Yarrob (Arabic: يعرب, also Ya'rob, Yarrob, or Yar'ub, or "Yaarub") is an ancient Arabic personal name. Arab and Islamic genealogies identify Yarrob as the grandson of Hud (biblical Eber) and son of Qahtan (biblical Joktan), and the ancestor of the Himyarite kings of Yemen. A similar account places Yarrob as Qahtan's grandson (Yarrob bin Yashjub bin Qahtan) and holds that he is the forefather of al-'Arab al-'Ariba ("the arab arabs" or "pure arabs"), who are generally identified with the Qahtanites and its two main tribes, the Himyar and the Kahlan. Some legendary accounts relate that Yarrob was the first to speak Arabic and that the language was named for him. Shams-i Qais Razi, writing in the 12-13th century CE, traced the origins of Arabic poetry to Ya'rab and he is also credited with having invented the Kufic script.
Ancestor of kings
Yarob (يعرب) is one of greatest Arab kings; he was the first to rule the entire lands of Yemen (southwestern Arabia). He expelled or destroyed the Adites, consolidated the empire of Yemen, and gave to his brothers Oman and Hadhrarmaut. His son was the king Saba or Sheba, the founder of Saba or Sheba kingdom, mentioned in the Qur'an.
Descendant of the Prophet Ishmael, Son of Abraham
The lineage of the Islamic prophet Muhammad was traced by some Arab and Islamic genealogists back to Adam through Ya'rab, who in these accounts is designated the grandson of Nabit, who was the son of Ishmael. For example, Ibn Kathir quoting Mohammed Ibn Ishak in As-Seerah An-Nabawiyyah denotes the part of the lineage of Mohammad from Adnan through to Abraham as follows:
Note that ibn means "son" and al-Khalil, the appellation appended to Ibrahim (Abraham)'s name means "the Friend of God".
Though most likely related, there was more than one Ya'rab historically. This can be compared with the following lineage of the Nasrid Dynasty:
Arabs trace their ancestry through their nasab, i.e. patrilineal descent. The Nasrid dynasty claimed direct male-line descent from Sa'd ibn Ubadah, chief of the Banu Khazraj tribe and one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Banu Khazraj were themselves part of the Qahtanite group of tribes, which originate in the southern regions of the Arabian Peninsula. The name of Nasr, from whom the dynasty derives its name, appears in bold font.
Yusuf al-Ahmar ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn (Khamees ibn) Nasr ibn Muhammad ibn Nusair ibn Ali ibn Yahya ibn Sa'd ibn Qais ibn Sa'd ibn Ubadah ibn Dulaym ibn Harithah ibn Abi Hazima ibn Tha'labah ibn Tarif ibn al-Khazraj ibn Sa'ida ibn Ka'b ibn al-Khazraj ibn Harithah ibn Tha'labah ibn Amr ibn Amir ibn Harithah ibn Imri' al-Qays ibn Tha'labah ibn Mazin ibn al-Azd ibn al-Ghawth ibn Nabt ibn Malik ibn Zayd ibn Kahlan ibn Saba' ibn Yashjub ibn Ya'rub ibn Qahtan
- van Donzel, 1994, p. 483.
- Crosby, 2007, pp. 74-75.
- Prentiss, 2003, p. 172.
- Sperl, 1989, p. 209.
- Sperl et al., 1996, p. 138.
- Thackston, 2001, p. 7.
- Abu Khalil, 2004, p. 54.
- Abū Khalīl, Shawqī (2004). Atlas of the Prophet's biography: places, nations, landmarks. Darussalam. ISBN 9789960897714.
- Crosby, Elise W. (2007). The history, poetry, and genealogy of the Yemen: the Akhbar of Abid b. Sharya al-Jurhumi: Volume 1 of Gorgias Dissertations in Arabic and Islamic Studies. Gorgias Press LLC. ISBN 9781593333942.
- Prentiss, Craig R. (2003). Religion and the creation of race and ethnicity: an introduction. NYU Press. ISBN 9780814767016.
- Sperl, Stefan (1989). Mannerism in Arabic poetry: a structural analysis of selected texts : (3rd century AH/9th century AD-5th century AH/11th century AD) (Illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521354851.
- Sperl, Stefan; Shackle, C.; Awde, Nicholas (1996). Qasida Poetry in Islamic Asia and Africa: Classical traditions and modern meanings - Volume 20 of Studies in Arabic literature. BRILL. ISBN 9789004102958.
- Thackston, Wheeler McIntosh (2001). Album prefaces and other documents on the history of calligraphers and painters: Volume 10 of Studies in Islamic art and architecture (Illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 9789004119611.
- van Donzel, E. J. (1994). Islamic desk reference (Illustrated ed.). BRILL. ISBN 9789004097384.