Military of Yemen

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Military of Yemen
Yemeni Armed Forces Emblem.svg
Emblem of the Armed Forces of Yemen.
Founded 1990
Service branches Army
Navy
Yemen Air Force
Headquarters Sana'a
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief Pres. Abd Rabbuh Mansur al-Hadi
Minister of Defense Brig. Gen. Mohammad Nasser Ahmed Ali
Manpower
Active personnel 66,700
Reserve personnel None, but 71,200 paramilitary
Expenditures
Percent of GDP 6%
Industry
Domestic suppliers Yemens Military Industry
Foreign suppliers  Bulgaria[1]
 China
 Russia
 North Korea
 Iran
 United States
 Turkey
 Italy
 Saudi Arabia
 France
 United Kingdom
Related articles
History

Military history of Yemen
Saudi–Yemeni War
1948 Arab–Israeli War
North Yemen Civil War
NDF Rebellion
Yemenite War of 1979
1994 civil war in Yemen
Hanish Islands conflict
Shia insurgency in Yemen
South Yemen insurgency

2011 Yemeni revolution

The armed forces of Yemen include the Yemen Army (includes Republican Guard), Navy (includes Marines), 1st Armored Division, Yemeni Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Yamaniya; includes Air Defense Force) (2008). A major reorganization of the armed forces continues. The unified air forces and air defenses are now under one command. The navy has concentration in Aden. Total armed forces manning numbers about 401,000 active personnel, including moreover especially conscripts. The Yemen Arab Republic and The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen joined to form the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990.[2]

The supreme commander of the armed forces is Field Marshal, Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi, the President of the Republic of Yemen.

The number of military personnel in Yemen is relatively high; in sum, Yemen has the second largest military force on the Arabian Peninsula after Saudi Arabia. In 2012, total active troops were estimated as follows: army, 390,000; navy, 7,000; and air force, 5,000. In September 2007, the government announced the reinstatement of compulsory military service. Yemen’s defense budget, which in 2006 represented approximately 40 percent of the total government budget, is expected to remain high for the near term, as the military draft takes effect and internal security threats continue to escalate. By 2012 Yemen now has 401,000 active personnel.

Yemen used child soldiers between 2001 and 2004.[3] Child soldiers were also used by organized forces and tribal militia as of 2011.[4]

History[edit]

North Yemen Civil War[edit]

Fighting during the North Yemen Civil War

The North Yemen Civil War began in 1962 and ended in 1970 It took place between the North Yemen republican forces and the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen. The Royalists received support from Saudi Arabia and Jordan while the Republicans received support from Egypt and the Soviet Union. the Royalists used local tribesmen. The Republicans also used about 55,000 Egyptian troops.

The Royalists were commanded by Muhammad al-Badr of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen.

The Republican commanders were Gamal Abdul Nasser and Abdul Hakim Amer from Egypt and Abdullah as-Sallal from the North Yemen republic. During the conflict over 50,000 of Egypt's troops were tied down in Yemen, which proved to be a disadvantage to Egypt during the Six-day war in 1967. The war concluded when the Republican forces won, and this resulted in transformation of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen into North Yemen. Over 100,000 died on both sides during the conflict.

Chemical Warfare during North Yemen Civil War[edit]

The first attack took place on June 8, 1963 against Kawma, a village of about 100 inhabitants in northern Yemen, killing about seven people and damaging the eyes and lungs of twenty-five others. This incident is considered to have been experimental, and the bombs were described as "home-made, amateurish and relatively ineffective". The Egyptian authorities suggested that the reported incidents were probably caused by napalm, not gas. The Israeli Foreign Minister, Golda Meir, suggested in an interview that Nasser would not hesitate to use gas against Israel as well.

There were no reports of gas during 1964, and only a few were reported in 1965. The reports grew more frequent in late 1966. On December 11, 1966, fifteen gas bombs killed two people and injured thirty-five. On January 5, 1967, the biggest gas attack came against the village of Kitaf, causing 270 casualties, including 140 fatalities. The target may have been Prince Hassan bin Yahya, who had installed his headquarters nearby. The Egyptian government denied using poison gas, and alleged that Britain and the US were using the reports as psychological warfare against Egypt. On February 12, 1967, it said it would welcome a UN investigation. On March 1, U Thant said he was "powerless" to deal with the matter.

On May 10, the twin villages of Gahar and Gadafa in Wadi Hirran, where Prince Mohamed bin Mohsin was in command, were gas bombed, killing at least seventy-five. The Red Cross was alerted and on June 2, it issued a statement in Geneva expressing concern. The Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Berne made a statement, based on a Red Cross report, that the gas was likely to have been halogenous derivatives - phosgene, mustard gas, lewisite, chloride or cyanogen bromide.

The gas attacks stopped for three weeks after the Six-Day War of June, but resumed on July, against all parts of royalist Yemen. Casualty estimates vary, and an assumption, considered conservative, is that the mustard and phosgene-filled aerial bombs caused approximately 1,500 fatalities and 1,500 injuries.

