Yibna

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Yibna
TelJavne030.jpg
Mamluk tower in Yibna
Yibna is located in Mandatory Palestine
Yibna
Yibna
Arabic يبنى
Also spelled Jabneel, Iamnia, Jamnia
Subdistrict Ramle
Coordinates 31°51′57.50″N 34°44′46.75″E / 31.8659722°N 34.7463194°E / 31.8659722; 34.7463194Coordinates: 31°51′57.50″N 34°44′46.75″E / 31.8659722°N 34.7463194°E / 31.8659722; 34.7463194
Population 5,420 (1945)
Area 59,554 dunams
Date of depopulation 4 June 1948[1]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Secondary cause Expulsion by Yishuv forces
Current localities Yavne[2] Beit Raban, Kfar HaNagid Beit Gamliel

Yibna (Arabic: يبنى‎), also known as Yubna, in Biblical times as Jabneel, in Roman times as Iamnia, Jamnia or Yavne, and in the Crusades as Ibelin, was a Palestinian village of 5,420 inhabitants, located 15 kilometers southwest of Ramla at the south-east edge of the present Israeli city of Yavne.[3] Yibna was depopulated in June 1948 as a result of a military assault and expulsion. On May 27, after the fall of Al-Qubayba and Zarnuqa, most of the population fled. Israeli forces conquered the village on June 5.[4]

History[edit]

Ruins of Yibna mosque built in 1386

The Islamic historian al-Baladhuri mentioned Yibna as one of ten towns in Jund Filastin conquered by the Rashidun army led by 'Amr ibn al-'As in the early 7th century.[5]

In the 9th century, Ya'qubi wrote that Yubna was an ancient city built on a hill that was inhabited by Samaritans.[6]

Al-Muqaddasi, writing around 985, said that "Yubna has a beautiful mosque. From this place come the excellent figs known by the name of Damascene."[7] Yaqut wrote that in Yubna there was a tomb said to be that of Abu Hurairah, the companion (sahaba) of the Prophet. The author of Marasid also adds that tomb seen here is also said to be that of ´Abd Allah ibn Abi Sarh, another companion (sahaba) of the Prophet.[6] A mosque built in 1386 survives until today.

In 1596, Yibna was part of the Ottoman Empire, nahiya (subdistrict) of Gaza under the liwa' (district) of Gaza with a population of 710. It paid taxes on a number of crops, including wheat, barley, summer crops, sesame seeds and fruits, as well as goats, beehives and vineyards.[8]

The American missionary, William Thomson, who visited Yibna in 1834, described it as a village on hill inhabited by 3,000 Muslim residents who worked in agriculture. He wrote that an inscription on the mosque indicated that it had been built in 1386.[9][10]

In the late nineteenth century, the Yibna was described as a large village partly built of stone and situated on a hill. It had olive trees and corn to the north, and gardens nearby.[11]

In 1921, an elementary school for boys was founded in Yibna. By 1941-42 it had 445 students. A school for girls was founded in 1943, and by 1948 it had 44 students.[12]

In 1944/45 the village had a population of 5,420, in addition to 1,500 nomads living around the village. A total of 6,468 dunums of village land was used for citrus and bananas, 15,124 dunums were used for cereals, and 11,091 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, of which 25 dunums were planted with olive trees.[12][13]

In 1941, Kibbutz Yavne was established nearby by immigrants from Germany, followed by a Youth Aliyah village, Givat Washington, in 1946.

In mid-March 1948, a contingent of Iraqi soldiers moved into the village. In a Haganah reprisal on March 30, two dozen villagers were killed. On April 21, the village commander was arrested by the British authorities for the drunken shooting of two Arabs.[14]

During the Arab-Israeli war, residents of Zarnuqa sought refuge in Yibna, but left after the villagers accused them of being traitors.[4]

On May 27, after the fall of Al-Qubayba and Zarnuqa, most of the population of Yibna fled to Isdud, but armed males were refused entry. On June 5, when Israeli troops arrived, they found the village almost deserted apart from a few old people who were ordered to leave.[4]

After 1948, a number of Israeli villages were founded on Yibna land: Kfar HaNagid and Beit Gamliel in 1949, Ben Zakai in 1950, Kfar Aviv (originally: "Kfar HaYeor") in 1951, Tzofiyya in 1955.[15] According to Walid Khalidi, a railroad crosses the village. The old mosque and minaret, together with a shrine can still be seen, and some of the old houses are inhabited by Jewish and Arab families.

Archaeology[edit]

Archaeological excavations have revealed three wall segments probably from buildings in the pre-1948 Arab village of Yibna, alongside an unguentarium dating to the Early Roman period.[16] Artifacts from the Byzantine and Roman eras were discovered. Based on their findings, archaeologists concluded that part of the Arab village at Yibna was built on top of a cemetery. Refuse pits from the Byzantine period were found at the foot of the tell.[16]

Cultural references[edit]

Palestinian artist Sliman Mansour made Yibna the subject of one of his paintings. The work, named for the village, was one of a series of four on destroyed Palestinian villages that he produced in 1988 in order to resist the cancellation of Palestinian history; the others being Yalo, Imwas and Bayt Dajan.[17]

Notable residents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Morris, 2004, p.xix, village #255. Also gives the cause(s) for depopulation
  2. ^ Morris, 2004, p.xxi, settlement #75
  3. ^ Fischel and Taxel, 2011, p.205
  4. ^ a b c Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. pp. 258–259. ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6. 
  5. ^ The conquered towns included "Ghazzah (Gaza), Sabastiyah (Samaria), Nabulus (Shechem), Kaisariyyah (Cæsarea), Ludd (Lydda), Bayt Jibrin, Amwas (Emmaus), Yafa (Joppa), Rafah, and Yibna. (Bil. 138), quoted in le Strange, 1890, p.28
  6. ^ a b le Strange, 1890, p.553
  7. ^ Muk.176, quoted in le Strange, 1890, p.553
  8. ^ Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter and Kamal Abdulfattah (1977), Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. p. 143. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 421
  9. ^ Thompson (1880), I:145-49. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p.421
  10. ^ see also p 638 in W. M. Thomson (1861): The Land and the Book ; Or, Biblical Illustrations Drawn from the Manners and Customs, the Scenes and Scenery of the Holy Land
  11. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP II p.414. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p.421
  12. ^ a b Khalidi, 1992, p.421
  13. ^ Hadawi, 1970, p.117
  14. ^ The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, Benny Morris
  15. ^ Khalidi, 1992, p 423
  16. ^ a b Aviva Buchennino (08/01/2006). "Yavne". Hadashot Arkheologiyot (Israeli Antiquities Authority). Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  17. ^ Ankori, 2006, p. 82.:'Another series of four works from 1988 relates explicitly to the lost homeland through the titles given to eachy work by the artist. Mansour named each composition (Yalo, Beit Dajan, Emmwas, Yibna) after a Palestinian village that had been destroyed by Israel since its establishment in 1948. Thus, art became a way of resisting the eradication of Palestinian history and geography,’.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]