Yeongeuijeong

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Yeongeuijeong
Joseon-Portrait of Cha Jegong-Geumgwanjobok.jpg
Portrait of Chae Jegong who served as Yeonguijeong during the King Jeongjo's reign.
Korean name
Hangul 영의정/ 영상/ 상상/ 수규/ 원보
Hanja / / / /
Revised Romanization yeong-uijeong[1]/ sangsang/ sugyu/ wonbo
McCune–Reischauer yŏng'ŭijŏng / sangsang/ sukyu / wonbo

Yeonguijeong (Korean pronunciation: [jʌŋ ɰi tɕʌŋ]) was a title created in 1400, during the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (1392-1910) and given to the Chief State Councillor[1][2] as the highest government position of "Uijeongbu" (State Council). Existing for over 500 years, its function can be compared to that of a present day "Prime Minister of South Korea".[3][4] Only one official at a time was appointed to the position and though was generally called Yeongsang, was also referred to as Sangsang, Sugyu or Wonbo. Although, the title of Yeonguijeong was defined as the highest post in charge of every state affairs by law, its practical functions changed drastically depending on the particular King and whether that King's power was strong or weak.[4]

The establishment[edit]

The Korean Joseon Dynasty inherited the state structure of its predecessor, the Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392), but soon began to reorganize the government. In 1400, the second year after King Jeongjong ascended to the throne, he renamed the Privy Council or Dopyeonguisasa,[5] the highest assigned post in charge of the state affairs of Goryeo, to "Uijeongbu" and let the post be called "yeonguijeong busa" (領議政府事). As both functions of Uijeongbu got stronger, and its system was further revised, Yeonguijeong busa was renamed to Yeonguijeong in a firm establishment of the office.[4]

In 1466, the position was officially put in statutory form as Gyeongguk daejeon (Complete Code of Law)[6] was complied.[7] The Yeongjuijeong title was generally conferred on a senior minister who had previously served as Jwauijeong (Second State Councillor[8][9]), a post immediately below that of Yeonguijeong, but higher than that of Uuijeong (Third State Councillor[10]). The three posts were collectively referred to as "Samjeongseung" (Three top officials[11]) or "Samuijeong" (Three High Councilors).[4]

List of the Chief State Councilors of Joseon[edit]

