|Incorporated||January 7, 1639|
|• Type||Open town meeting|
|• Total||28.2 sq mi (73.1 km2)|
|• Land||24.1 sq mi (62.5 km2)|
|• Water||4.1 sq mi (10.5 km2)|
|Elevation||30 ft (9 m)|
|• Density||985/sq mi (380.4/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||508 / 774|
|GNIS feature ID||0618262|
Prior to European colonization, Yarmouth was inhabited by the Wampanoag, an Algonquian people. In the Wôpanâak language the area was called "Mattacheese". Wampanoag tribes living in Yarmouth at the time of European settlement included the Pawkunnawkuts on both sides of the lower Bass River, the Hokanums in what is now northeastern Yarmouth, and the Cummaquids in what is now western Yarmouth.
Plymouth Colony settlement
Yarmouth was organized and incorporated as part of the Plymouth Colony on September 3, 1639, following a settlement led by John Crowe (later Crowell), Thomas Howes and Anthony Thacher. Yarmouth originally included what is now the town of Dennis, which was incorporated as a separate community on June 19, 1793. Yarmouth is named after Great Yarmouth, a town in the county of Norfolk, on the east coast of England, which is itself at the mouth of the River Yare.
In 1642 and 1645, Yarmouth furnished soldiers for the Plymouth Colony's expeditions against the Narragansett. In 1648, the Plymouth Colony's legislature, the General Court, appointed Myles Standish to adjudicate land disputes among the Yarmouth settlers. Yarmouth soldiers served the Plymouth Colony in King Philip's War: fifteen Yarmouth men participated in the Great Swamp Fight without casualties, but the town did lose five men at Rehoboth. Yarmouth troops also saw service in the early years of King William's War. In the early eighteenth century, some of the Yarmouth veterans of King Philip's War were granted lands to settle in Gorham, Maine.
Yarmouth was the site of an active group of the Sons of Liberty during the American Revolution. The town's militia mustered to provide assistance to the minutemen at the Battles of Lexington and Concord, but the militia returned home upon news that the rebels had already triumphed on the field. In March of 1776, Yarmouth troops served as part of George Washington's forces during the Fortification of Dorchester Heights. A meeting of Yarmouth citizens declared the town's independence from Great Britain on June 20, 1776 As a coastal community, Yarmouth was subject to blockade by the Royal Navy throughout the Revolutionary War.
War of 1812
In the early years of the Republic, Yarmouth shared with the rest of New England a strong support for the Federalist Party. The economy of Yarmouth was centered on maritime industries, and the townspeople were consequently opposed to the Jefferson Administration's Embargo Act of 1807 and Non-Intercourse Act of 1809.
On July 8, 1812, the Yarmouth town meeting voted to protest the recent Congressional declaration of war with Great Britain. Along with much of the rest of coastal New England, Yarmouth was subject to blockade by the Royal Navy beginning in 1814. Although the people of Yarmouth, including its militiamen, remained intensely opposed to the War of 1812, local militia forces did participate in attempts to counter the blockade.
Early economic endeavors
Yarmouth began as a farming community in which the people of the town raised pigs, cattle, and sheep. Due to livestock pasturage, firewood collection, shipbuilding, and the construction of the Old Colony Railroad, the old-growth forests of the Wampanoag era had disappeared from Yarmouth by the end of the nineteenth century, not to be replaced with stands of incipient second-growth forest until agriculture declined in the town during the twentieth century.
Although agriculture was a prominent part of Yarmouth life, the town's location led its people to make much of their living from the ocean. For centuries, many Yarmouth men worked as whalers. In the early nineteenth century, merchantmen skippered by Yarmouth captains participated in the China Trade between New England and the Cantonese trading center of Whampoa. Captain Ebenezer Sears of Yarmouth was the first American skipper to take a merchant vessel around the Cape of Good Hope. In 1854, Captain Asa Eldridge of Yarmouth skippered the clipper Red Jacket, a packet ship, between New York and Liverpool in only 13 days, 1 hour, and 25 minutes, dock to dock, setting a speed record for fastest trans-Atlantic crossing by a commercial sailing vessel that has remained unbroken ever since. In 1856, Captain Eldridge skippered the ill-fated steamship SS Pacific, which disappeared at sea on a voyage from Liverpool to New York. The house of another Yarmouth sea captain, Captain Bangs Hallet, is now a museum and home to the Historical Society of Old Yarmouth.
