7), 14.
  5. ^ The Inca and Aztec States 1400-1800. Anthropology and History by George A. Collier; Renato I. Rosaldo; John D. Wirth.
  6. ^ Malpass, M. A. (1996). Daily life in the inca empire. (pp. 55). Greenwood Publishing Group.
  7. ^ Bethany L. Turner, George D. Kamenov, John D. Kingston, George J. Armelagos, Insights into immigration and social class at Machu Picchu, Peru based on oxygen, strontium, and lead isotopic analysis, Journal of Archaeological
  8. ^ Stern, S. J. (1982). Peru's indian peoples and the challenge of spanish conquest. (pp. 30-55). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
  9. ^ Stern, S.J. (1982). Peru's indian peoples and the challenge of Spanish conquest. (pp. 155). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Sources[edit]

  • Ann M. Wightman, Indigenous Migration and Social Change: The Forasteros of Cuzco, 1570-1720, Duke University Press, 1990, ISBN 0822310007. Pg. 16-18
  • Translation of Spanish Wikipedia Page
  • The Inca and Aztec States 1400-1800. Anthropology and History by George A. Collier; Renato I. Rosaldo; John D. Wirth.
  • Childress, D. (2000). Who's who in Inca society. Calliope, 10(7), 14.
  • Malpass, M. A. (1996). Daily life in the inca empire. (pp. 55). Greenwood Publishing Group.
  • Bethany L. Turner, George D. Kamenov, John D. Kingston, George J. Armelagos, Insights into immigration and social class at Machu Picchu, Peru based on oxygen, strontium, and lead isotopic analysis, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 36, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 317-332, ISSN 0305-4403, 10.1016/j.jas.2008.09.018.
  • Stern, S. J. (1982). Peru's Indian peoples and the challenge of Spanish conquest. (pp. 30–55). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Stern, S.J. (1982). Peru's Indian peoples and the challenge of Spanish conquest. (pp. 155). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.