Yang Rudai

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Yang Rudai
杨汝岱
7th Communist Party Chief of Sichuan
In office
1983–1993
Preceded by Tan Qilong
Succeeded by Xie Shijie
Member of the 13th Politburo of the Communist Party of China
In office
1987–1992
General Secretary Zhao Ziyang
Jiang Zemin
Personal details
Born December 1926 (age 88)
Renshou County, Sichuan
Nationality Chinese
Political party Communist Party of China
Spouse(s) Tan Xiaoying (谭小英)
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Yang.

Yang Rudai (Chinese: 杨汝岱; pinyin: Yáng Rǔdài; Wade–Giles: Yang Ju-tai; born December 1926) is a retired politician of the People's Republic of China (PRC). He served as the Communist Party Chief of Sichuan, then China's most populous province, and was the first native Sichuanese to become the top leader of the province since the founding of the PRC. He was a member of the 13th Politburo of the Communist Party of China, one of the top governing bodies of China.[1] Yang was considered a protégé of the purged reformist leader Zhao Ziyang.

Early life and career[edit]

Yang Rudai was born in December 1926 in Renshou County, Sichuan province.[1][2] He received the equivalent of a high school-level education.[3]

In the early 1950s Yang actively participated in the land reform that was carried out by the newly established People's Republic of China and was rewarded for his performance. He joined the Communist Party of China in 1952, and was promoted just two years later to Deputy Party Chief of Renshou County. During the political radicalization of the 1960s, Yang's humble family background made him a model of the "class line" of the Sichuan provincial chief Li Jingquan, and he was promoted to First Party Secretary of Renshou. However, he subsequently was persecuted due to this tie to Li Jingquan when Li fell from power during the Cultural Revolution.[4]

Rise to prominence[edit]

Despite his suffering during the Cultural Revolution, Yang worked hard and took a leadership role in the building of a major reservoir which solved a key irrigation problem. Zhao Ziyang, the new reformist Party Chief of Sichuan, was impressed by his performance and promoted him first to Party Chief of Leshan prefecture in 1977, and only a year later, to Vice Governor of Sichuan province. Yang became a close assistant of Zhao Ziyang.[4]

When Zhao Ziyang left Sichuan to become the Premier of China in 1980, Yang was favoured to succeed him as the provincial chief. However, Tan Qilong, a senior revolutionary leader, was chosen instead to replace Zhao as a transitional leader to "assist" the relatively young Yang Rudai. Yang became one of the several party secretaries of Sichuan under Tan, but he took charge of the daily operation of the province.[4]

Two years later, Tan Qilong retired from politics along with most senior leaders of the revolutionary generation, and Yang Rudai succeeded him to become the first Sichuan native to serve as its top provincial leader.[4] He was also elected to the 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in 1982.[3] In 1987 he rose further to become a member of the 13th Politburo, one of China's top decision-making bodies, which was headed by Yang's old boss Zhao Ziyang as General Secretary.[4]

Conflicts[edit]

A man from the countryside with limited education, Yang was a cautious leader who avoided making mistakes or forming political factions. His carefulness attracted criticism that Sichuan did not achieve any breakthrough in reform under his leadership. He clashed with Governor Jiang Minkuan, who made reform proposals that were deemed "unrealistic" by Zhao Ziyang. The tension resulted in Jiang's transfer away from Sichuan.[4]

Jiang was replaced as governor by Zhang Haoruo in 1988, who came from a "princeling" background and enjoyed close relationship with Premier Li Peng. Yang and Zhang had serious conflicts during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. Yang urged the central government to handle the protests peacefully, while Zhang supported the hardline advocated by Li Peng and others. After the imposition of martial law by the central government, Yang changed his position and adopted a harsh policy toward student protesters in Sichuan. Severe conflicts broke out after the arrest of many demonstrators, and the largest shopping center in the provincial capital Chengdu was burned down.[4]

In the aftermath of the Tiananmen Square protests, Zhao Ziyang was purged and placed under house arrest in 1989. Yang Rudai, considered a protégé of Zhao, kept his Politburo membership until its term ended. However, he was not reelected into the 14th Politburo in 1992 despite not having reached the retirement age.[5]

Three Gorges Dam[edit]

In early 1992, the National People's Congress passed a resolution to build the Three Gorges Dam, the world's biggest. It was projected that at the completion of the dam, Sichuan would lose 503 square kilometres (194 sq mi) of land, and nearly a million people would need to be relocated. Yang Rudai was opposed to the dam and supported Sichuanese deputies who strongly protested the decision at the National Congress. In contrast, Governor Zhang Haoruo resolutely supported the national government's decision. Under strong pressure from Beijing, Yang changed his position and agreed to support the project. In compensation, he negotiated an increase of the central government's investment in Sichuan by 18.5 billion yuan. When the deal was reached, Governor Zhang expressed his support on behalf of Sichuan at a press conference, while Yang remained silent.[4]

After Sichuan[edit]

In 1993 Yang Rudai was replaced by Xie Shijie as Sichuan's Party Chief, and was transferred to the national government to serve as a Vice Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a largely ceremonial but prestigious post. He served two terms in that position until 2003.[1][3]

In July 2010 Yang published a memoir in the liberal Chinese magazine Yanhuang Chunqiu praising Zhao Ziyang. It marked a rare break of the long-standing taboo in China against mentioning the former leader since he was ousted after the Tiananmen protests.[6]

Personal life[edit]

Yang Rudai is said to lead a simple private life.[4] At least until 1988, after he became the Party Chief of Sichuan and a Politburo member, his wife Tan Xiaoying (谭小英)[1] was still a contract worker in a small street factory in Chengdu.[4][7]

Career data[edit]

Date Position
1998—2003 Vice-Chairman of the 9th Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
1995 onward Honorary President of the Rural Special Technology Association of China
1993—1998 Vice-Chairman of the 8th Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference
1993—1998 Member of the 8th National People's Congress
1987—1992 Member of the 13th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, elected to its politburo
1982—1987 Member of the 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
1983—1993 Secretary of the CPC Sichuan Provincial Committee
1978—1982 Vice-governor of Sichuan province
1978—1982 Member of the CPC Sichuan Provincial and Standing Committees
1977—1978 Secretary of the CPC Leshan Prefectural Committee
1975—1978 Member of the 4th National People's Congress
1952—1968 Secretary of the CPC Renshou County Committee
1952 onward Member of the Chinese Communist Party

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "杨汝岱简历 [Biography of Yang Rudai]" (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 24 July 2013. 
  2. ^ "Yang Rudai 杨汝岱". China Vitae. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c "Yang Rudai, Vice-Chairman of Ninth CPPCC National Committee". People's Daily Online. Retrieved 19 July 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Peter T. Y. Cheung; Jae Ho Chung; Chae-ho Chŏng et al., eds. (1998). Provincial Strategies of Economic Reform in Post-Mao China: Leadership, Politics, and Implementation. M. E. Sharpe. pp. 387–392. ISBN 9780765621498. 
  5. ^ Hung-Mao Tien; Yunhan Zhu, eds. (2000). China Under Jiang Zemin. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 39. ISBN 9781555879273. 
  6. ^ "Chinese magazine breaks Zhao taboo". The Sydney Morning Herald. 8 July 2010. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  7. ^ Lawrence R. Sullivan (2011). Historical Dictionary of the Chinese Communist Party. Scarecrow Press. p. 294. ISBN 9780810872257. 
Party political offices
Preceded by
Tan Qilong
Communist Party Chief of Sichuan
1983–1993
Succeeded by
Xie Shijie