Developers began to refashion Yarmouth into a summer resort near the end of the nineteenth century. Hotels and summer cottage communities proliferated in the first half of the twentieth century, particularly along what is now Route 28. With the emergence of the car culture in the years just after World War II, these were joined first by many motels (mostly along Route 28 in West Yarmouth) and later by the denser, suburban pattern of residential housing construction that characterizes Yarmouth today.
The headquarters of the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW), a global animal welfare and conservation charity founded in 1969, is located in Yarmouth Port. In 1970, the national Christmas Tree Shops retail chain was founded at a location on Route 6A in Yarmouth Port.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 28.2 square miles (73.1 km2), of which 24.1 square miles (62.5 km2) is land and 4.1 square miles (10.5 km2), or 14.40%, is water. Yarmouth is bordered by Cape Cod Bay to the north, Dennis to the east, Nantucket Sound to the south, and Barnstable to the west. Yarmouth is approximately 75 miles (121 km) southeast of Boston.
The Bass River and its tributaries make up the majority of the town's border with Dennis. There are also several smaller ponds throughout the town. The Cape Cod Bay shore is marshy, with several creeks flowing into it. The town's southern shore is known for its beaches, from the west jetty of the Bass River to Great Island, on the east and south sides of Hyannis Harbor. The town has no state forests or wildlife management areas, although there are many such natural, unprotected areas in town. The town is also the site of four golf courses, a rod and gun club, and a Boy Scout camp.
Cape Cod's three major east-west routes, U.S. Route 6, Massachusetts Route 6A and Massachusetts Route 28, all run through the town. Unlike many towns on the Cape, there are no other state routes crossing between the three roads, with all crossing routes being local roads. There are two exits off Route 6 (also known as the Mid-Cape Highway) in town.
Freight rail service is provided by the Massachusetts Coastal Railroad from the Barnstable town line to just west of Station Avenue south of U.S. Route 6, where a trash transfer station is located. Trash is loaded onto rail cars at the transfer station and hauled to the SEMASS waste-to-energy plant in Rochester. A portion of the Hyannis branch also passes through the western part of Yarmouth. The Cape Cod Central Railroad operates seasonal tourist excursions from nearby Hyannis to Sandwich and Sagamore. The nearest inter-city (Amtrak) passenger rail stations are Boston's South Station and Providence. The nearest MBTA commuter rail stations are Kingston/Route 3 and Middleborough/Lakeville, providing direct service to Boston.
There are also several bike paths throughout town.
|* = population estimate.
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.
As of the census of 2000, there were 24,807 people, 11,520 households, and 6,900 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,023.0 people per square mile (395.0/km²). There were 16,605 housing units at an average density of 684.8 per square mile (264.4/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 95.23% White, 1.34% African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.53% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.94% from other races, and 1.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.44% of the population.
There were 11,520 households out of which 19.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.3% were married couples living together, 9.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.1% were non-families. 34.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.68.
In the town the population was spread out with 17.2% under the age of 18, 4.6% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 24.7% from 45 to 64, and 30.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49 years. For every 100 females there were 85.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.8 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $39,808, and the median income for a family was $48,148. Males had a median income of $37,090 versus $26,741 for females. The per capita income for the town was $22,731. About 5.2% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.1% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over.
Yarmouth is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives as a part of the First and Second Barnstable Districts. The town is represented in the Massachusetts Senate as a part of the Cape and Islands Districts, which includes all of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket except the towns of Bourne, Falmouth, Sandwich and a portion of Barnstable. The town is home to the Second Barracks of Troop D of the Massachusetts State Police.
Yarmouth is governed by the open town meeting form of government, and is led by a town administrator and a board of selectmen. There is a central police station, and one firehouse, post office and library each in South Yarmouth, West Yarmouth and Yarmouth Port.
Yarmouth schools make up one-half of the Dennis-Yarmouth Regional School District. Yarmouth operates two elementary schools (Laurence C. MacArthur and Station Avenue) which serve students from pre-kindergarten through third grade, as well as the Marguerite E. Small School for grades 4 & 5, and the Mattacheese Middle School for grades 6 through 8. The town is the home to Dennis-Yarmouth Regional High School, where both towns send their students. Their team colors are green and white, and their mascot is the dolphin.
Students who live in Yarmouth may also attend Cape Cod Regional Technical High School in Harwich or Sturgis Charter Public School in Hyannis; both for grades 9-12. In addition, they may choose to attend Saint Pius X School for grades pre-kindergarten through 8, or any of the other private schools in neighboring Barnstable.
