Yellow Springs, Ohio
|Village of Yellow Springs|
|Motto: Find Yourself Here|
Location of Yellow Springs, Ohio
|• Total||2.02 sq mi (5.23 km2)|
|• Land||2.02 sq mi (5.23 km2)|
|• Water||0 sq mi (0 km2)|
|• Estimate (2012)||3,526|
|• Density||1,726.2/sq mi (666.5/km2)|
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
Yellow Springs is a village in Greene County, Ohio, United States, and is the location of Antioch College and Antioch University Midwest. The population was 3,487 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Dayton Metropolitan Statistical Area.
In 1825, the village was founded by William Mills and approximately 100 families, followers of Robert Owen, who wanted to emulate the utopian community at New Harmony, Indiana. The communitarian efforts dissolved due to internal conflicts. The Little Miami Railroad was completed in 1846 and brought increased commerce, inhabitants, and tourism. The village was incorporated in 1856.
Antioch College was founded in 1852 by the Christian Connection, and began operating in 1853 with the distinguished scholar Horace Mann as its first president. Arthur E. Morgan was the innovative president of Antioch College who implemented a much-imitated work-study program for students. An engineer by training, Morgan became head of the Tennessee Valley Authority in Franklin D. Roosevelt's Administration. Upon his return to Yellow Springs, Morgan was a key leader of Quaker intentional community developments in Ohio and North Carolina. Antioch College was closed by Antioch University in 2008 but reopened, as an independent college, in 2011.
Yellow Springs was one of the final stops on the Underground Railroad, due in large part to the abolitionist reputation of Horace Mann. The Conway Colony, a group of 30 freed slaves who were transported by Moncure D. Conway, the abolitionist son of their former owner, settled in the village in 1862. Wheeling Gaunt, a former slave who purchased his own freedom, came to Yellow Springs in the 1860s and owned a substantial amount of land upon his death in 1894. Gaunt bequeathed to the village a large piece of land on its western side, requesting that the rent be used to buy flour for the "poor and worthy widows" of Yellow Springs. Although the land was used to create Gaunt Park, and thus does not generate rent, the village expanded the bequest to include sugar and still delivers flour and sugar to the village's widows at Christmas time, a tradition that generates annual media coverage.
During the Red Scare of the 1950s, Yellow Springs and Antioch came under scrutiny for alleged sympathies to the Communist Party due to many locals' support of Left-wing politics. After being questioned by the Ohio House Un-American Activities Committee, Antioch president Douglas McGregor released a statement in 1952 that "Antioch upholds the American tradition of academic freedom. This means the right to hear and investigate all sides of any question, including the question of Russia and Communism". By the late 1960s and early '70s, the village became a center for the civil rights and anti-war movements in southwestern Ohio, creating a sociopolitical demographic change which remains today. In 1979, Yellow Springs held the distinction of being the smallest municipality to pass an ordinance prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation.
The village takes its name from a natural spring located in the nearby Glen Helen Nature Preserve which is rich in iron ore, leaving a yellowish-orange coloring on the rocks.
As of the census of 2010, there were 3,487 people, 1,672 households, and 902 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,726.2 inhabitants per square mile (666.5 /km2). There were 1,805 housing units at an average density of 893.6 per square mile (345.0 /km2). The racial makeup of the village was 78.1% White, 12.0% African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 7.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.0% of the population.
There were 1,672 households of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.4% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.1% had a male householder with no wife present, and 46.1% were non-families. 39.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.04 and the average family size was 2.70.
The median age in the village was 48.5 years. 19.7% of residents were under the age of 18; 5.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 20.6% were from 25 to 44; 33.1% were from 45 to 64; and 21.6% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the village was 46.0% male and 54.0% female.
