Yashica

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Yashica Electro 35 GSN

Yashica was a Japanese manufacturer of cameras. The trademark rights of Yashica is now owned by Hong Kong-based MF Jebsen Group.

History[edit]

The company began in December, 1949 in Nagano, Japan, when the Yashima Seiki Company was founded with an initial investment of $566.[1] Its eight employees originally manufactured components for electric clocks.[2] Later, they began making camera components, and by June 1953 had introduced their first complete camera, the Yashimaflex, a twin-lens reflex (TLR) medium-format camera designed for 6x6cm medium format film. While the Yashimaflex used lenses labeled Tri-Lausar, successive models used Yashikor and Yashinon lenses. All of these lenses were manufactured for Yashica by the Tomioka Optical Works, beginning a relationship that would last for many years.[3] Late in 1953, Yashima Seiki Company became Yashima Optical Industry Company, Ltd.[4]

In 1957, Yashima founded Yashica, Inc., a subsidiary arm in New York City to manage marketing efforts in the USA.[5][6] 1957 also marked the introduction of a popular new TLR camera series, the Yashica Mat line.,[7] as well as an 8mm cine movie camera. During the next year and a half, Yashima continued to grow, with 1,982 employees by 1958.[8] Later in 1958, Yashima changed its name to Yashica Company, Ltd, when it acquired the Nicca Camera Company, Ltd.[9] The Nicca acquisition was fortuitous, as the designs acquired assisted Yashica in expanding its product line into advanced 35mm rangefinder cameras.

The Yashica Pentamatic, an advanced, modern 35mm Single Lens Reflex (SLR) camera with a proprietary bayonet-mount, automatic diaphragm (offered only with the Auto Yashinon 50mm/1.8 lens), and interchangeable lenses, was introduced in 1959. As before, Yashica continued to source its lenses from the Tomioka Optical factory.

Around 1959–1960, Yashica acquired the assets of the bankrupt Zunow Optical Industry Co. Ltd.[10][11] Though a small company, Zunow had become known for limited production of a very advanced 35mm SLR camera, along with several high-quality, fast 35mm camera and 8mm cine (movie) lens designs and a proprietary bayonet-mount lens system similar to that of Yashica Pentamatic. With the assistance of Tomioka Optical Works, Yashica adapted Zunow lens designs into its own 8mm turret cine (movie) cameras.[12]

Like Zunow, Yashica found it difficult to gain market acceptance with its proprietary SLR lens mount, and redesigned its SLR camera line in 1962 to accept the Contax/Praktica M42 lens mount.[13] The new SLR camera was introduced as the Penta J.

In December 1965, Yashica introduced the world’s first commercially successful electronically controlled 35mm camera, the Electro 35, a popular rangefinder model that in various model subvariants eventually sold 8 million units.[14] The company continued to expand its international markets, and in August 1968, Yashica finally acquired its lens manufacturer, the Tomioka Optical and Machine Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (later renamed the Tomioka Optical Co. Ltd.).[15] By this time, Tomioka was one of the largest and most reputable lens manufacturers in Japan. Sales of 35mm SLRs continued to grow steadily, and Yashica was quickly acquiring a reputation for both electronic camera expertise and high-quality optics. 1968 also marked the year of Yashica's last major TLR camera design, the Yashica Mat-124, a popular model which combined some of the best features of Yashica's earlier TLR cameras.

In 1968, Yashica introduced the TL Electro-X 35mm single lens reflex (SLR) camera and produced it until 1974. It had a screw thread lens mount, the M42 lens mount, for its interchangeable lenses. It also had an all-electronic through-the-lens exposure meter in the viewfinder using LEDs. The Copal Square SE shutter, a vertically-travelling metal blade focal plane shutter made by Copal Corporation, used in the camera, was electronically controlled.[16][17]

In 1972, Yashica introduced the TL Electro 35mm SLR camera which was similar to the Pentax Spotmatic camera made by the Asahi Optical Company (Pentax). The TL Electro also used the electronic exposure LED's that the prior TL Electro-X had introduced as well as the M42 screw threaded lens mount for its interchangeable lenses.[18]

In 1973, Yashica the company began a collaboration with Carl Zeiss it called Top Secret Project 130 to produce a new, professional 35mm SLR with an electronically controlled shutter bearing the Contax name, and called the RTS (for 'Real Time System').[19] A new prestige line of Yashica / Contax lenses designed by Carl Zeiss were introduced for the camera, with a common C/Y bayonet mount allowing lens interchange between all 35mm Contax and Yashica SLR camera models.[20] The F. Alexander Porsche Group was hired to complete an ergonomic and styling study of the new camera. The new Contax RTS appeared at Photokina in 1974, and became a commercial success.