- Edward Gorey, writer and illustrator
- John Gorham, decorated colonial Ranger
- Joseph Eldridge Hamblin, Civil War major general
- Christy Mihos, businessman and politician
- Snow Parker, merchant, judge and politician
- Keith Reed, baseball outfielder
- Thomas Chandler Thacher, congressman
- George Thatcher, lawyer and statesman
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Yarmouth town, Barnstable County, Massachusetts". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved December 6, 2013.
- Towns of New England and Old England. Boston, Mass: State Street Trust Company. 1920. p. 223.
- Swift 1890, p. 454: "The region in the vicinity of the habitations of the first comers was known by the Indian names of Mattacheese, Mattacheeset, Hockanom and Nobscusset, Mattacheese signified old lands, or planting lands, and the terminal t, was applied to places by the water, making Mattacheeset mean, old lands by the borders of the water. This general term described the region now the eastern part of Barnstable and the western portion of Yarmouth."
- Swift 1890, p. 454: "From near White's brook to Dennis, was known as Hockanom; beyond which, to Brewster, the region was called Nobscusset. The Pawkunnawkuts occupied the vicinity of South Yarmouth and South Dennis, on both sides of Bass river."
- "Overview of Yarmouth History - Native Americans". The Historical Society of Old Yarmouth, PO Box 11, Yarmouth Port, MA 02675. 2001-2004. Retrieved February 9, 2013. "Long before English settlers arrived in what is now Yarmouth and Dennis in the 1630s, many generations of Native Americans lived here. Several resident tribes fell under the collective Wampanoag nation. The Pawkunnawkuts occupied both sides of the southern section of Bass River. The Hokanums lived in the northeast section of the town, part of which still bears their name, and the Cummaquids lived in the western section. The area which bordered Nantucket Sound to the south was known as the "South Seas" and the whole of the area that is now Yarmouth was referred to as "Mattacheese." In the native tongue, Mattacheese meant "old lands by the borders of water.""
- Swift 1890, p. 460: "When the scattered communities which composed the Plymouth colony took upon themselves a quasi legislative form of government, Yarmouth, with the others, joined the association and sent her deputies to the colonial legislature. From that circumstance her incorporation—for she never had any other—is usually dated as September 3, 1639, when she became one of the represented towns in the colony court."
- "History: Yarmouth's History". Town of Yarmouth. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- Swift 1890, p. 455: "The permanent and authorized settlement of the town commenced early in 1639. The grantees of the court were, Anthony Thacher, John Crow and Thomas Howes, who had surveyed the lands, preparatory to occupation."
- Swift 1890, p. 467: "One of the peculiarities of the civil economy of Old Yarmouth may appropriately be noted in connection with the events preceding the division of the town. During the [Revolutionary] war it was customary to transact the public business by parishes. The people became so used to transacting public business in this way, that it was thought best to make two townships of Old Yarmouth, and by a vote of eighty-six to four, they decided to devide the town. The act of separation passed June 19, 1793, and took effect in February following."
- Swift 1890, p. 460: "Expeditions against the Indians were sent out by the colony court in 1642 and again in 1645, the dreaded Narragansetts causing much uneasiness by their unfriendly attitude. The first year Yarmouth furnished two soldiers, and of the second expedition she furnished five. They were absent fourteen days and saw but little service. This 'war' cost Yarmouth £7, 2s., 6d."
- Swift 1890, pp. 460–61: "From the beginning of the settlement there had been a great deal of bitter feeling in relation to the division of the lands…. Captain Standish alone was appointed in 1648, by the court, to 'have a hearing and put an end to all differences' on this subject."
- Swift 1890, pp. 460–61: "The new book of records opens with a list of the soldiers of Yarmouth who were pressed into the service in Philip's war, together with their wages. The quotas of men required were promptly filled. Fifteen men from this town were in the Narragansett swamp fight, but none were killed. Five men from this town were killed at Rehoboth, in the fight in which Captain Pierce's company was annihilated."
- Swift 1890, p. 463: "Philip's war did not, by any means, finish the troubles connected with the Indian question. The seat of hostilities was transferred to Maine and New Hampshire, and in 1689 Yarmouth was obliged to pay forty-one pounds as her proportion of the war against the Eastern Indians. In 1690 she furnished at one time four, and at another ten men, and paid £104, 2s., 9d., of the debt of what was styled William and Mary's War."
