Japanese aircraft carrier Unyō
Unyō in military service in 1943
|Operator:||Nippon Yusen (NYK)|
|Builder:||Mitsubishi Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. Nagasaki, Japan|
|Laid down:||14 December 1938|
|Launched:||31 October 1939|
|Completed:||31 July 1940|
|Out of service:||October 1940|
|Fate:||converted to military use, renamed as Unyō|
|Commissioned:||31 May 1942|
|Out of service:||17 September 1944|
|Fate:||Sunk by the submarine USS Barb on 17 September 1944|
|Class & type:||Taiyō-class escort carrier|
|Displacement:||17,830 long tons (18,120 t) (standard)
19,500 long tons (19,800 t) (full load)
|Length:||173.7 m (569 ft 11 in) (w/l)
180.4 m (591 ft 10 in) (o/a)
|Beam:||22.5 m (73 ft 10 in)|
|Draft:||7.74 m (25 ft 5 in)|
|Installed power:||25,200 shp (18,800 kW)|
|Propulsion:||2 × Kampon geared steam turbines
4 × Kampon water-tube boilers
2 × shafts
|Speed:||21 kn (39 km/h; 24 mph)|
|Range:||6,500 nmi (12,000 km; 7,500 mi) at 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph)|
Upon completion as escort carrier: 4 × 120 mm (4.7 in) L/45 10th Year Type anti-aircraft guns
59 × 25 mm L/60 Type 96 anti-aircraft cannons (8x3, 2x2, 31x1)
8 × Type 95 depth charges
|Armor:||2.5 cm (0.98 in) side belt over machinery spaces and magazines|
The Yawata Maru was a Japanese ocean liner owned by Nippon Yusen Kaisha. The ship was built in 1938-1940 by Mitsubishi Shipbuilding & Engineering Co. at Nagasaki, Japan. It was laid down in December 1938, launched in October 31, 1939 and left port on July 31, 1940 on her maiden voyage. The vessel's pre-war design anticipated passenger service; but when work was completed, the onset of war had created somewhat different priorities.
The vessel was created as a sister ship of the Kasuga Maru, and the Nitta Maru. None of the three survived the Second World War. Each in succession was re-fitted as a troopship; and each was later converted to an aircraft carrier. In 1941, Kasuga Maru was re-commissioned as the Japanese aircraft carrier Taiyō and in late 1942, the Nitta Maru was recommissioned as the Japanese aircraft carrier Chūyō.
The 17,163-ton vessel had a length of 559.3 feet (170 m), and her beam was 74 feet (22.5 m). The ship had an average speed of 18.5 knots (34.3 km/h).
The ship was requisitioned by the Imperial Japanese Navy in October 1941. Initially, the ship was assigned for transporting prisoners of war. Between 25 November 1941 and 31 May 1942, Yawata Maru was rebuilt in Kure to be an auxiliary aircraft carrier. Her flight deck measured 150 × 23 m (492 × 75 ft) and was equipped with two elevators. She had no island, catapults or arresting gear.[note 1] On 31 July 1942, she was reclassified as an escort carrier and renamed Unyō (雲鷹, "Hawk tear the cloud").
On 19 January 1944, while en route to Yokosuka, she was hit and heavily damaged by three torpedoes fired by USS Haddock. While sheltering at Garapan Anchorage, Saipan on 23 January, a follow-up attack by Halibut was driven off. Following repairs, she was back in service by June 1944.
On 17 September, Unyō was struck by two torpedoes fired by USS Barb. Her crew’s struggle to keep Unyō afloat was in vain. Of the approximately 1,000 people aboard (crew and passengers), 761 were rescued. Its last position was 220 nautical miles (410 km) southeast of Hong Kong, .
- Many experts dispute the lack of arresting gear on the Unyo and her sisters, and while photographic evidence is lacking, the Unyo during her service life operated aircraft which required arresting gear to land aboard a carrier.
- Dr. Bak József et al. (1984): Hadihajók. Típuskönyv. Zrínyi Katonai Kiadó. ISBN 963-326-326-3
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1935). The Nomeclature of the N.Y.K. Fleet. Tokyo : NYK. OCLC 27933596
- Tate, E. Mowbray. (1986). Transpacific steam: the story of steam navigation from the Pacific Coast of North America to the Far East and the Antipodes, 1867-1941. New York: Cornwall Books. 10-ISBN 0-8453-4792-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-8453-4792-8; OCLC 12370774
- Imperial Japanese Navy Page
- Carriers of World War II
- Naval Weapons of the World
- Nihon Kaigun – Die kaiserliche japanische Marine