Yarmouk River

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Destroyed bridge over the Yarmouk River

The Yarmuk River, sometimes also spelled "Yarmouk" (Arabic: نهر اليرموك‎, Nahr Al-Yarmuk, or شريعة المناذرة, Shariat el Menadhirah; Hebrew: נהר הירמוך‎, Nahar HaYarmukh; Ancient Greek: Ἱερομύκης, ; Latin: Hieromices)[1][2] is the largest tributary of the Jordan River.[3] It runs in Jordan, Syria and Israel and drains much of the Hauran plateau. Its main tributaries are the wadis of 'Allan and Ruqqad from the north, Ehreir and Zeizun from the east.

History[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

The Yarmukian Culture is a Pottery Neolithic culture that inhabited parts of Palestine and Jordan. Its type site is at Sha'ar HaGolan, on the river mouth. Early Bronze Age I is represented in the Golan only in the area of the river.[4]

Ancient[edit]

Yarmuk forms a natural border between the plains to the north - Hauran, Bashan and Golan - and the Gilead mountains to the south. Thus it has often served as boundary line between political entities. The Aramean kingdoms and the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), of the Hebrew bible, might have settled this way occasionally. Under the Assyrian and Persian empires the province of Ashteroth Karnaim laid to the north, and that of Gal'azu (Gilead) to the south. In Hellenistic times, the territory of Hippos was across from those of Gadara and Abila (Abel) on the south, while Dion sat on the eastern tributaries. Abila (Tel Abil) is attested in the 14th-century BC Amarna Letters. This is possibly the case also for Geshur, assumed to have laid north of the river.[5] Other historical cities on the course of the river are Dara'a, Heet, Jalin; and the archaeological sites of Tell Shihab and Khirbet ed-Duweir (See Lo-debar).[6]

The Battle of Yarmouk, where Muslim forces defeated those of the Byzantine Empire and gained control of Syria, took place north of the river in 636.

Modern[edit]

Today the ones who straddle the river are Israel and Jordan close to the Jordan Valley, and Syria and Jordan further upstream (a border largely inherited from the 1923 Franco-British Boundary Agreement). The area of Al-Hamma, or Hamat Gader in the valley is held by Israel but claimed by Syria.

A fork of the Hejaz Railway (connecting to the Jezreel Valley railway in Samakh), run in the river valley between 1905 and 1946. It was deprecated after being bombed in the Night of the Bridges. The hydroplant of Naharayim, on the junction with Jordan River, served Mandatory Palestine from 1932 to 1948. The Al-Wehda Dam was constructed in Jordan and Syria in the 2000s.

References and external links[edit]

  1. ^ Schürer, Emil (2014-01-30). The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ. A&C Black. page 133, note 243. ISBN 9781472558299. 
  2. ^ The Greek is sometimes given as Ancient Greek: Ἱερομύαξ, Hieromyax, or Ancient Greek: Ιερμουχάς,Iermouchas.
  3. ^ It is one of three main tributaries which enter the Jordan between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea; to the south are the Zarqa and the Mujib (Arnon) rivers.
  4. ^ Ma'oz, Zvi Uri (1997). "Golan". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. ISBN 0195112156.  p. 418.
  5. ^ Ma'oz, p. 420
  6. ^ Ma'oz, p. 420

Coordinates: 32°38′52″N 35°33′51″E / 32.64778°N 35.56417°E / 32.64778; 35.56417