- Swift 1890, p. 465: "About 1726 commenced a movement from the Cape to seek new homes—this time toward the province of Maine. The division of the common lands had not satisfied the desires of the landless classes, and the legislature of 1727 having granted the heirs of each of the 120 soldiers in the Narragansett expedition during Philip's war, a township in Maine, about forty heirs and their families in 1736 settled the town of Gorham, Me."
- Swift 1890, p. 465: "There was a patriotic body, here as elsewhere, called the Sons of Liberty, who met usually in the night time and made the few loyalists and those suspected of being such, very unhappy. Two 'liberty poles' were erected…. Any one found guilty of drinking taxed tea, or of making impudent remarks, was required to dance around these liberty poles and make solemn recantation of their errors and promises of amendment."
- Swift 1890, pp. 465–66: "When the alarm of the country was sounded by the demonstration upon Lexington and Concord, the town's militia started out for the scene of operations, the western company under Captain Jonathan Crowell mustering sixty officers and men. They had not proceeded far before intelligence of the rout and retreat of the British troops reached them and they returned home."
- Swift 1890, p. 466: "General Washington, having early in 1776 determined upon the expulsion of the British from Boston, wrote to the council of Massachusetts Bay, submitting to their wisdom 'whether it may not be best to direct the militia of certain towns, contiguous to Dorchester and Roxbury to repair to the line at those places with arms, ammunition and accoutrements, instantly, upon a given signal,' and the suggestion was favorably received. Yarmouth was one of the towns called upon. Captain Joshua Gray, who commanded the militia, at once set forth, accompanied by a drummer, to call for volunteers. Every one was ready and willing to go. The night was spent in preparation. In the chamber of the ancient house now standing at the corner of Hallet and Wharf streets, the mothers and daughters spent the night in moulding bullets and making cartridges, and at early dawn eighty-one men, under the command of Captain Gray, were on the march for Dorchester."
- Swift 1890, p. 466: "A meeting was held June 20, 1776, in which it was unanimously 'Voted, that the inhabitants of Yarmouth do declare a state of independance of the king of Great Britain, agreeably to a late resolve of the General Court, if in case the wisdom of Congress should see proper to do it.' This resolve they did their part to carry out, so far as laid in their power. Their men nearly all joined the patriot army."
- Swift 1890, p. 466: "Their commerce and fisheries were destroyed, and they suffered untold hardships and privations for seven long years."
- Swift 1890, p. 467: "Yarmouth was an intensely Federal town, and the adherents of Mr. Jefferson were regarded as Jacobins and infidels. It was fortunate for the peace of the town that there was so few of them here.... The vote of the town for governor in April, 1813, was 265 for Caleb Strong, the anti-war, federal candidate, and twenty-three for Joseph B. Varnum, the war, administration candidate."
- Swift 1890, p. 467: "The position of the administration on the subject of our commercial policy was very obnoxious to our people, who felt that it was destroying their shipping interests and sapping the foundations of their prosperity. The embargo, the non-intercourse act, and all the measures adopted by the government, under the pretext of vindicating our rights as a commercial community, seemed to them to have an exactly opposite influence and tendency. The ships were rotting at their docks, and the men out of employment. Individuals, and the town as a corporate body, protested against the policy adopted. A town meeting, held August 29, 1808, petitioned congress to suspend the embargo; and the town repeated the action in February, 1809."
- Swift 1890, p. 467: "July 8, 1812, twenty days after the declaration of war, the town put on record a protest against the act."
- Swift 1890, p. 468: "In 1814, Great Britain, being freed from her continental embarrassments, sent a large fleet to the New England coast, which kept our coasting and fishing vessels within their harbors, and nearly destroyed the remaining industries of the town."
- Swift 1890, p. 468: "Alarms were frequent, and the militia were constantly liable to be called out. On one occasion the Yarmouth company was a day and night in Barnstable, which was supposed to be threatened with an attack, and bivouacked in the court house. It was once or twice, under the same circumstances, marched to the south side, which was threatened by a visit from the invaders. Party spirit ran high, and the people of the town refused to take any other part in the hostilities, than to repel invasion. Many of those who had fought and suffered in the revolutionary war, utterly refused to engage in the struggle then going on. The opposition to the war was at no time abated in this town, and the treaty of peace was a welcome relief to the people."
- Swift 1890, p. 455: "Yarmouth men were granted liberty to "keep their swine unwringed," "they keeping them with a herdsman until complaint be made of some hurt they have done."
