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Yaśovijaya (also known as Yashovijayji with honorifics like Mahopadhyaya or Upadhyaya or Gani), a seventeenth-century (1624–1688) Jain philosopher-monk was one of India’s greatest philosopher and logician. He was a thinker, prolific writer and commentator who had a strong and lasting influence on Jainism. He was a disciple of Muni Nayavijaya in the lineage of Jain monk Hiravijaya (belonging to the Tapa Gaccha tradition of Svetambara Jains) who influenced the Mughal Emperor Akbar to give up eating meat.
Yasovijaya was born in a village called Kanoda in the Mehsana district in Gujarat in 1624 CE. Some sources place his year of birth as 1608 CE. His childhood name was Jasha. He belonged to the endogamous group of Oswal Jains. He lost his father when he was very young and consequently he was brought up by his mother. The inclination towards religious life was inculcated by his mother, who often used to take him to Jain upashrayas. Young Yasovijaya attracted attention of Jain monk Nayavijayaji who was impressed by his impressive memory feat of remembering the Bhaktamara Stotra at a very young age.
Life as a monk
He was initiated as a young monk under the stewardship of Muni Nayavijaya. According to some sources, he came to Varanasi in the company of his teacher Nayavijaya, both having disguised themselves as Brahmins to get into the matha. By some accounts, he was sent by his guru to Varanasi to study logic and philosophy along with another disciple Vinayvijaya. Other sources indicate, he had gone to Varanasi on his own in 1626, disguised as a Brahmin. By around 1638 he confessed that he was a Jain monk and was at once asked to leave the matha. But the sources are unanimous that for around 12 years he studied Sanskrit, Prakrit, logic and Metaphysics. He became skilled in the field of Navya-Nyāya branch of logic and thus earned the titles Upajjhaya (teacher), Nyayavisharada (one who is skilled in logic) and Nyayacarya (authority on logic).
According to Jonardon Ganeri, Yasovijaya’s intellectual biography can be seen as falling under three heads: an apprenticeship in Varanasi studying Navyanyaya, a period writing Jaina philosophical treatises using the techniques and methods of Navyanyaya, and a time spent writing works with a markedly spiritual and religious orientation. One of the decisive events in the process leading to this transformation was Yasovijaya’s meeting with Anandghan, a Jain spiritual poet and monk.
He was a prolific writer and is said to have authored around 100 works in Sanskrit and Gujarati. After a career as a monk, philosopher, author, poet and logician, for almost 80 years, he died at Dabhoi, Gujarat in 1688 CE.
Paul Dundas calls Yasovijaya as the last truly great intellectual figure in Jainism, who rose to fame on account of his learning and mastery of sophisticated logical techniques as well for his interest of mysticism in later life. Yasovijaya often refers to the 8th Century Jain scholar-monk Acarya Haribhadra in his works, indicating that he saw himself as Haribhadra's successor. Haribhadra's reputation for being influenced only by the logical cogency of the doctrines and viewpoints (anekantavada) ultimately shaped Yasovijayas irenic but sometimes critical attitude towards other sects and traditions. Yasovijaya had not only studied all the great Svetambara authors from the oldest to the latest, he was also well read in important Digambara works. He wrote several important Navyanyaya works on Digambara Nyaya texts such as the Aptamimamsa of Acarya Samantabhadra. The Jain tradition is remarkably ecumenical when it comes to Nyaya and Acaryas of both the Digambara and the Shvetambara traditions have composed texts in the genre of Nyaya and the texts are read by monks and scholars of both traditions. Furthermore, Yasovijaya he was well versed in philosophy of diverse schools such as Vedantic, Sankhya, Yoga, Mimāṃsā and Buddhist.
Secular intellect and tolerance
In his famous work, Adhyatmopanisatprakarana he argued that no body of ‘theory’ (sastra), whether Jain or non-Jain, is to be accepted merely on the basis of sectarian interest. Instead, the theory should be subject to testing, just as the purity of a sample of gold is determined by tests involving rubbing, cutting and heating (1.17) In one of the ethical works, the Jnanasara, Yasovijaya describes 32 moral and intellectual virtues that constitute a virtuous character. Out of these, two are distinctive: neutrality (madhyasthata) and groundedness in all view-points (sarvanayasraya). Neutrality is explained in terms of the dispassionate use of reason: a person who embodies this virtue follows wherever reason leads, rather than using reason only to defend prior opinions (16.2). Yasovijaya stresses that neutrality is not an end in itself, but a means to another end. We adopt a neutral attitude, he says, in the hope it leads to well-being (hita), just as someone who knows that one among a group of herbs is restorative but does not know which one it is, acts reasonably if they swallow the entire lot (16.8).