Reign King Hangul Chief State Councilor # Hangul life KO source
1 1392–1398 Taejo 태조
1 1392/07/17 Jeong Dojeon 정도전 x kp
2 1398–1400 Jeongjong 정종
1
3 1400–1418 Taejong 태종
1 1401/07/13 Yi Seo 이서 x kp
2 1402/10/04 Seong Seokrin 성석린 x kp
3 1403/07/16 Jo Jun 조준 x kp
4 1405/07/03 Seong Seokrin 2 성석린 kp
5 1406/12/04 Yi Seo 2 이서 kp
6 1407/07/04 Uian Daegun (Yi Wa) 의안대군 (이화) x kp
7 1408/01/03 Uian Daegun (???) 의안대군 … 사면 kp
8 1408/05/27 Ha Ryun 하륜 x kp
9 1409/08/10 Yi Seo 3 이서 kp
10 1408/10/11 Ha Ryun 2 하륜 kp
11 1412/08/21 Seong Seokrin 3 성석린 kp
12 1414/04/17 Ha Ryun 3 하륜 kp
13 1415/10/28 Seong Seokrin 4 성석린 kp
14 1416/05/25 Nam Jae 남재 x kp
15 1416/11/02 Yu Jeonghyeon 유정현 x kp
16 1418/06/05 Han Sanggyeong 한상경 x kp
4 1418–1450 Sejong 세종
1 1418/09/03 Sim On 심온 x kp
2 1418/12/07 Yu Jeonghyeon 2 유정현 x kp
3 1424/09/07 Yi Jig 이직 x kp
4 1431/09/07 Hwang Hui 황희 x kp
5 1449/10/05 Ha Yeon 하연 kp
5 1450–1452 Munjong 문종
1 1451/10/27 Hwangbo In 황보인 x kp
6 1452–1455 Danjong 단종
1 1453/10/11 Suyangdaegun (K-Sejo) 수양대군 (이유) x kp
7 1455–1468 Sejo 세조
1 1455/06/11 Jeong Inji 정인지 x kp
2 1458/12/07 Jeong Changson 정창손 x kp
3 1459/11/05 Gang Maenggyeong 강맹경 x kp
4 1461/04/29 Jeong Changson 2 정창손 kp
5 1461/05/20 Sin Sukju 신숙주 x kp
6 1466/04/18 Gu Chigwan 구치관 kp
7 1466/10/19 Han Myeonghoe 한명회 x kp
8 1467/04/06 Hwang Susin 황수신 kp
9 1467/05/20 Sim Hoe 심회 x kp
10 1467/12/12 Jo Seokmun 조석문 kp
11 1468/07/17 Guseonggun 구성군 (이준) x kp
8 1468–1469 Yejong 예종
1 1468/12/20 Bak Wonhyeong 박원형 kp
2 1469/01/23 Han Myeonghoe 2 한명회 x kp
3 1469/08/22 Hong Yunseong 홍윤성 x kp
9 1469–1494 Seongjong 성종
1 1470/04/06 Yun Jaun 윤자운 kp
2 1471/10/23 Sin Sukju 2 신숙주 x kp
3 1475/07/01 Jeong Changson 3 정창손 x kp
4 1485/03/28 Yun Pilsang 윤필상 x kp
5 1493/11/06 Yi Geugbae 이극배 kp
10 1494–1506 Yeonsangun 연산군
1 1495/03/20 No Sasin 노사신 x kp
2 1495/10/04 Sin Seungseon 신승선 kp
3 1500/04/11 Han Chihyeong 한치형 kp
4 1503/01/04 Seong Jun 성준 x kp
5 1504/04/04 Yu Sun 유순 kp
11 1506–1544 Jungjong 중종
1 1509/09/27 Bak Wonjong 박원종 x kp
2 1510/03/06 Kim Sudong 김수동 kp
3 1512/10/07 Yu Sunjeong 유순정 x kp
4 1513/04/02 Seong Huian 성희안 x kp
5 1513/10/27 Song Il 송일 kp
6 1514/10/01 Yu Sun 2 유순 kp
7 1516/04/09 Jeong Gwangpil 정광필 kp
8 1520/02/14 Kim Jeon 김전 x kp
9 1523/04/18 Nam Gon 남곤 x kp
10 1527/10/21 Jeong Gwangpil 2 정광필 kp
11 Nam Gon 2 남곤 x kp
12 1533/05/28 Jang Sunson 장순손 kp
13 1534/11/20 Han Hyowon 한효원 kp
14 1535/03/26 Kim Geunsa 김근사 kp
15 1537/11/02 Yun Eunbo 윤은보 kp
12 1544–1545 Injong 인종
1 1545/01/13 Hong Eonpil 홍언필 x kp
2 1545/01/06 Yun Ingyeong 윤인경 kp
13 1545–1567 Myeongjong 명종
1 1548/05/17 Hong Eonpil 2 홍언필 x kp
2 1549/05/21 Yi Gi 이기 x kp