- Swift 1890, p. 457: "In 1643 Mr. Hallet presented to the poor of the town a cow, which was accepted by the court for the purpose indicated—a gift at that time munificent, as cattle were valued, and evidently appreciated by the recipients."
- Swift 1890, p. 485: "When Mr. Parker started his store he also purchased the wool of the surrounding country, and had cloth and yarn made from it at East Falmouth; this he, assisted by his son, sold throughout the county."
- Theresa M. Barbo (June 19, 2012). Cape Cod Wildlife: A History of Untamed Forests, Seas and Shores. The History Press. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-1-60949-225-0. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Kittredge, Henry C. (June 1937). "Review: Along New England Shores. By A. Hyatt Verrill". The New England Quarterly 10 (2): 393. "It was Yarmouth . . . that taught whaling to the Nantucketers."
- Swift 1890, p. 461: "In 1661 the colonial authorities and the towns came to an agreement, by which two barrels of oil from every whale secured in town should be delivered to the treasurer of the colony."
- Swift 1890, p. 464: "Before making the third and final division it was voted at a proprietors' meeting held July 1, 1713, 'that a piece of land and beach lying near Coy's pond, about two acres, shall lie undivided for the benefit of the whalemen of the town of Yarmouth forever.'"
- Paul Schneider (1 June 2001). The Enduring Shore: A History of Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard, and Nantucket. Macmillan. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-8050-6734-7. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "The China Trade". The Historical Society of Old Yarmouth, PO Box 11, Yarmouth Port, MA 02675. 2001-2008. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- Kittredge, Henry C. (1935). Shipmasters of Cape Cod. Houghton Mifflin. p. 41.
- Edward Rowe Snow (1946). A Pilgrim Returns to Cape Cod. Boston: Yankee Publishing Company. p. 206. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Charles Francis Swift (1884). History of Old Yarmouth: Comprising the Present Towns of Yarmouth and Dennis: from the Settlement to the Division in 1794, with the History of Both Towns to These Times. author. pp. 216–218. Retrieved 24 February 2013. "Although this great captain was continually doing things which excited the admiration of the world, nothing gave him a more lasting reputation than sailing the clipper ship Red Jacket across the Atlantic Ocean to the eastward, from Sandy Hook to the Rock Light, Mersy, off Liverpool, in thirteen days, 1 hour, in 1854."
- "Sea Captains". Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- "Asa Eldridge House". Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- "Haunted Hotel". Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- The Historical Society of Old Yarmouth
- "Development of Yarmouth as a Summer Destination". The Historical Society of Old Yarmouth, PO Box 11, Yarmouth Port, MA 02675. 2001. Retrieved February 24, 2013. "As the 1800s came to a close, more and more people from the cities began to look toward the shore to offer a place of rest and respite from their urban dwellings. West Yarmouth, with its hundred of acres of rural land and large stretches of sandy beaches, was a prime target for developers who moved in to create summer communities with the names Englewood, Hyannis Park, and Colonial Acres."
- "Development of Yarmouth as a Summer Destination". The Historical Society of Old Yarmouth, PO Box 11, Yarmouth Port, MA 02675. 2001. Retrieved February 24, 2013. "Large hotels were built to accommodate the summer trade and West Yarmouth cottages were marketed to those who lived in urban environments. "Cottage" communities also sprang up, especially along Route 28. Offering small, cabin-like dwellings, the cottages provided vacation accommodations for those who were not able to afford a summer at one of the large, grand hotels."
- "Development of Yarmouth as a Summer Destination". The Historical Society of Old Yarmouth, PO Box 11, Yarmouth Port, MA 02675. 2001. Retrieved February 24, 2013. "As America's population became more mobile, especially after World War II, cottage communities gave way to motels, and businesses sprang up to cater to the growing tourist trade. Undeveloped acreage between Route 28 and Route 6A gave way to new residential housing, and the modern town that we know today began to emerge."
- Clapping Man, Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket Street Atlas. South Easton, MA: Arrow Maps Inc., 2004, p. 96.
- "TOTAL POPULATION (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010.
- "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1950 Census of Population". 1: Number of Inhabitants. Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1920 Census of Population". Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1890 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1870 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1860 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "1850 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Index of Legislative Representation by City and Town, from Mass.gov
- Station D-2, SP Yarmouth
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- Town of Yarmouth official website
- Historical Society of Old Yarmouth
- Yarmouth Town Libraries
- Yarmouth Chamber of Commerce