Yanbu

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For Chinese silver ingots, known as yambu, see Sycee.
Yanbu' Al Bahr
NASA photograph of Yanbu' al Bahr
NASA photograph of Yanbu' al Bahr
Yanbu' Al Bahr is located in Saudi Arabia
Yanbu' Al Bahr
Yanbu' Al Bahr
Coordinates: 24°05′N 38°0′E / 24.083°N 38.000°E / 24.083; 38.000Coordinates: 24°05′N 38°0′E / 24.083°N 38.000°E / 24.083; 38.000
Country Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Saudi Arabia
Province Al Madinah
Governorate Yanbu Al Bahr
Established 491 BC
Government
 • Provincial Governor Abdulaziz Bin Majid
Population (2004)
 • Total 250,000
  Yanbu Municipality estimate
Postal Code (5 digits)
Area code(s) +966-4
Yanbu city.

Yanbu' al Bahr (Arabic: ينبع البحر‎, Yanbuʿ al-Baḥr, "spring by the sea"), also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea port in the Al Madinah province of western Saudi Arabia. It is approximately 300 kilometers northwest of Jeddah (at 24°05′N 38°00′E / 24.083°N 38.000°E / 24.083; 38.000). The population is 188,430 (2004 census). A large number of the residents are foreign expatriates working in the oil refineries and petrochemical industry, mostly from Asia, but there are also large numbers from the Middle East, Europe, United States, and Canada.

History[edit]

Pre-modern era[edit]

Yanbu's history dates back at least 2,500 years, when it was a staging point on the spice and incense route from Yemen to Egypt and the Mediterranean region.

The Invasion of Dul Ashir took place in Yanbu. Two or three months after Muhammad's return from Buwat, he appointed Abu Salamah Ibn Abd al-Assad to take his place in Medina while he was away commanding another raid. Between 150 and 200 followers joined this operation to al-Ushayra, Yanbu in either the month of Jumada al-awwal or Jumada al-Thani.[1][2][3]

They had 30 camels that they rode upon by turns. When they arrived at al-Usharayh, they expected to raid a rich Meccan caravan heading towards Syria led by Abu Sufyan. Muhammad already had the knowledge of this caravan’s departure from Mecca and waited for about a month for this caravan to pass. But the Meccan caravan had already passed.

In this operation, Muhammad entered into an alliance with Banu Madlaj, a tribe inhabiting the vicinity of al-Ushayra. He also concluded another treaty that was made with Banu Damrah previously.[3] All those treaties established good political connections for him.[2]

Modern era[edit]

Yanbu served as a supply and operational base for Arab and British forces fighting the Ottoman Empire during World War I. It remained a small port town until 1975, when the Saudi government designated it as one of the country's two new industrial centers (the other being Al Jubayl on the Persian Gulf). Extensive government and private development have taken place at the port and surrounding area, which is based on the petrochemical industry.

Geography[edit]

The city is divided into three primary sections, which are located about fifteen minutes (drive by car) away from each other. Yanbu is the second largest Saudi Arabian city by the Red Sea, after Jeddah.

Yanbu Al-Balad[edit]

(Also known as Yanbu Al-Bahar) is the most northern part of Yanbu. The downtown area of Yanbu Al-Balad (which is also called Al-Balad) contains most of the population. Most of the restaurants here cater to the various ethnic groups in the area, although some also cater to residents in the Royal Commission. The area contains a few international chain restaurants, as well as some coffee shops. The Holiday Inn Hotel is located at the edge of this area, as is Yanbu Airport. Most of the residents tend to be lower and middle-class Saudi citizens, and well as mostly South Asian and lower and middle-class Arab and other Middle Eastern expatriates.

Currently, the government is attempting to improve the old, historical area in downtown Yanbu, as many historical buildings are located there. Many, unfortunately, are still in a serious state of disrepair. While most of Yanbu Al-Balad, has a rather old, worn-out feel to it, parts of the city, particularly at the edges of the city, are starting to modernize, as new shopping centers, as well as a new shopping mall, have been built. Jarir Bookstore had also opened a branch in Yanbu Al-Balad.