Conception of self
Yasovijaya authored two famous texts — Adhyatmasara and Adhyatmopanisatprakarana— that analyses the true nature of self. Yasovijaya describes the state of true self-awareness as a state beyond deep sleep, beyond conceptualisation, and beyond linguistic representation, and he says that it is the duty of any good sastra to point out the existence and possibility of such states of true self-awareness, for they cannot be discovered by reason or experience alone. Yasovijaya argues that from the standpoint of niscaya naya (real standpoint) the soul is called jiva if it leads an embodied life. This is different than Kundakunda’s view of niscaya naya, that only a soul that possesses the most essential property of the soul—cognitive capacity—is jiva. This means that according to Kundakunda only a released soul is jiva from the standpoint of niscaya naya. While both position have valid logic, Yasovijaya criticised this view as it had no support from any prior authors.
Intellectual critic and criticisms
Yasovijaya stressed that neutrality does not mean acceptance of every position whatever, but acceptance only of those that satisfy at least the minimal criteria of clarity and coherence needed to legitimately constitute a point of view. Hence he criticised the Carvaka philosophy as being too confused in their understanding of the topic of liberation even to be said to have a ‘view’. He also confronted the Brahmin scholar Raghunatha Siromani, one of the greatest exponent of modern logic during his time, thus proving his extraordinary talent. Paul Dundas notes that, Yasovijaya also criticized the famous Digambara Jain monk Kundakunda for his more reliance on one standpoint. He also strongly attacked the laity based Adhyatmika sect whose de-emphasis on the role of rituals and ascetics was derived from works of Kundakunda and his commentators. At the same time, Yasovijaya also opposed the views of Svetambara monk Dharmasagara for his supremacist perspective of Jainism and exclusivist refusal to accept validity of any religious path except that of Tapa Gachchha (a sub-sect of Svetambara Jains).
Despite his eminence and influence, one criticism leveled against Yasovijaya is that he is best known for his Navya-Nyaya commentaries of earlier existing works rather than his own original works. Furthermore, his works on Yoga, dhyana, grammar and poetry did not gain much fame, as the works of Haribhadra and Hemacandra on these topics were already established and famous by the time Yasovijaya came on the scene. His fame largely rests on his mastery of navyanyaya, for which he had no contemporary rival. This could be because, for almost six centuries between Hemacandra and Yasovijaya, Jainism did not produce any able scholar on philosophy of nyaya.
Influence and legacy
Yasovijaya left behind a vast body of literature that exerted a vast influence on the Jain philosophy. After Acarya Haribhadra and Acarya Hemacandra, Upadhyaya Yasovijaya is the most high profile Jain monk. Dundas notes that Yasovijaya enjoys a near talismanic figure for the contemporary Svetambara monastic community and is identified with madhyastha or principle of neutrality. Dundas further notes that Yasovijaya paints a superior picture of Jainism with his inclusivism and it is this image of Jainism that has become a dominant one today. He had an influence on Srimad Rajcandra’s book Atmasiddhi wherein, he has provided six fundamental truths on soul and liberation following Yasovijaya's Adhyatmasara. A college called Jain Yasovijaya Pathashala has been established in Varanasi in his memory, under auspices of which the sacred Jain texts are being published in a series called Jain Yasovijaya Granthamala. The Jain community of Ahmedabad has honoured him by naming one block as Yasovijaya Chowk at the Relief Road end of Ratanpol where Yasovijaya lived for many years.
Some of the texts authored by Yasovijaya are:
- Ashtasahasri Tatparyavivarana Tika. Includes original text "Aptamimamsa" by Acarya Samantabhadra; 800 karika commentary on it by Acarya Akalanka called "Ashtashati", 8000 karika commentary on it by Acarya Vidyanandi called "Asthasahasri" and 16000 karika commentary on it by Upadhyaya Yashovijaya, called "Ashtasahasri Taparyavivarana Tika".Edited by Muni Prashamarativijaya. Pune: 2001.
