Yenya

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Yenyā (Indra Jātrā)
Sweta bhairava krt.jpg
Mask of Sweta Bhairava at Durbar Square
Also called Indra Jātrā in Nepali
Observed by Nepalese Hindus and Buddhists
Type Religious
Significance Unity of Local People of Kathmandu
Celebrations Chariot processions on 8, 9 and 12 September 2014 (Kwaneyā, Thaneyā and Nānichāyā)
Observances Processions, masked dances, tableau
Begins Dwadashi
Ends Tritiya
2014 date 6–12 September
Started by King Gunakāmadeva

Indra Jātrā as it is most commonly known or Yenyā (Nepal Bhasa: येँयाः) is the biggest religious street festival in Kathmandu, Nepal. Yenya means "Kathmandu festival" in Nepal Bhasa. The celebrations consist of two events. Indra Jātrā is marked by masked dances of deities and demons, displays of sacred images and tableaus in honor of the deity Indra, the king of heaven. The other event is Kumāri Jātrā, the chariot procession of the living goddess Kumari.

Family members deceased in the past year are also remembered during the festival. The main venue of the festivities is Kathmandu Durbar Square. The celebrations last for eight days from the 12th day of the bright fortnight to the 4th day of the dark fortnight of Yanlā (ञला), the eleventh month in the lunar Nepal Era calendar.[1][2]

Indra Jatra was started by king Gunakamadeva to commemorate the founding of the city of Kathmandu in the 10th century.[3] Kumari Jatra began in the mid-18th century. The celebrations are held according to the lunar calendar, so the dates are changeable.

Opening ceremony[edit]

Raising the Yosin pole

The festival starts with Yosin Thanegu (योसिं थनेगु), the erection of Yosin or Linga, a pole from which the banner of Indra is unfurled, at Kathmandu Durbar Square. The pole, a tree shorn of its branches and stripped of its bark, is obtained from a forest near Nālā, a small town 29 km to the east of Kathmandu. It is dragged in stages to Durbar Square by men pulling on ropes.

Another event on the first day is Upāku Wanegu (उपाकु वनेगु) when participants visit shrines holding lighted incense to honor deceased family members. They also place small butter lamps on the way. Some sing hymns as they make the tour. The circuitous route winds along the periphery of the historic part of the city. The procession starts at around 5 pm.[4]

Processions[edit]

Kumari Jatra[edit]

Kumari Jatra in the 1850s, in front of the Hanuman Dhoka
Chariot procession

Kumari Jatra, which means the chariot festival of Kumari, coincides with Indra Jatra. It was started in 1756 AD during the reign of Jaya Prakash Malla.[5][6]

During this festival, three chariots carrying human representations of the deities Ganesh, Bhairava and Kumari accompanied by musical bands are pulled along the festival route through Kathmandu on three days. The procession starts at around 3 pm.

On the first day of Kumari Jatra known as Kwaneyā (क्वनेया:), the chariots are pulled through the southern part of town. The second day is the full moon day known as Yenya Punhi (येँयाः पुन्हि). During the procession known as Thaneyā (थनेया:), the chariots are drawn through the northern part till Asan. And on the third day Nānichāyā (नानिचाया:), the procession passes through the central section at Kilāgal. Since 2012, the chariot of Kumari has been pulled by an all-women's team on the third day of the chariot festival.

  • Route on first day of chariot festival, Kwaneyā (downtown procession): Basantapur, Maru, Chikanmugal, Jaisidewal, Lagan, Hyumata, Bhimsensthan, Maru, Basantapur.
  • Route on second day of chariot festival, Thaneyā (uptown procession): Basantapur, Pyaphal, Yatkha, Nyata, Tengal, Nhyokha, Nhaikan Tol, Asan, Kel Tol, Indra Chok, Makhan, Basantapur.
  • Route on third day of chariot festival, Nānichāyā (midtown procession): Basantapur, Pyaphal, Yatkha, Nyata, Kilagal, Bhedasing, Indra Chok, Makhan, Basantapur.

Mata Biye[edit]

Mata Biye (मत बिये) means to offer butter lamps. On the day of Kwaneyā, the first day of the chariot festival, Newars honor family members deceased during the past year by offering small butter lamps along the processional route. They also present butter lamps to relatives and friends on the way as a mark of respect. The procession starts at around 6 pm.