1994 Civil War[edit]

During the 1994 civil war in Yemen almost all of the actual fighting in the 1994 civil war occurred in the southern part of the country despite air and missile attacks against cities and major installations in the north. Southerners sought support from neighboring states and received billions of dollars of equipment and financial assistance, mostly from Saudi Arabia, which felt threatened during Gulf War in 1991 when Yemen supported Saddam Hussien. The United States repeatedly called for a cease-fire and a return to the negotiating table. Various attempts, including by a UN special envoy, were unsuccessful to effect a cease-fire.

Southern leaders declared secession and the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Yemen (DRY) on 21 May 1994, but the DRY was not recognized by the international community. Ali Nasir Muhammad supporters greatly assisted military operations against the secessionists and Aden was captured on 7 July 1994.[1] Other resistance quickly collapsed and thousands of southern leaders and military went into exile.[1]

2011 Yemeni Uprising[edit]

Yemeni soldiers from the 1st Armoured Division on 60th Street in Sana'a, 22 May 2011

In March 2011, a month after the beginning of an uprising against President Salehs rule, Maj. Gen. Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, the commander of the 1st Armoured Division, defected to the side of the protesters taking hundreds of troops and several tanks to protect protesting citizens. Rival tanks of the 1st Armoured Division and the Republican Guard faced off against each other in San'na.[5]

The Yemeni Army's 119th Brigade, which had defected to the opposition, launched a joint operation with 31st and 201st Brigades which were still loyal to Saleh and retook the city of Zanjibar on 10 September from Islamist militants who were exploiting the chaos in the country to expand their influence. The offensive relieved besieged army units in the process.[6][7]

On 17 September, at least one rebel soldier was killed in clashes with loyalists in San'na near the city's central square, trying to protect the protest camp there from security forces.[8]

Anti government tribesmen overran a loyalist army base north of San'na on 20 September, capturing 30 soldiers.[9]

Organization[edit]

Yemeni soldiers, August 2011

Yemen’s military is divided into an army, navy, air force, and border guard.

Army[edit]

The army is organized into eight armored brigades, 16 infantry brigades, six mechanized brigades, two airborne commando brigades, one surface-to-surface missile brigade, three artillery brigades, one central guard force, one Special Forces brigade, and six air defense brigades, which consist of four antiaircraft artillery battalions and one surface-to-air missile battalion.

"A military takeover could only realistically be launched by one of the five Area Commanders.[10] Having himself come to power by coup, Saleh has been extremely careful to select Commanders whose loyalty is ensured by tribal bonds. Members of Saleh's Sanhan tribe control all military districts and most high security posts, with the commanders enjoying blood and/or close ties to Saleh. The Commanders report directly to the President, outside the normal channels of the Ministry of Defense and without constitutional mandate. They are the final authority in nearly every aspect of regional governance. In practice, they behave like tribal sheikhs and super-governors, parceling out new schools, water projects, and money. Despite periodic efforts to integrate military units, the Commanders recruit largely from regional tribes."

As of September 2005, "Brigadier General Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar, Commander of the Northeastern region, is the most powerful of these military elites. The commander of the Eastern Area is BG Mohammed Ali Mohsen. The Eastern Area includes the governorates of Hadramawt and al-Mahra. Ali Faraj is commander for the Central Area, which includes Al-Jawf, Maarib, al-Bayda, and Shabwa, while the Southern Commander, controlling the Aden, Taiz, Lahaj, al-Dhala and Abyan, is Abd al-Aziz al-Thabet. Finally, BG Awadh bin Fareed commands the Central Area, including the capital Sanaa. With the exception of Ali Mohsen, all of these commands are subject to periodic change or shuffle."

The navy’s major bases are located in Aden and Al Hudaydah; there are also bases in Al Mukalla, Perim Island, and Socotra that maintain naval support equipment. Yemen's navy uses +2,000 officers and seamen to support their main bases at Aden and Hodeida. A naval fortress is in construction at Hodeida. The air force includes an air defense force.[2] Yemen recently placed an order for TOR air defence systems, which will be far more advanced than the current air defense systems in place. The TOR order has been completed. The Yemeni army has a strength of 70,000 troops.[1]

In 2001 Yemen’s National Defense Council abolished the existing two-year compulsory military service, relying instead on volunteers to fill posts in the military and security forces. In 2007 the government announced it would reinstate the draft to counter unemployment; approximately 70,000 new recruits are expected to join the military.[2]

Defense budget[edit]

Yemen’s defense spending has historically been one of the government’s three largest expenditures and is expected to remain high as a result of the reinstatement of conscription and security threats posed by terrorism and tribal conflict. The defense budget increased from US$540 million in 2001 to an estimated US$2 billion–US$2.1 billion in 2006, to which it is probably $3.5 billion by 2012. According to the U.S. government, the 2006 budget represents about 6 percent of gross domestic product.[2]

Paramilitary forces[edit]

Yemen’s paramilitary force has about 71,000 troops. Approximately 50,000 constitute the Central Security Organization of the Ministry of Interior; they are equipped with a range of infantry weapons and armored personnel carriers. An additional 20,000 are forces of armed tribal levies. Yemen is building up a small coast guard under the Ministry of Interior, training naval military technicians for posts in Aden and Al Mukalla.[11] The coast guard currently has 1,200 personnel.[citation needed]

