Year of Three Popes

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The Year of Three Popes is a common reference to a year when the College of Cardinals of the Catholic Church are required to elect two new popes within the same calendar year.[1] Such a year generally occurs when a newly elected pope dies or resigns very early into his papacy. This results in the Catholic Church being led by three different popes during the same calendar year.

Instances[edit]

The most recent instance of a Year of Three Popes occurred in 1978. The three popes involved were:[2]

  1. Paul VI, who was elected in 1963 and died on 6 August 1978.
  2. John Paul I, who was elected on 26 August 1978 and died thirty-three days later on 28 September 1978.
  3. John Paul II, who was elected on 16 October 1978 and held the position until his death almost 27 years later in 2005.

There have been several instances in which three or more popes have held office in a given calendar year. Years in which the Roman Catholic Church was led by three different popes include:

There was also a year in which the Roman Catholic Church was led by four popes, called the Year of Four Popes:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sylvester III and Gregory VI are sometimes considered antipopes.

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ "1978:– The Year of Three Popes". Kildare and Leighlin Diocese. 30 August 2008. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  2. ^ "1978: The Year Of The Three Popes". Tu Es Petrus. EWTN. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  3. ^ "Pope Eugene II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  4. ^ "Pope Valentine". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  5. ^ "Pope Gregory IV". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  6. ^ "Pope Formosus". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  7. ^ "Pope Boniface VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  8. ^ a b "Pope Stephen (VI) VII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  9. ^ "Pope Romanus". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  10. ^ "Pope Theodore II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  11. ^ "Pope John X". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  12. ^ "Pope Leo VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  13. ^ "Pope Stephen VII (VIII)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010.  Note: Actual date of Pope Stephen VII's accession is either late 928 or early 929.
  14. ^ "Pope Leo VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  15. ^ "Pope Benedict V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  16. ^ "Pope John XIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  17. ^ "Pope Silvester II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  18. ^ "Pope John XVII (XVIII)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  19. ^ "Pope John XVIII (XIX)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  20. ^ "List of Popes". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  21. ^ "Pope Benedict IX". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  22. ^ "Pope Gregory VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  23. ^ "Pope Urban III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  24. ^ "Pope Gregory VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  25. ^ "Pope Clement III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  26. ^ "Pope Alexander VI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  27. ^ "Pope Pius III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  28. ^ "Pope Julius II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  29. ^ "Pope Julius III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  30. ^ "Pope Marcellus II". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  31. ^ "Pope Paul IV". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  32. ^ "Pope Sixtus V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  33. ^ "Pope Urban VII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  34. ^ "Pope Gregory XIV". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  35. ^ "Pope Clement VIII". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  36. ^ "Pope Leo XI". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  37. ^ "Pope Paul V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  38. ^ "Pope Gregory X". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  39. ^ "Pope Innocent V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  40. ^ "Pope Adrian V". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 
  41. ^ "Pope John XXI (XX)". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 September 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Hebblethwaite, Peter (1979). The Year of Three Popes. William Collins.