  • Route: Maru, Pyaphal, Yatkha, Nyata, Tengal, Nhyokha, Nhaikan Tol, Asan, Kel Tol, Indra Chok, Makhan, Hanuman Dhoka, Maru, Chikanmugal, Jaisidewal, Lagan, Hyumata, Bhimsensthan, Maru.
  • Day: On the day of Kwaneyā.
Dagin procession

Dagin[edit]

The procession of the goddess Dāgin (दागिं) (alternative name: Dāgim) re-enacts Indra mother's going around town in search of her son. The procession consists of a man wearing a mask accompanied by a musical band. It starts at around 8 pm when the chariot of Kumari returns to Maru after journeying around the southern part of town.

The procession begins from an alley at the south-western corner of Maru square and passes by the western side of Kasthamandap. The participants follow the festival route north to Asan and then back to Durbar Square. The procession continues to the southern end of town before returning to Maru.[7]

  • Route: Maru, Pyaphal, Yatkha, Nyata, Tengal, Nhyokha, Nhaikan Tol, Asan, Kel Tol, Indra Chok, Makhan, Hanuman Dhoka, Maru, Chikanmugal, Jaisidewal, Lagan, Hyumata, Bhimsensthan, Maru.
  • Day: On the day of Kwaneyā.

Bau Mata[edit]

Bau Mata (बौ मत) consists of a long representation of a holy snake made of reeds on which a row of oil lamps are placed. The effigy is suspended from poles carried on the shoulders and taken along the festival route. The procession starts from the southern side of Kasthamandap at Maru. When the Dagin procession returns from the upper part of town and reaches Maru, that is the cue for the Bau Mata procession to set off. It starts at around 9 pm and is organized by the Manandhar caste group.

  • Route: Maru, Pyaphal, Yatkha, Nyata, Tengal, Nhyokha, Nhaikan Tol, Asan, Kel Tol, Indra Chok, Makhan, Hanuman Dhoka, Maru, Chikanmugal, Jaisidewal, Lagan, Hyumata, Bhimsensthan, Maru.
  • Day: On the day of Kwaneyā.

Exhibitions[edit]

Bākā Bhairava at Wotu

Bhairava[edit]

Masks of Bhairava are displayed at various places in Kathmandu throughout the eight days of the festival. Bhairava is the terrifying aspect of Shiva. The largest ones are of Sweta Bhairava at Durbar Square, and of Akash Bhairava at Indra Chok. A pipe sticking out of the mouth of Sweta Bhairava dispenses alcohol and rice beer on different days. An image of Bākā Bhairava is exhibited at Wotu, next to Indra Chok.

The mask of Akash Bhairava is related to the Mahabharata. Some believe it to be the head of the first Kirat King Yalamber. Every night, different groups gather and sing hymns at Indra Chok.

Indraraj Dyah[edit]

Images of Indraraj Dyah with his outstretched hands bound with rope are exhibited on a tall platform at Maru near Durbar Square and at Indra Chok, Kathmandu.

Dasavatar[edit]

A tableau known as Dasavatar or the 10 incarnations of Vishnu is shown on the temple steps in front of Kumari House every night.

Masked dances[edit]

Majipa Lakhe

Majipā Lākhey[edit]

The demon dance of Majipā Lākhey is performed on the streets and market squares. The Majipa Lakhey dancer and his retinue of musicians move aimlessly through the streets spreading the festive mood.

Sawa Bhakku[edit]

The Sawa Bhakku dance group from Halchok, at the western edge of the Kathmandu Valley, makes its rounds along the festival route, stopping at major street squares to perform and receive offerings from devotees. The dancers consist of Bhairava (in blue) holding a sword and his two attendants (in red). The ensemble is also known informally as Dhin Nāli Sintān after the sound of their music.

Devi Pykhan[edit]

Devi Pykhan from Kilagal is performed at Kilagal and Jaisidewal. Dancers wearing masks of various deities perform dance dramas on stone platforms.

Māhākāli Pykhan[edit]

Māhākāli Pykhan from Bhaktapur performs at Durbar Square and major street squares around Kathmandu. Khyāh Pyākhan (ख्याः प्याखं) features dancers dressed in a costume representing the Khyah, a fat, hairy ape-like creature. Their dance is marked by antics and a lot of tumbling.