Army Equipment[edit]

See: Military equipment of Yemen

Air Force[edit]

(Number of equipment needs to be verified)

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[citation needed] Notes
Lockheed C-130 Hercules  United States tactical transport C-130H 3+2 on order
Antonov An-12 Cub  Soviet Union tactical transport 2
Antonov An-26 Curl  Soviet Union tactical transport 6
Yakovlev Yak-40 Codling  Soviet Union tactical transport 35
Aero L-39 Albatros  Czechoslovakia jet training/light attack L-39c 12
Agusta-Bell AB204/AB205  Italy utility AB204B 2
Agusta-Bell AB206  Italy utility 6
Agusta-Bell AB212 Twin Huey  Italy utility AB212 2
Agusta-Bell AB214  Italy utility AB214 6
Bell UH-1H  United States utility UH-1H 4
Kamov Ka-27 Helix  Soviet Union utility 25
Kamov Ka-32  Russia ASW KA-32 T\S 3
Mil Mi-8 Hip  Soviet Union transport/attack Mi-8T \ Mi-17 10
Mil Mi-14 Haze  Soviet Union transport/anti-submarine 36
Mil Mi-24 Hind  Soviet Union attack Mi-35 15
MiG-29 Fulcrum  Soviet Union fighter MiG-29SMT/>MiG-29UB 22+23 on order
Mig-21  Soviet Union fighter Mig-21MF Fishbed-J / Bis Fishbed-L 72
Mig-23  Soviet Union ground attack Mig-23BN/ML/UB/MS 44
Northrop F-5E Tiger II  United States fighter/advanced trainer F-5E
F-5B
12
Sukhoi Su-22 Fitter-C  Soviet Union bomber Su-22M-2
Su-22U
30
Yakovlev Yak-11 Moose  Soviet Union trainer 14
Zlin Z 142  Czechoslovakia trainer Z 142 6
Casa CN-235 Spain transport CN-235M 1+3 on order
Cessna C-208 Caravan  United States transport 2
Ilyushin IL-76  Russia transport 3
Sud Aviation Alouette-3  France utility SA-316B 2
RQ-11 Raven  United States Mini-UAV 4

Yemen has probably more than six hundred SAM vehicles. The new TOR-M1 and the Tunguska M1 systems which were ordered and tested in 2007 have been proven to be very effective due to the fact they can destroy bombs and missiles from a close range.

Navy[edit]

Yemen's navy was created in 1990 when North and South Yemen united.

Yemen early on had problems with trying to keep drugs from entering Yemen by sea. In 2006, Yemen purchased ten patrol boats based on the Australian Bay class, which were very effective at stopping smugglers from entering Yemen.

In the Hanish Islands conflict, Yemen prepared its navy for an assault on the Hanish islands and on Eritrea. Eritrea accidentally destroyed a Russian ship thinking it was a Yemeni ship. The invasion however never happened since Eritrea made agreements with Yemen which involved Eritrea taking over the islands. Yemen however, later took over Zukur-Hanish archipelago island which created further tensions with the Eritrean government but it didn't lead to another war.

Yemen is currently on the look out for Somali pirates, due to Yemen's and Somalia's proximity. Yemen has greatly tightened its security after attacks on Yemeni ships.

Naval Equipment[edit]

(Number of equipment needs to be verified)

Corvette

Missile Boat

Patrol Craft

Utility Craft

Landing Ships

Minesweeper/hunter

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yemen was Bulgaria's Biggest Arms Export Partner in 2010 - UN, Novinite, 9 August 2011
  2. ^ http://www.nationmaster.com/country/ym-yemen/mil-military
  3. ^ "President Bush Signs Law on Child Soldiers". Human Rights Watch. 
  4. ^ United States State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices (2011)
  5. ^ Maj. Gen. Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar
  6. ^ ref name=ZiljibarRecapturedCNN>Almasmari, Hakim (10 September 2011). "Yemen army recaptures provincial capital of Abyan". CNN.com (CNN). Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  7. ^ http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jyZ9cWI4RVWL0UmxfVqKbzOjYV0A?docId=CNG.7912100a0c9c87a0954504c3fe144415.c81
  8. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/dissident-soldier-killed-clash-yemen-army-113255905.html
  9. ^ http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204422404576594413336931554.html?mod=googlenews_wsj.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  10. ^ Wikileaks/U.S. Department of State, 05SANAA2766.html, September 2005 (United States diplomatic cables leak)
  11. ^ "Interviews: Commander of Yemeni Coast Guard Forces Ali Ahmed Ras’ee". Yemen Post. 2009-02-09. Retrieved 2011-12-04. "The tasks of coastguard forces are stipulated in the establishment decree, and these tasks are varied. The coastguard forces have security and not military functions, including keeping order in Yemeni ports and launching patrols in Yemeni coasts and regional waters. Other tasks are limiting illegal immigration, protecting national waters against indiscriminate fishing, protecting environment against pollution, fighting piracy, rescue and search activities."  mirror

External links[edit]