Yantarny

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Yantarny may also refer to Yantarni Volcano.
Yantarny (English)
Янтарный (Russian)
-  Urban-type settlement  -
Map of Russia - Kaliningrad Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia
Yantarny is located in Kaliningrad Oblast
Yantarny
Yantarny
Magnify-clip.png
Location of Yantarny in Kaliningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 54°52′22″N 19°56′26″E / 54.87278°N 19.94056°E / 54.87278; 19.94056Coordinates: 54°52′22″N 19°56′26″E / 54.87278°N 19.94056°E / 54.87278; 19.94056
Administrative status (as of November 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Kaliningrad Oblast
Administratively subordinated to urban-type settlement of oblast significance of Yantarny[1]
Administrative center of urban-type settlement of oblast significance of Yantarny[1]
Municipal status (as of July 2009)
Urban okrug Yantarny Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Yantarny Urban Okrug[2]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 5,524 inhabitants[3]
Time zone USZ1 (UTC+03:00)[4]
Founded 1234[citation needed]
Previous names Palmnicken (until 1945)[citation needed]
Official website
Yantarny on WikiCommons

Yantarny (Russian: About this sound Янта́рный​ ; German: About this sound Palmnicken ; Lithuanian: Palvininkai; Polish: Palmniki)) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located about 40 kilometers (25 mi) from Kaliningrad on the Sambian Peninsula. Population: 5,524 (2010 Census);[3] 5,455 (2002 Census);[5] 4,948 (1989 Census).[6]

History[edit]

Pre-1945[edit]

For centuries a provincial estate, Palmnicken was founded in 1234 atop an older Old Prussian settlement by the crusading Teutonic Knights, who named the new settlement Palmnicken. After the secularization of the Order's Prussian lands in 1525, Palmnicken became part of the Duchy of Prussia. In the Thirty Years' War Palmnicken was occupied by Sweden for six years.

Palmnicken became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701 and the Prussian Province of East Prussia in 1773. Imperial Russian troops occupied the town between 1758 and 1762 during the Seven Years' War. Resulting from the Prussian administrative reform of 1818, Palmnicken became part of Landkreis Fischhausen in East Prussia. Industrial development of the local amber trade started in 1827. The town became part of the German Empire in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Palmnicken developed into a spa resort. In 1939 the town had 3,079 inhabitants as part of Nazi Germany. Palmnicken was conquered by the Soviet Red Army at the beginning of April 1945 during World War II.

Massacre of Palmnicken[edit]

Because of the advance of Soviet troops in January 1945, the East Prussian subcamp of the Stutthof concentration camp was disbanded and its inmates were sent through Königsberg to Palmnicken. Only 3,000 of the original 13,000 inmates survived the forced march. Originally, the surviving detainees were to be walled up within a tunnel of an amber mine, but this plan collapsed upon the objections of the mine's manager. Schutzstaffel members then brought the prisoners to the beach of Palmnicken during the night of January 31 and under rifle fire forced them to march into the Baltic Sea. Only 33 known by name inmates survived.

Former amber mine (foreground), now a lake near the Baltic Sea (background)

A monument to the victims was unveiled in Yantarny on January, 30, 2011. The monument, by Frank Meisler, features hands lifted up to the sky as a symbol of perishing people.[7] On August, 24, 2011, the monument was vandalized with paint and antisemitic slogans.[8]

Post-1945[edit]

The northern third of East Prussia, including Palmnicken, became part of the Soviet Union in 1945 under terms of border changes promulgated at the Potsdam Conference. The German population evacuated of the town or was subsequently expelled to western Germany. The town was predominantly repopulated with Russians, as well as Belarusians, Ukrainians, and Tatars. Palmnicken was renamed Yantarny, after yantar, the Russian word for amber.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with two rural localities, incorporated as the urban-type settlement of oblast significance of Yantarny—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the urban-type settlement of oblast significance of Yantarny is incorporated as Yantarny Urban Okrug.[2]

Amber industry[edit]

Amber mine „Primorskoje“ in Yantarny
Former amber mine "Anna"

Amber was collected along the shores of the Sambian coast during the age of the Teutonic Knights. They succeeded in establishing a monopoly over the amber trade, which carried over to the Prussian state of the House of Hohenzollern. In the 16th century amber collected along the coastline was brought to Palmnicken where it was sorted and then sent to Königsberg for further processing. After 1811 the amber production was leased. In 1858 the firm Stantien & Becker was founded. Stantien & Becker created the first open pit amber mine in the world, but mined amber mainly with the method of underground mining (pits "Anna" and "Henriette"). Initially the mine produced 50 tons of amber annually, but by 1937 - now a state-owned company (Preußische Bergwerks- und Hütten AG) - it produced 650 tons annually and employed 700 workers. As part of the Soviet Union, Yantarny produced approximately 600 tons of amber annually through the company Russky Yantar ("Russian Amber"). The refinement of amber was discontinued in 2002 by a directive of the Russian Regulatory Authority for Technology and Environmental Protection. Some years later, a new open pit mine ("Primorskoje") was established in immediate vicinity of the old open pit mine. In 2008 about 500 tons amber was mined at this location.

Amber Beach Festival[edit]

In 2010, Yantarny was hosting an annual international music festival Amber Beach.

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Resolution #639
  2. ^ a b c Law #402
  3. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  6. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Memorial to Holocaust Victims Opened in Kaliningrad". Guarant-InfoCentre. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 
  8. ^ "A monument to Holocaust victims desecrated". CFCA. Retrieved 8 September 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Правительство Калининградской области. Постановление №640 от 30 августа 2011 г. «Об утверждении реестра объектов административно-территориального деления Калининградской области», в ред. Постановления №877 от 21 ноября 2011 г «О внесении изменения в Постановление Правительства Калининградской области от 30 августа 2011 г. №640». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Калининградская правда" (вкладыш "Официально"), №170, 15 сентября 2011 г. (Government of Kaliningrad Oblast. Resolution #640 of August 30, 2011 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Objects of the Administrative-Territorial Divisions of Kaliningrad Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #877 of November 21, 2011 On Amending the Resolution of the Government of Kaliningrad Oblast #640 of August 30, 2011. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Калининградская областная Дума. Закон №402 от 7 июня 2004 г. «О наделении муниципального образования "Посёлок Янтарный" статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №370 от 1 июля 2009 г «О составе территорий муниципальных образований Калининградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Янтарь" (пос. Янтарный), №24, 21 июня 2004 г. (Kaliningrad Oblast Duma. Law #402 of June 7, 2004 On Granting the Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the "Settlement of Yantarny", as amended by the Law #370 of July 1, 2009 On the Composition of the Territories of the Municipal Formations of Kaliningrad Oblast. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links[edit]