Top of FRII

Yashica soon introduced several new 35mm SLR cameras beginning with the FX-1 (1975) and FX-2 (1976). Also in that year, in response to the success of the Contax RTS, Yashica developed the upscale Yashica FR utilizing some of the features of the RTS, including its electromagnetic shutter release.[21] The FR was capable of using the entire range of Carl Zeiss T* lenses. In contemporaneous tests, the FR was described as being tougher in some ways than the more expensive Contax RTS, including better sealing against dust and contaminants.[22] This practice of ‘pairing’ similar Contax models with more affordable, less full-featured, but still high-quality Yashica models would continue for the next 10 years. The FR was quickly followed in April 1977 by the FR-I and FR-II.[23] The FR-I was an 35mm SLR offering even more features of the RTS, including an electronic shutter with both manual and aperture priority modes, and marked the high point for the Yashica brand in competing with Nikon, Canon, and Minolta for the semi-professional SLR camera market.[24]

A Yashica FX-3 Super with a 500mm mirror lens.

In 1979, Yashica introduced a new inexpensive 35mm consumer SLR, the FX-3, intended for entry-level buyers.[25] Like all Yashica manual-focus bodies, the affordable FX-3 featured a C/Y lens mount that would also accept Carl Zeiss T* lenses. This simple, lightweight manual-exposure SLR camera sold well, and with minor revisions, stayed in production until 2002.

In October 1983, Yashica Company Ltd. was acquired by ceramics giant Kyocera. Initially, the merger resulted in few outward changes. The manual-focus (MF) FX-103 Program, introduced in 1985, continued the ‘pairing’ tradition of high-end Yashica SLR models with Contax (Contax 159mm), and was the first Yashica SLR with TTL flash and full programmed exposure capabilities.

After 1983, all Yashica brand cameras were marketed by Kyocera (Kyoto Ceramics), which also made newer Contax cameras. By 1985, the company was facing intense market competition from other manufacturers, especially Minolta, which had introduced a competitively priced and advanced autofocus 35mm SLR camera. Yashica eventually introduced its own autofocus 35mm SLR camera line that was overpriced and poorly marketed in comparison to its competition. In response, Kyocera gradually repositioned the brand as a budget-priced 'point & shoot' line, moving production from Japan to Hong Kong, and discontinuing all high-end SLR camera production.

In 2005, Kyocera halted production on all Contax, Yashica, and other Kyocera branded film and digital cameras.[26] In 2008, Kyocera sold the trademark rights of Yashica to Hong Kong-based MF Jebsen Group, and is under its subsidiary JNC Datum Tech International, Limited. Yashica's products from JNC Datum Tech International including digital cameras, digital camcoders, digital photo frames, portable DVD players, digital audio players, digital voice recorders, binoculars, mobile phones and SD cards.

Camera models[edit]

TLRs[edit]

Yashica Mat 124 G.
  • Pigeonflex (1953)
  • Yashimaflex (1953)
  • YashicaFlex (1953)
  • MolfoReflex (1953)
  • Yashicaflex A, AS I & II (1954)
  • Yashica C (1955)
  • Yashicaflex Rookie (1956)
  • Yashica B (1957)
  • Yashica LM (1957)
  • Yashica-Mat (1957)
  • Yashica A (1958), D (1958)
  • Yashica 44 (1958)
  • Yashica 635 (1958)
  • Yashica Auto (1959)
  • Yashica Mat LM (1959)
  • Yashica 44LM (1959)
  • Yashica 44A (1960)
  • Yashica Mat EM (1964)
  • Yashica E (1964)
  • Yashica 24 (1965)
  • Yashica 12 (1967)
  • Yashica-Mat 124 (1968)
  • Yashica-Mat 124 G (1970)
  • Yashica-Mat 124 B (1975) Brazil

This was perhaps the most evolved of the TLR variants. Like several of the earlier versions it did feature a built in light meter. Settings to the shutter speed and aperture had to be made manually but it did allow the camera to be used without an additional handheld meter.This model also allowed the simple conversion form 120 roll film to 220 roll film. Another advantage to this model was the shutter and film advance were controlled by the film advance handle.Earlier models had a separate mechanism for cocking the shutter. This system was prone to inadvertent double exposures.