According to the US Census Bureau's 2006–2010 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the village was $56,000 and the median income for a family was $71,379. Males had a median income of $52,208 versus $52,019 for females. The per capita income for the village was $32,886. About 6.7% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.0% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,761 people, 1,587 households, and 896 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,981.3 people per square mile (764.3/km²). There were 1,676 housing units at an average density of 882.9 per square mile (340.6/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 76.58% White, 14.97% African American, 0.51% Native American, 1.49% Asian, 0.72% from other races, and 5.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.94% of the population.
There were 1,587 households out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.4% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.5% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.11 and the average family size was 2.73.
In the village the population was spread out with 18.4% under the age of 18, 14.1% from 18 to 24, 23.5% from 25 to 44, 27.2% from 45 to 64, and 16.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 80.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.1 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $51,984, and the median income for a family was $67,857. Males had a median income of $41,875 versus $37,744 for females. The per capita income for the village was $27,062. About 7.3% of families and 7.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.2% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over.
Local news and events are covered by an independent weekly newspaper, the Yellow Springs News.
Arts and culture
Relative to its size, Yellow Springs has a large arts community. Local organizations include:
- Yellow Springs Arts Council
- Yellow Springs Kids Playhouse, an award-winning summer theater program
- Chamber Music Yellow Springs (CMYS)
Yellow Springs is served by a branch of the Greene County Public Library.
- Noah Adams, public radio journalist and author
- Arnold Adoff, poet and author
- Edythe Scott Bagley, educator, activist, and author
- Cindy Blackman, jazz/rock drummer
- Dave Chappelle, American comedian & actor
- Steve Curwood, author and public radio personality
- Greg Dewey, drummer Country Joe & the Fish, the band Mad River
- Mike DeWine, former US Senator, current Ohio Attorney General
- Richie Furay, musician
- Virginia Hamilton, children's author
- Anne Harris, musician and actor
- Mike Kahoe, Major League Baseball player
- Robert Freeman Wexler, writer of surreal fiction
- Liz Wilde, nationally syndicated talk show host
- Aaron Zagory, former Stanford University football player
Antioch faculty and students
- Herb Gardner, cartoonist and dramatist
- Stephen Jay Gould, paleontologist
- Coretta Scott King, human rights activist, wife of Martin Luther King, Jr.
- Horace Mann, educator and president of Antioch College
- Eleanor Holmes Norton, District of Columbia delegate to the United States House of Representatives
- Cliff Robertson, actor
- Rod Serling, creator of The Twilight Zone
Cemetery Rd covered bridge located in Glen Helen Nature Preserve
Clifton Gorge Nature Area, John Bryan State Park
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-01-06.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2013-06-17.
- Hellmann, Paul T. (May 13, 2013). Historical Gazetteer of the United States. Routledge. p. 878. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- Donahue, Bill (September 16, 2011). "Can Antioch College Return From the Dead Again?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- Chiddister, Diane (February 4, 2010). "A history of racial diversity". Yellow Springs News. Retrieved July 15, 2012.
- "Flour, sugar and tradition of caring". Yellow Springs News. December 11, 2003. Retrieved September 26, 2006.
- Chiddister, Diane (2005). Two Hundred Years of Yellow Springs. Yellow Springs, OH: Yellow Springs News. pp. 145–148. ISBN 0976915804. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Huffstutter, P.J. (June 23, 2007). "Old college try isn't enough for Antioch". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Johnson, Gregory A. "Workplace Discrimination". glbtq.com. Retrieved 2007-08-11.
- "Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual & Transgender Civil Rights Laws In the U.S." (PDF). The Policy Institute of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force. August 1998. Retrieved 2007-08-11.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- Laura Dempsey (December 8, 2008). "WYSO picks NPR veteran as new GM". Dayton Daily News. Retrieved 2009-01-14.
- The Associated Press (September 11, 2006). "Chappelle plans to stay in Ohio town". USA Today. Retrieved 2010-06-05.
- "Mike Kahoe Statistics and History". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
- "Aaron Zagory – College Football". Usc.rivals.com. Retrieved 2012-07-23.
- John Bryan State Park Ohio Department of Natural Resources