Yangge

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Traditional Yangge dance performance by the Dream Butterfly Dance Group (蝶梦舞团) at Binus University

Yangge (Chinese: 秧歌; pinyin: Yānggē), or "Rice Sprout Song," is a form of Chinese folk dance originating from the Song Dynasty. It is very popular in northern China and is one of the most representative form of folk arts. It is popular in both the countryside and cities in northern China. It is especially popular among older people. Crowds of people will go out into the street in the evening and dance together in a line or a circle formation.

Some dancers dress up in red, green, or other colorful costumes, and typically use a red silk ribbon around the waist. They will swing their bodies to music played by drum, trumpet, and gong. More people will join in as they see Yang Ge going on and dance along. Some dancers use props like the waistdrum, dancing fan, fake donkey, or litter. In different areas Yangge is performed in different styles, but all types express happiness.

There are two major types of yangge, one is Stilt Yangge which is performed on stilts, the other is Ground Yangge which is more common and is performed without stilts. Another version of the yangge is the village play, an anthology of which was published by Sidney D. Gamble in 1970, based on transcriptions made by Li Jinghan as part of the Ting Hsien Experiment's surveys in the 1930s.[1]

In the 1940s, the Chinese Communist Party launched the new yangge movement where the dance was adopted as a means of rallying village support. It is a simplified version of the dance with socialist elements such as the leader of the holding a sickle instead of umbrella, and it is also known as "struggle yangge" or "reform yangge".[2][3]

Regional variations[edit]

North Shaanxi[edit]

The dance may be in large groups of a dozen to a hundred people, or in two or three-person groups. The dancers move from location to location, visiting different parts of the town. The leader of the procession of dancers is called the santou or "Umbrella" who wields an umbrella to lead the movement of the group.[4] He also sings, usually improvised, while the others will repeat his last line. Various characters may appear in the procession, such as the two comic characters Big-Headed Monk and Liu Cui (柳翠), and the Eight Immortals. The procession first follows the santou in a single file to form a large simple circle, and later then forms other more intricate patterns.

Shandong[edit]

The Shandong yangge is thought to be the purest forms of yangge. There are three major types of yangge in the Shandong province, the Haiyang yangge, Jiaozhou yangge, and the guzi (鼓子, drum) yangge. In guzi yangge each dancer takes one of five roles - "Umbrella", "Drum", "Stick", "Flower", "Clown" - the first three are named after the props the dancer holds, while the fourth refers to a female dancer.[5]

Liaoning[edit]

In Liaoning and Beijing, a popular form is the stilt yangge where the dancers perform on stilts. There are many types of stilt yangge, for example "Jietang" is a group dance performed in the street; "Jiaxiang" involves the formation of a pyramid of different poses; "Dachang" is group dance done in a large open air space; and "Xiaochang" characterized by its love-story plot. [6]

Northeast China[edit]

The performers of Manchurian Yangge in Northeast China usually wear Manchurian clothes. The movement is free and brisk, imitating the valor of a tribe excelling in horsemanship and marksmanship.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sidney D. Gamble (1970). Chinese Village Plays from the Ting Hsien Region (Yang Ke Hsüan); a Collection of Forty-Eight Chinese Rural Plays as Staged by Villagers from Ting Hsien in Northern China. Translated from the Chinese by various scholars after the original recordings and edited with a critical introd. and explanatory notes by Sidney D. Gamble. Amsterdam: Philo Press. ISBN 978-9060224007. 
  2. ^ Chang-tai, Hung (2005). "The Dance of Revolution: Yangge in Beijing in the Early 1950s". The China Quarterly 181: 82–99. doi:10.1017/S0305741005000056. 
  3. ^ Richard Gunde (2001). Culture and Customs of China. Greenwood. p. 107. ISBN 978-0313361180. 
  4. ^ David Holms (1984). "Folk Art as Propaganda: The Yangge Movement in Yan'an". In Bonnie S. McDougall. Popular Chinese Literature and Performing Arts in the People's Republic of Chinaa, 1949-1979. University of California Press. p. 13-21. ISBN 978-0520048522. 
  5. ^ "Guzi Yangge". Cultural China. 
  6. ^ "Collection of Chinese Folk Dances". ChinaCulture.org. 
  7. ^ Sun Jingchen, Luo Xiongyan, Zi Huayun. "Excerpts from Chinese Dance". Toronto Chinese Dance Academy. 

External links[edit]