- Adhyatmasara. Edited by Ramanalal C. Shah. Sayala: Sri Raja Sobhaga Satanga Mandala, 1996.
- Adhyatmopanisatprakarana. Edited by Sukhlal Sanghvi. Ahmedabad: Sri Bahadur Singh Jaina Series, 1938.
- Dharmapariksa. Mumbai: Shri Andheri Gujarati Jain Sangha, 1986.
- Jaina Nyayakhandakhadya. Edited by Badarinath Shukla. Varanasi: Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, No. 170, 1966.
- Jaina Tarkabhasa. Edited by Sukhlalji Sanghvi, Mahendra Kumar & Dalsukh Malvania. Ahmedabad: Sri Bahadur Singh Jaina Series, 1938/1942/1997.
- Jnanasara. Edited & Translated by Dayanand Bhargava. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidas, 1973.
- Commentary on Jnanarnava
- Dundas, Paul (2004) p.136
- Vashi, Ashish (2009-11-23). "Ahmedabad turned Akbar veggie". The Times of India. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
- Wiley, Kristi (2006) p. 239
- Shah, C.P. "Mahopadhyaya Yashovijayji". Retrieved 2009-11-25.[dead link]
- Ganeri, Jonardon (2008) p.3
- Singh, Nagendra Kr, and Bibhuti Baruah (2003) p.481
- Singh, Nagendra Kr, and Bibhuti Baruah (2003) p.482
- Dundas, Paul (2002) p.110
- Dundas, Paul (2004) pp.130-131
- Nagendra Kr. Singh, ed (2001) p.7301
- Ganeri, Jonardon (2008) p.5
- Ganeri, Jonardon (2008) p.4
- Ganeri, Jonardon (2008) pp. 5-6
- Nagendra Kr. Singh, ed (2001) p. 7303
- Ganeri, Jonardon (2008) p.6
- Dundas, Paul (2004) p.130
- The pre-eminent Jain scholars on nyaya philosophy are: Acarya Samantabhadra (2nd or 3rd century CE), Acarya Akalanka (4th or 5th century CE), Acarya Siddhasena Divakara (5th century CE), Acarya Haribhadra (7th century CE), Acarya Manikyanandi (10th century CE), Acarya Vidyanandi (10th century CE), Acarya Prabhacandra (10th century CE), Acarya Hemacandra (11th century CE) and finally Upadhyaya Yasovijaya (17th century CE)
- Dundas, Paul (2004) p.131
- In Atmasiddhi, Sirmad propounded six fundamental truths of true religion—"Soul exists, it is eternal, soul is doer of its action, it is the enjoyer of its action, liberation exists and there exists a path to liberation." Yasovijaya in Adhyatmasara had already propounded these truth, albeit in negative fashion, through his verse—Nasti, na nityo, na karta// na bhokta na cha nivrutah// Tadupayascha netyaahuh// mithyatvasya padani sat// translated as "to believe that there is no soul, it is not eternal, it is not the author, it is not the sufferer, there is no liberation and there is no path to achieve the salvation are the six steps of faithlessness."
- Ganeri, Jonardon (2008) pp.9-10
- Dundas, Paul; John Hinnels ed. (2002). The Jains. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26606-8.
- Dundas, Paul (2004). "Beyond Anekāntavāda : A Jain approach to religious tolerance". In (ed.) Tara Sethia. Ahimsā, Anekānta, and Jaininsm. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 123–136. ISBN 81-208-2036-3.
- Ganeri, Jonardon (2008). "Worlds in Conflict, The Cosmopolitan Vision of Yaśovijaya Gaṇi" (PDF). International Journal of Jaina Studies IV (1): 1–11. ISSN 1748-1074.
- Nagendra Kr. Singh, ed. (2001). Encyclopedia of Jainism. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. ISBN 81-261-0691-3.
- Wiley, Kristi (2006). The A to Z of Jainism. Delhi: Vision Books (originally published by Scarecrow Press). ISBN 81-7094-690-5. OCLC 422763446.
- Cort, John E. (2010). "In Defence of Icons in Three Languages - The Iconophilic Writings of Yaśovijaya". International Journal of Jaina Studies 6 (2).