35mm Rangefinder[edit]

  • Electro 35
  • Electro 35 CC
  • Electro 35 CCN
  • Electro 35 GL
  • Electro 35 GS
  • Electro 35 GSN
  • Electro 35 GT
  • Electro 35 GTN
  • Electro 35 GX
  • Yashica 35
  • Yashica 35-f
  • Yashica 35J
  • Yashica Lynx
  • Yashica MG-1
  • Yashica Minister 700
  • Yashica Minister D

35mm SLR cameras[edit]

Compact 35mm[edit]

A Compact Yashica Wizen Epic ST200 with red eye reduction and self timer
Yashica MF-2 super

Super 8mm Movie Camera[edit]

  • Yashica Super YXL-1,1
  • Yashica Super YXL-100
  • Yashica Super-40k
  • Yashica Super-50
  • Yashica U-Matic Super 8
  • Yashica Nicca Super 30 Electronic
  • Yashica Super 8 10

Sources[edit]

  • Reynolds, Clyde (1978). The Contax RTS and Yashica SLR Bayonet and Screw Mount Book. London: Focal Press. ISBN 0-240-50978-1. 
  • Heiberg, Milton (1979). The Yashica Guide, A Modern Camera Guide Series Book. New York: Amphoto. ISBN 0-8174-2151-3. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Heiberg, Milton, The Yashica Guide, A Modern Camera Guide Series Book, New York: Amphoto Press, ISBN 0-8174-2151-3, p. 10
  2. ^ Heiberg, p. 10
  3. ^ Condax, Phillip, The Evolution Of The Japanese Camera, Rochester, NY: International Museum of Photography (1984), ISBN 978-0-935398-11-3
  4. ^ Heiberg, p. 10
  5. ^ Heiberg, p. 10
  6. ^ Modern Photography (December 1957), p. 133
  7. ^ Heiberg, p. 10
  8. ^ Heiberg, p. 10
  9. ^ Heiberg, p. 10
  10. ^ Photographica Pages: Zunow, Pacific Rim Camera
  11. ^ Post-Bankruptcy Zunow-Yashinon Labeled Cine Lens, Zunow Cine Equipment, Pacific Rim Camera
  12. ^ Zunow Cine Equipment: Zunow-Yashinon V, Pacific Rim Camera
  13. ^ Reynolds, Clyde, The Contax RTS and Yashica SLR Bayonet and Screw Mount Book, New York: Focal Press (1978), ISBN 0-8038-1242-6, p. 10
  14. ^ Rockwell, Ken, Yashica Electro 35
  15. ^ Heiberg, p. 10
  16. ^ "Yashica TL-Electro X", thecamerasite.net
  17. ^ "Yashica TL Electro-X manual", butkus.org
  18. ^ Nakamura, Karen, "Yashica TL Electro", photoethnography.com, January 7, 2011
  19. ^ Contax Cameras UK, The History Of Contax, retrieved 22 April 2010
  20. ^ Reynolds, p. 10
  21. ^ Heiberg, p. 10
  22. ^ Goldberg, Norman, Frank, Michele, and Rothschild, Norman, Lab Report: Yashica FR, Popular Photography, September 1977, p. 10
  23. ^ Heiberg, p. 10
  24. ^ Reynolds, p. 24
  25. ^ Yashica's FX-3: Basic, Black, And Beautiful, Modern Photography, January 1980, pp. 111-113
  26. ^ Kyocera Press Release of 12 April 2005, Information From Kyocera-Yashica UK Ltd., retrieved 22 April 2010

External links[edit]