Yellow-eyed babbler

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Yellow-eyed babbler
Chrysomma sinense.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sylviidae
Genus: Chrysomma
Species: C. sinense
Binomial name
Chrysomma sinense
(Gmelin, 1789)
Synonyms

Pyctorhis sinensis

The yellow-eyed babbler (Chrysomma sinense) is a passerine bird species found in groups in open grass and scrub in south Asia. The common name refers to its traditional placement in the Old World babbler family Timaliidae although the genus Chrysomma forms a clade along with the parrotbills and Sylvia warblers within the family Sylviidae.[2]

Description[edit]

In typical habitat of grass, note the yellow nostril. (Hodal, Haryana)

The yellow-eyed babbler is about 18 centimetres (7.1 in) long with a short bill and a long graduated tail. The body above is brown and the wings are cinnamon coloured. The lores and supercilium are white and the rim of the eye is orange-yellow in adult birds. The beak is black. The underside is whitish buff. The central tail feathers are about twice as long as the outermost. The sexes are indistinguishable in the field.[3][4]

Within its wide distribution range there are some differences in plumages between populations that have been considered as subspecies. The nominate subspecies is found in Burma, Laos and Thailand. The population in Sri Lanka, nasale, has black nostrils and a stouter bill.[5] The population across much of India, hypoleucum, has yellow nostrils (as with the nominate subspecies) and is paler in plumage. The population in the northeast Duars of India has an almost slaty crown and darker wings and has been called as saturatior.[6][7]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The yellow-eyed babbler has an extremely large range and is native to Bangladesh, China, India, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam.[1]

The usual habitat is grassy or thorny scrub both in dry and wet regions as well as farmland. They are found mainly on the plains but can be found in the lower hills (1200 m).[3] It is absent in the dense forest region of the Western Ghats and occurs only on the eastern edges or in gaps such as at Palghat.[8]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

Perched on grass (Hodal, India)
Measurements
hypoleucum[3][6]
Length 140 mm (5.5 in)
Culmen Male black symbol.svg 14–15 mm (0.6–0.6 in)
Female black symbol.svg 13–16 mm (0.5–0.6 in)
Wing Male black symbol.svg 62–70 mm (2.4–2.8 in)
Female black symbol.svg 62–70 mm (2.4–2.8 in)
Tail Male black symbol.svg 73–102 mm (2.9–4.0 in)
Female black symbol.svg 78–100 mm (3.1–3.9 in)
Head 31–33 mm (1.2–1.3 in)
Tarsus Male black symbol.svg 22–27 mm (0.9–1.1 in)
Female black symbol.svg 25–27 mm (1.0–1.1 in)
Weight 15–21 g (0.5–0.7 oz)
nasale[3][6]
Length 142–162 mm (5.6–6.4 in)
Culmen 14–15 mm (0.6–0.6 in)
Wing 63–69 mm (2.5–2.7 in)
Tail 70–86 mm (2.8–3.4 in)
Head 33–35 mm (1.3–1.4 in)
Tarsus 24–26 mm (0.9–1.0 in)

Like babblers, these birds are usually seen in small groups of five to fifteen, especially in the non-breeding season. They are usually found inside bushes, emerging up to the top of a stem and then diving back into cover to forage. They feed mainly on insects but take berries (Lantana and Salvadora) as well as nectar. When capturing insects, they may hold them down with their feet.[9] The group constantly produces a series of cheeping or churring calls. During the breeding season, mainly the southwest monsoon (June to August) but sometimes during the receding monsoon,[10][11][12] the song is a strong whistling twee-twee-ta-whit-chu, often delivered from a prominent perch. The colour of the inside of the mouth is said to turn from orange-brown to black during the breeding season. They appear to nest cooperatively, the nest being a deep cone made with grass and lined with fine fibre. The nest is wedged between upright stems, the vertical stems being incorporated into the wall of the nest. The outside of the nest is well covered in cobwebs. The usual clutch is four but varies from three to five. The eggs are pinkish white with chestnut-red patches. Both parents take part in incubation and feeding the young. The eggs hatch after about 15–16 days and the young birds fledge after about 13 days. Adult birds have been seen feigning injury presumably to detract predators.[3] Birds roost communally in the centre of a bush, all facing in the same direction and sitting side by side. Members of a group will preen each other. In an apparent territorial display, a pair of birds were found to sing while facing another singing pair and they all simultaneously bobbed their heads while perching on legs held straight to appear tall.[13][14]

Shikras may sometimes attempt to prey on these birds.[15]

Known in parts of northern India as gulab chashm meaning "yellow spectacles", they were sometimes kept as cagebirds.[16][17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Chrysomma sinense". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Jønsson, K. A., Fjeldså, J. (2006) A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves: Passeri). Zool. Scripta 35 (2): 149–186. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00221.x
  3. ^ a b c d e Ali, S & S.D.Ripley (1996). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 6 (2 ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 189–192. 
  4. ^ Oates, EW (1889). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Birds. Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 137–138. 
  5. ^ Legge, WV (1879). "On two races or subspecies of Indian birds inhabiting Ceylon". Annals Mag. Nat. Hist. 3 (14): 168–169. doi:10.1080/00222937908682496. 
  6. ^ a b c Rasmussen, PC & JC Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia. The Ripley Guide. Volume 2. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions. pp. 441–442. 
  7. ^ Mayr E and RA Paynter, Jr., ed. (1964). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 10. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 328. 
  8. ^ Neelakantan, KK (1990). "Yellow-eyed Babbler Chrysomma sinensis in Kerala". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 87 (2): 302. 
  9. ^ Clark, Jr., GA (1973). "Holding Food with the Feet in Passerines". Bird-Banding 44 (2): 91–99. doi:10.2307/4511942. 
  10. ^ Mukherjee, Rathin (1983). "Notes on breeding of Western Yelloweyed Babbler Chrysomma sinense hypocolium (Franklin) in Jammu District". Newsletter for Birdwatchers 23 (5–6): 9–10. 
  11. ^ Biddulph, CH (1956). "Nesting of the Yelloweyed Babbler (Chrysomma sinensis ssp.) in the Madura District, Madras Presidency". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 53 (4): 697. 
  12. ^ Whistler, H; Kinnear, NB (1932). "The Vernay Scientific Survey of the Eastern Ghats, part II.". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 35 (4): 737–760. 
  13. ^ Gaston, AJ (1978). "Social behaviour of the Yellow-eyed Babbler Chrysomma sinense". Ibis 120 (3): 361–364. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1978.tb06802.x. 
  14. ^ Whistler, H (1949). Popular handbook of Indian birds (4 ed.). London: Gurney and Jackson. pp. 51–52. 
  15. ^ Rao, VUS (1964). "A Shikra attacking Yelloweyed Babblers". Newsletter for Birdwatchers 4 (1): 5. 
  16. ^ Finn, Frank (1906). Garden and aviary birds of India. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co. p. 22. 
  17. ^ Harper, EW (1902). "The Yellow-eyed Babbler (Pyctorhis sinensis)". The Avicultural Magazine 8: 108–110. 

External links[edit]