Year of Three Popes

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The Year of Three Popes is a common reference to a year when the College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church are required to elect two new popes within the same calendar year.[1] Such a year generally occurs when a newly elected pope dies or resigns very early into his papacy. This results in the Catholic Church being led by three different popes during the same calendar year.

The most recent instance of a Year of Three Popes occurred in 1978. The three popes involved were:[2]

  1. Paul VI, who was elected in 1963 and died on August 6, 1978.
  2. John Paul I, who was elected on August 26, 1978 and died thirty-three days later on September 28, 1978.
  3. John Paul II, who was elected on October 16, 1978 and held the position until his death about 27 years later in 2005.

There have been several instances in which three or more popes have held office in a given calendar year. Years in which the Roman Catholic Church was led by three different popes include:

There was also a year in which the Roman Catholic Church was led by four popes, called the Year of Four Popes:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Kandle, 1978 – The year of three Popes, August 30, 2008. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  2. ^ 1978: The Year Of The Three Popes, Tu Es Petrus. Accessed 2010.09.98.
  3. ^ [1] "Pope Eugene II," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28
  4. ^ [2] "Pope Valentine," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28
  5. ^ [3] "Pope Gregory IV," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28
  6. ^ [4] "Pope Formosus," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  7. ^ [5] "Pope Boniface VI," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  8. ^ [6] "Pope Stephen (VI) VII," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  9. ^ [7] "Pope Stephen (VI) VII," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  10. ^ [8] "Pope Romanus," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  11. ^ [9] "Pope Theodore II," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  12. ^ [10] "Pope John X," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  13. ^ [11] "Pope Leo VI," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  14. ^ [12] "Pope Stephen VII (VIII)," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28. Note: Actual date of Pope Stephen VII's accession is either late 928 or early 929.
  15. ^ [13] "Pope Leo VIII," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  16. ^ [14] "Pope Benedict V," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  17. ^ [15] "Pope John XIII," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  18. ^ [16] "Pope Silvester II," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  19. ^ [17] "Pope John XVII (XVIII)," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  20. ^ [18] "Pope John XVIII (XIX)," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  21. ^ [19] "List of Popes," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  22. ^ a b Sylvester III and Gregory VI are sometimes considered antipopes
  23. ^ [20] "Pope Benedict IX," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  24. ^ [21] "Pope Gregory VI," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  25. ^ [22] "Pope Urban III," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  26. ^ [23] "Pope Gregory VIII," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  27. ^ [24] "Pope Clement III," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  28. ^ [25] "Pope Alexander VI," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  29. ^ [26] "Pope Pius III," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  30. ^ [27] "Pope Julius II," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  31. ^ [28] "Pope Julius III," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  32. ^ [29] "Pope Marcellus II," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  33. ^ [30] "Pope Paul IV," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  34. ^ [31] "Pope Sixtus V," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  35. ^ [32] "Pope Urban VII," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  36. ^ [33] "Pope Gregory XIV," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  37. ^ [34] "Pope Clement VIII," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  38. ^ [35] "Pope Leo XI," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  39. ^ [36] "Pope Paul V," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  40. ^ [37] "Pope Gregory X," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  41. ^ [38] "Pope Innocent V," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  42. ^ [39] "Pope Adrian V," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
  43. ^ [40] "Pope John XXI (XX)," Catholic Encyclopedia. Accessed 2010.09.28.
Bibliography

Peter Hebblethwaite, The Year of Three Popes. William Collins Publishers, 1979.