3 1551/08/23 Sim Yeonwon 심연원 x kp
4 1558/05/29 San Gjin 상진 kp
5 1563/01/17 Yun Wonhyeong 윤원형 x kp
6 1565/08/15 Yi Jungyeong 이준경 x kp
14 1567–1608 Seonjo 선조
1 1573/03/22 Gwon Cheol 권철 kp
2 1574/04/11 Hong Seom 홍섬 kp
3 1576/08/18 Gwon Cheol 2 권철 kp
4 1580/05/25 Bak Sun 박순 x kp
5 1588/05/11 No Sunsin 노수신 x kp
6 Choe Heungwon 최흥원 kp
7 Yi Wonik 이원익 x kp
8 Yu Seongryong 유성룡 x kp
9 Yun Dusu 윤두수 x kp
10 Yi Sanhae 이산해 x kp
11 Yi Hangbok 이항복 x kp
12 Yun Seunghun 윤승훈 kp
13 Yu Yeonggyeong 유영경 kp
15 1608–1623 Gwanghaegun 광해군
1 1608 Yi Wonik 2 이원익 x kp
2 Yi Deokhyeong 이덕형 x kp
3 Gi Jaheon 기자헌 x kp
4 Jeong Inhong 정인홍 x kp
5 Bak Seungjong 박승종 x kp
16 1623–1649 Injo 인조
1 1623 Yi Wonik 3 이원익 x kp
2 Sin Heum 신흠 x kp
3 Oh Yungyeom 오윤겸 kp
4 Yun Bang 윤방 x kp
5 Sim Ryu 김류 x kp
6 Yi Hongju 이홍주 kp
7 Choe Myeonggil 최명길 x kp
8 Yi Seonggu 이성구 kp
9 Hong Seobong 홍서봉 kp
10 Sim Yeol 심열 kp
11 Kim Jajeom 김자점 x kp
17 1649–1659 Hyojong 효종
1 Kim Jajeom 2 김자점 x kp
2 Yi Gyeongseok 이경석 x kp
3 Kim Yuk 김육 x kp
4 Yi Sibaek 이시백 x kp
5 Sim Jiwon 심지원 x kp
6 Jeong Taehwa 정태화 kp
18 1659–1674 Hyeonjong 현종
1 Jeong Taehwa 2 정태화 kp
2 Hong Myeongha 홍명하 kp
3 Kim Suheung 김수흥 x kp
4 Heo Jeok 허적 x kp
19 1674–1720 Sukjong 숙종
1 Heo Jeok 2 허적 x kp
2 Kim Seokju 김석주 x kp
3 Kim Suhang 김수항 x kp
4 Gwon Daeun 권대운 kp
5 Nam Guman 남구만 x kp
6 1696–1699 Yu Sangun 유상운 kp,ws
7 1700–1701 Seo Munjung 서문중 kp,ws
8 1701 Choe Seokjeong 최석정 x kp,ws
9 1702 Seo Munjung 2 서문중 kp,ws
10 1702–1703 Choe Seokjeong 2 최석정 x kp,ws
11 1703–1705 Sin Wan 신완 kp,ws
12 1705–1710 Choe Seokjeong 3 최석정 x kp,ws
13 1710 Yi Yeo 이여 x kp,ws
14 1711–1712 Seo Jongtae 서종태 kp,ws
15 1712–1713 Yi Yu 이유 x kp,ws
16 1714–1716 Seo Jongtae 2 서종태 kp,ws
17 1717–1720 Kim Changjip 2 김창집 x kp,ws
20 1720–1724 Gyeongjong 경종
1 1720–1721 Kim Changjip 2 김창집 x kp,ws
2 1721–1723 Jo Taegu 조태구 kp,ws
3 1723–1724 Choe Gyuseo 최규서 kp,ws
21 1724–1776 Yeongjo 영조
1 1724-2729 Yi Gwangjwa 이광좌 kp,ws
2 1729–1732 Hong Chijung 홍치중 kp,ws
3 1732–1735 Sim Suyeon 심수현 kp,ws
4 1735–1737 Yi UiHyeon ws
5 1737–1740 Yi Gwangjwa 2 이광좌 kp,ws
6 1740–1754 Kim Jaero 김재로 x ws
7 1754–1758 Yi Cheonbo 이천보 kp,ws
8 1758–1759 Yu Cheokgi 유척기 x ws
9 1759 Yi Cheonbo 2 이천보 kp,ws
10 1759–1760 Kim Sangro 김상로 kp,ws
11 1761–1762 Hong Bonghan 홍봉한 kp,ws
12 1762–1763 Sim Man 신 만 kp,ws
13 1763–1766 Hong Bonghan 2 홍봉한 kp,ws
14 1766–1767 Seo Jisu ws
15 1767–1768 Kim Chiin 김치인 kp,ws
16 1768 Seo Jisu 2 ws
17 1768 Kim Chiin 2 김치인 kp,ws
18 1768–1770 Hong Bonghan 3 홍봉한 kp,ws
19 1770–1772 Kim Chiin 3 김치인 kp,ws
20 1772 Kim Sangbok 김상복 kp,ws
21 1772 Sin Hoe 신회 kp,ws
22 1772 Kim Sangbok 2 김상복 kp,ws
23 1772 Han Ikmo 한익모 kp,ws
