Yemen Arab Republic

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Yemen Arab Republic
الجمهوريّة العربية اليمنية
al-Jumhūrīyah al-`Arabīyah al-Yamanīyah

1962–1990
Flag Emblem
Capital Sana'a
Government Republic
President
 -  1962–1967 (first) Abdullah as-Sallal
 -  1978–1990 (last) Ali Abdullah Saleh
Prime Minister
 -  1962–1963 (first) Abdullah as-Sallal
 -  1983–1990 (last) Abdul Aziz Abdul Ghani
Historical era Cold War
 -  Established 27 September 1962
 -  Unification 22 May 1990
Area
 -  1990 195,000 km² (75,290 sq mi)
Population
 -  1990 est. 7,160,981 
     Density 36.7 /km²  (95.1 /sq mi)
Currency North Yemeni rial
Calling code +967

The Yemen Arab Republic (YAR; in Arabic: الجمهوريّة العربية اليمنية al-Jamhūrīyah al-`Arabīyah al-Yamanīyah), also known as North Yemen or Yemen (Sana'a), was a country from 1962 to 1990 in the northwestern part of what is now Yemen.[1] Its capital was at Sana'a. It united with the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, commonly known as South Yemen, on May 22, 1990, to form the current Republic of Yemen.

History[edit]

Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, northern Yemen became an independent state as the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. On 27 September 1962, revolutionaries inspired by the Arab nationalist ideology of United Arab Republic (Egyptian) President Gamal Abdel Nasser deposed the newly crowned King Muhammad al-Badr, took control of Sana'a, and established the Yemen Arab Republic (YAR). This coup d'état marked the beginning of the North Yemen Civil War that pitted YAR troops assisted by the United Arab Republic (Egypt) while Saudi Arabia and Jordan supported Badr's royalist forces opposing the newly formed republic. Conflict continued periodically until 1967 when Egyptian troops were withdrawn. By 1968, following a final royalist siege of Sana'a, most of the opposing leaders reached a reconciliation; Saudi Arabia recognized the Republic in 1970.

Unlike East and West Germany or North and South Korea, the YAR and its southern neighbour, the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY), also known as South Yemen, remained relatively friendly, though relations were often strained. In 1972 it was declared unification would eventually occur. However, these plans were put on hold in 1979, and war was only prevented by an Arab League intervention. The goal of unity was reaffirmed by the northern and southern heads of state during a summit meeting in Kuwait in March 1979. What the PDRY government failed to tell the YAR government was that it wished to be the dominant power in any unification, and left-wing rebels in North Yemen began to receive extensive funding and arms from South Yemen.

Reunification[edit]

Main article: Yemeni unification

In May 1988, the YAR and PDRY governments came to an understanding that considerably reduced tensions including agreement to renew discussions concerning unification, to establish a joint oil exploration area along their undefined border, to demilitarize the border, and to allow Yemenis unrestricted border passage on the basis of only a national identification card.

Official Yemeni unification took place on May 22, 1990, with a planned, 30-month unification process, scheduled for completion in November 1992. The first stamp bearing the inscription "Yemen Republic" was issued in October 1990.[2] While government ministries proceeded to merge, both currencies remained valid until 11 June 1996. A civil war in 1994 delayed the completion of the final merger.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The United States extended diplomatic recognition to the Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) on 19 December 1962, The Times, 20 December 1962.
  2. ^ Scott (2008) "Yemen" Scott 2009 Standard Postage Stamp Catalogue Volume 6 (165th edition) Scott Publishing Co., Sidney, Ohio, page 1081. ISBN 0-89487-422-2

Coordinates: 15°21′17″N 44°12′24″E / 15.35472°N 44.20667°E / 15.35472; 44.20667