Yehudah Aryeh Leib Alter

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Yehudah Aryeh Leib Alter
Gerrer Rebbe
Term 1870 – 11 January 1905
Full name Yehudah Aryeh Leib Alter
Main work Sefat Emet
Born 15 April 1847
Warsaw
Buried Ger, January 1905
Dynasty Ger
Predecessor Chanoch Heynekh HaKohen of Aleksander
Successor Avraham Mordechai Alter
Father Avraham Mordechai Alter (I)
Mother Ester Landsztajn
Wife 1 Yocheved Rivka Kaminer
Children 1 Avraham Mordechai Alter
Yitzchak Meir Alter
Moshe Betzalel Alter
Chanokh Chayim Alter
Feyge Lewin
Yisrael Alter
Nechemya Alter
Menachem Mendel Alter
Noach Alter
Esther Biderman
Wife 2 Reyzl Halberstam

Yehudah Aryeh Leib Alter (1847–1905), also known by the title of his main work, the Sfas Emes or Sefat Emet, was a Hasidic rabbi who succeeded his grandfather, Rabbi Yitzchak Meir Alter, as the av beth din (head of the rabbinical court) and Rav of Góra Kalwaria, Poland (known in Yiddish as the town of Ger), and succeeded the Rebbe, Reb Heynekh of Alexander, as Rebbe of the Gerrer Hasidim.

Early years[edit]

He was born in 1847 and named Yehudah Leib; he was known to family and friends as Leybl. His father, Rabbi Avraham Mordechai Alter, died when Yehudah Leib was only eight years old, and his mother Mrs. Esther Alter Nee Landsztajn[1] died before that. Orphaned of both parents, he was brought up by his grandparents, Rabbi Yitzchak Meir Alter (known as the Chiddushei Harim) and his wife. When he was about ten years old, his grandfather took him to visit the Kotzker Rebbe, an event which left a lifelong impression on him.

He married Yocheved Rivka, daughter of Reb Yidl (Yehuda) Kaminer. In order not to have the same name as his father-in-law, his own name was changed to Yehudah Aryeh Leib. He is said to have been attached to the name Yehudah, and was upset at not being able to use it as his name any longer.

Leadership[edit]

When his grandfather, Rabbi Yitzchak Meir, died in 1866, many of the Hasidim sought to bestow the mantle of leadership upon eighteen-year-old Yehudah Aryeh Leib. He refused that position, and leadership of the Hasidim went to Rabbi Chanokh Heynekh HaKohen Levin of Aleksander. After the death of the latter in 1870, the Hasidim succeeded in gaining Yehudah Aryeh Leib's assent to become their Rebbe.[2]

Death and burial[edit]

During the Russo-Japanese War many of his young followers were drafted into the Russian Army and sent to the battlefields in Manchuria. The Rebbe was very worried over these devotees and would constantly write to them. His health suffered, and he died at the age of 57 on 11 January 1905 (5 Shevat 5665).

"When news of the Admor's petirah (passing away) spread, so many people rushed to Ger yesterday morning that although the railway dispatched extra trains there was hardly any space in the cars and thousands of people were still left without means to travel...

"One (tram)car with seating for 44 people held over 200, not even leaving any standing room, and in another car some people fainted as a result of the overcrowded conditions...

"When the time for tefillas Mincha arrived, all of the funeral-goers, 20,000 in number, stood in a field and davened Minchah together...

"The brief words spoken by the Rav of Sochachov made a powerful impression." [3]

Succession[edit]

He was succeeded as Gerrer Rebbe by his son, Rabbi Avraham Mordechai Alter.

Lasting influence[edit]

Rabbi Yehudah Aryeh Leib was one of the greatest Torah scholars of his generation, teaching students such as Rabbi Nachman Shlomo Greenspan and many others. His output was prodigious, and his works (all entitled Sefat Emet) deal with the Talmud, the ethics of the Midrash, and mysticism of the Zohar.

His Torah homilies as delivered to his Hasidim, and arranged according to the weekly parashah and the festivals, were the first to be published posthumously under the name Sefat Emet. The title was taken from the closing words of the final piece he wrote (Sefat Emet, Vayechi 5665). His chiddushim (original Torah thoughts) on many Talmudic tractates, and on Yoreh De'ah, have been published under the same name.

The Sochatchover Rebbe, Rabbi Avrohom Bornsztain (known as the Avnei Nezer), a leading Torah scholar and posek in his own right, is said to have maintained two bookcases — one for Rishonim (earlier commentators) and another for Acharonim (later commentators). The volumes of the Sefat Emet, written in the late 1800s, were to be found in his bookcase containing the Rishonim. To study some portions of the Talmud without the Sefat Emet is unthinkable to the modern-day scholar.[4] The Rebbe of Tzaltz wrote a super-commentary to the Sefat Emet entitled the Sefat Bitz.

The Sfas Emes Yeshiva in Jerusalem is named after him and includes his teachings in the curriculum.

His sayings[edit]

One of the greatest religious problems is that people fear having a relationship with God and consequently distance themselves from Him. Just as angels serve God without fear despite their lower status in comparison to God, so too human beings should take their model (walk amongst them) and not be afraid of developing a relationship with God and serving Him. This represents a wholeness that we as human beings are capable of only if we think of ourselves as walking amongst angels. (Sfas Emes, Parshat Beha'alotecha 5636)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Arthur Green, The Language of Truth: The Torah Commentary of Sefat Emet (JPS 1998)
  • Articles by Dr. Yoram Jacobson
  • Exile and Redemption in Gur Hasidism (Heb.), Da'at, 2-3 (1978–1979), pp. 175–215.
  • Truth and Faith in Gur Hasidic Thought (Heb.), in: Studies in Jewish Mysticism, Philosophy and Ethical Literature Presented to Isaiah Tishby, Jerusalem 1986, pp. 593–616.
  • The Sanctity of the Mundane in the Hasidic School of Gur - Studies in the Understanding of the Sabbath in the Homilies of Sefat Emet (Heb.), in: Hasidism in Poland, Jerusalem 1994, pp. 241–277.
  • From Youth to Leadership and from Kabbalah to Hasidism - Stages in the Spiritual Development of the Author of Sefat Emet (Heb.), in: Rivkah Shatz-Uffenheimer Memorial Volume, II, Jerusalem 1996, pp. 429–446.
  • Primordial Chaos and Creation in the Thought of Gur Hasidism, or: the Sabbath that Preceded Creation (Polish), in Duchowosc Zydowska w Polsce, Kraków 2000, pp. 151–171.

Rebbes of Ger[edit]

  1. Yitzchak Meir Alter (1798–1866)
  2. Yehudah Aryeh Leib Alter (1847–1905)
  3. Avraham Mordechai Alter (1866–1948)
  4. Yisrael Alter (1895–1977)
  5. Simcha Bunim Alter (1898–1992)
  6. Pinchas Menachem Alter (1926–1996)
  7. Yaakov Aryeh Alter (b. 1939)

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Preceded by
(Rebbe Reb Heynekh of Aleksander)
Gerrer Rebbe
1870–1905
Succeeded by
Avrohom Mordechai Alter