In Bhaktapur[edit]

Indra Jatra is celebrated in Bhaktapur by erecting poles representing Indra at various localities around the city. The poles are known as Yambodyah. Masked dances and Pulu Kisi dance are also performed.[8][9]

In Sikkim[edit]

Indra Jatra has been celebrated officially in Gangtok, the capital of the Indian state of Sikkim, since 2010. The day of the festival has also been declared a state holiday. The celebrations consist of Lakhe dance, Pulu Kisi dance, chariot procession of Kumari and a procession of girls dressed like various deities.[10][11]

Mythology[edit]

According to legend, Indra (Hindu god king of heaven), disguised as a farmer, descended to earth in search of parijat (Night jasmine), a white flower his mother Basundhara needed to perform a ritual. As he was plucking the flowers at Maruhiti, a sunken water spout at Maru, the people caught and bound him like a common thief. He was then put on display in the town square of Maru in Kathmandu. (In a reenactment of this event, an image of Indra with his hands bound is put on display at Maru and other places during the festival.)

His mother, worried about his extended absence, came to Kathmandu and wandered around looking for him. (This event is commemorated by the procession of Dagin (दागिं) through the city. Pulu Kisi (alternate name Tānā Kisi), a wicker representation of an elephant, also runs around town reenacting Indra's elephant searching frantically for its master.)[12]

When the city folk realized they had captured Indra himself, they were appalled and immediately released him. Out of appreciation for his release, his mother promised to provide enough dew throughout the winter to ensure a rich crop. It is said that Kathmandu starts to experience foggy mornings from this festival onwards because of this boon.[13][14]

Closing ceremony[edit]

On the last day, the yosin pole erected at Durbar Square is taken down in a ceremony known as Yosin Kwathalegu (योसिं क्वथलेगु). It marks the end of the festivities.

Open air theater[edit]

Yenya is also the season of open air theater productions. Performances depicting social themes, satire and comedy are held on dance platforms or makeshift stages at market squares all over the Kathmandu Valley on the sidelines of the sacred festival. The plays, known as Dabu Pyākhan (दबू प्याखं), have a history going back centuries.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Toffin, Gérard (January 1992). "The Indra Jātrā of Kathmandu as a Royal Festival Past and Present". Contributions to Nepalese Studies. Center for Nepal and Asian Studies, Tribbuvan University. Retrieved 24 July 2012.  Page 73.
  2. ^ Lewis, Todd Thornton (1984). The Tuladhars of Kathmandu: A Study of Buddhist Tradition in a Newar Merchant Community. Columbia University. p. 377. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  3. ^ "Indra Jatra, Munindra Ratna Bajracharya". Gorkhapatra. 
  4. ^ "Kathmandu's Indra Jatra Festival". Lonely Planet. 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2012. 
  5. ^ Manandhar, Tirtha Narayan (27 September 2012). "Indra, Kumari Jatras two different events". The Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  6. ^ Oldfield, Henry Ambrose (2005). Sketches from Nipal. Asian Educational Services. p. 315. ISBN 9788120619586. Retrieved 2 August 2012. 
  7. ^ van den Hoek, A. W. (2004) Caturmāsa: Celebrations of death in Kathmandu, Nepal. CNWS Publications. ISBN 9789057890987. Page 53. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
  8. ^ RSS (20 September 2010). "Indra jatra begins in Bhaktapur". The Himalayan Times. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  9. ^ "Khwapay Yambodyah thana ("Yambodyah erected in Bhaktapur")". Sandhya Times. 28 September 2012.  Page 11.
  10. ^ "Indra Jatra celebrated". The Voice of Sikkim. 11 September 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012. 
  11. ^ "Himalaya Darpan". Himalaya Darpan. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  12. ^ van den Hoek, A. W. (2004) Caturmāsa: Celebrations of death in Kathmandu, Nepal. CNWS Publications. ISBN 9789057890987. Page 53. Retrieved 4 April 2012.
  13. ^ Burbank, Jon (2002). Cultures of the World: Nepal. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 9780761414766. Page 115.
  14. ^ "Indrajatra". guru.com.np.