Yanbu Al-Nakhal[edit]

(The Palms) is a separate small town, some 47 kilometers from the city (according to Google Maps), where mostly farms would be found. Any residents here are exclusively Saudi Arabian.

Yanbu Al-Sina'iya[edit]

Yanbu Al-Sina'iya (literally "the industrial Yanbu") is the industrial city, established in 1975 by royal decree to create a Royal Commission to manage the effort to build a new modern city. It is the most southern part of Yanbu city. Yanbu Al-Sina'iya is divided into two parts, the industrial area to the south, and a residential area (referred to as the Royal Commission by many locals) directly north and adjacent to the industrial area. The industrial area within Yanbu Al-Sina'iya is the area of all the major refineries and petrochemical installations, and is still undergoing major growth. This area of Yanbu was a strip of undeveloped coastal desert land on the Red Sea, and has been transformed into an industrial city.

Yanbu Al-Sina'iya's residential section is near the Royal Commission Headquarters. It has amenities such as many international chain restaurants, two shopping malls, supermarkets of various sizes, hospitals, banks, and coffee shops. The Moevenpick Hotel, Yanbu's newest hotel, is located here, as is The Cove, a gated private residential housing compound built around a large private lagoon. Yanbu Al Sinaiyah is home to Yanbu Industrial College, created for training and imparting knowledge for the students and workforce of the industry, and to Yanbu International School.

The majority of Yanbu's Western expatriate population is found living in the Royal Commission. The rest of the residents of Yanbu Al-Sina'iya tend to be upper-middle and upper-class Saudi citizens, upper-class Asians, and upper-class Arab and Middle Eastern residents. The residential area of Yanbu Al-Sina'iya has a more modern, clean, and organized feel to it than the downtown area. It is also greener.

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Yanbu'al Bahr
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 26
(79)
27
(80)
29
(85)
33
(91)
36
(96)
37
(99)
38
(100)
38
(100)
37
(99)
35
(95)
32
(89)
28
(83)
33
(91.3)
Average low °C (°F) 10
(50)
12
(53)
18
(65)
22
(72)
24
(76)
26
(79)
27
(80)
27
(80)
27
(80)
24
(76)
20
(68)
17
(62)
21.2
(70.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 5
(0.2)
0
(0)
28
(1.1)
8
(0.3)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
13
(0.5)
8
(0.3)
62
(2.4)
Source: Weatherbase [4]

Economy[edit]

Yanbu is an important petroleum shipping terminal and is home to three oil refineries, a plastics facility and several other petrochemical plants. It is the country's second port (after Jeddah) and serves as the main port for the holy city of Medina, 160 km (99 mi) to the east. The natural harbour is protected on both sides by wide coral reefs. These reefs remain mostly untouched, making them excellent areas for diving. Three major oil pipelines lead across the desert from the oilfields in the east to terminate at the Red Sea in Yanbu.

Education[edit]

For higher education, the city has several universities and colleges, including the following:

Yanbu is also home to several primary, intermediate and secondary schools such as:

Transportation[edit]

Airport[edit]

Yanbu has an international airport (code YNB) that was upgraded in 2009. It only offers flights to Dammam, Jeddah, and Riyadh within Saudi Arabia. Internationally, it offers flights to Manama in Bahrain, Cairo in Egypt, Istanbul in Turkey, and Dubai and Sharjah in the United Arab Emirates.

All the international destinations are serviced by foreign airlines; domestic carriers Saudia and Flynas only serve the domestic destinations listed above.

Highways[edit]

A highway passes through Yanbu, linking Yanbu to Jeddah in the south, and to the northern parts of the kingdom as well as to neighboring countries like Syria, Jordan, etc., in the north.

Naval Base[edit]

A naval base, called Al-Minhalapin, utilizes islands and underwater facilities to protect the landmass.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Haykal, Husayn (1976), The Life of Muhammad, Islamic Book Trust, pp. 217–218, ISBN 978-983-9154-17-7 
  2. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, The Sealed Nectar (Free Version), p. 128
  3. ^ a b Mubarakpuri, When the Moon Split, p. 148.
  4. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Yanbu'al Bahr, Saudi Arabia". Weatherbase. 2011.  Retrieved on November 24, 2011.

External links[edit]