24 1772 Kim Sangbok 3 김상복 kp,ws
25 1772–1773 Sin Hoe 2 신회 kp,ws
26 1773 Han Ikmo 2 한익모 kp,ws
27 1773–1774 Kim Sangbok 4 김상복 kp,ws
28 1774 Han Ikmo 3 한익모 kp,ws
29 1774–1775 Sin Hoe 3 신회 kp,ws
30 1775 Han Ikmo 4 한익모 kp,ws
31 1775–1776 Kim Sangcheol 김상철 kp,ws
? 1731 Kim Heunggyeong 김흥경 (조선) x kp
? Sin Im 신임 x kp
? Jeong Ho 정호 Err kp
22 1776–1800 Jeongjo 정조
1 1776–1779 Kim Yangtaek ws
2 1779–1780 Seo Myeongseon 서명선 kp,ws
3 1780–1781 Kim Yangtaek 2 ws
4 1781–1783 Seo Myeongseon 2 서명선 kp,ws
5 1783–1784 Jeong Jongyeom 정존겸 kp,ws
6 1784–1785 Seo Myeongseon 3 서명선 kp,ws
7 1785–1786 Jeong Jongyeom 정존겸 kp,ws
8 1786–1789 Kim Chiin 2 김치인 kp,ws
9 1789 Kim Ik 김익 kp,ws
10 1789–1790 Yi Jaehyeop 이재협 kp,ws
11 1790 Kim Ik 2 김익 kp,ws
12 1790–1793 Choe Hyowon ws
13 1793 Chae Jegong 채제공 x kp,ws
14 1793–1798 Hong Nakseong 홍낙성 x kp,ws
15 1799–1800 Yi Byeongmo 이병모 kp,ws
? Kim Jongsu 김종수 b1728 x kp
23 1800–1834 Sunjo 순조
1 1800–1802 Sim Hwanji 심환지 x kp,ws
2 1802–1803 Yi Sisu ws
3 1803–1805 Yi Byeongmo 이병모 kp,ws
4 1805–1806 Seo Maesu ws
5 1806 Yi Byeongmo 2 이병모 kp,ws
6 1806–1812 vacant ws
7 1812–1816 Kim Jaechan 김재찬 x ws
8 1816–1819 vacant ws
9 1819–1821 Seo Yongbo ws
10 1821 Han Yonggwi ws
11 1821–1823 Kim Jaechan 2 김재찬 x ws
12 1823–1833 Nam Gongcheol 남공철 kp,ws
13 1833–1834 Yi Sanghwang 이상황 b1763 kp,ws
24 1834–1849 Heonjong 헌종
1 1834–1835 Sim Sanggyu 심상규 b1766 kp,ws
2 1835–1837 vacant ws
3 1837–1838 Yi Sanghwang 2 이상황 b1763 kp,ws
4 1838–1841 vacant ws
5 1841–1844 Jo Inyoung 조인영 x kp,ws
6 1845–1848 Gwon Donin 권돈인 b1783 kp,ws
7 1848–1849 Jeong Wonyong 정원용 x kp,ws
25 1849–1863 Cheoljong 철종
1 1849–1850 Jeong Wonyong 정원용 x kp,ws
2 1850 Jo Inyoung 2 조인영 x kp,ws
3 1851–1852 Gwon Donin 2 권돈인 b1783 kp,ws
4 1853 Kim Heunggeun 김흥근 x ws
5 1853–1859 Kim Jwageun 김좌근 x kp,ws
6 1859–1861 Jeong Wonyong 2 정원용 x kp,ws
7 1861–1862 Kim Jwageun 2 김좌근 x kp,ws
8 1862–1863 Jeong Wonyong 3 정원용 x kp,ws
26 1863–1897 Gojong 고종
1 1863–1864 Kim Jwageun 2 김좌근 x kp,ws
2 1864–1866 Jo Dusun ws
3 1866–1867 Yi Kyeongjae ws
4 1867–1868 Kim Byeonghak 김병학 x kp,ws
5 1868 Jeong Wonyong 4 정원용 x kp,ws
6 1868–1872 Kim Byeonghak 2 김병학 x kp,ws
7 1872–1873 Hong Sunmok 홍순목 x kp,ws
8 1873–1875 Yi Yuwon 이유원 b17814 kp,ws
9 1875–1882 Yi Choeeung 이최응/흥인군 1815–1882 x kp,ws
?? 1878 Min Gyuho ??? 민규호 1836–1878 x kp
10 1882 Seo Bangbo ws
11 1882–1884 Hong Sunmok 2 홍순목 x kp,ws
12 1884 Kim Byeongguk 김병국 1825–1905 ws
13 1884–1894 Sim Suntaek ws
14 1894 Kim Byeongsi 김병시 1832–1898 x ws
15 1894–1895 Kim Hongjip 김홍집 b1842 x kp,ws
16 1895 Bak Jeongyang 박정양 1841–1904 ws
17 1895-1896/02/11 Kim Hongjip 2 김홍집 b1842 x kp,ws
18 1896 Kim Byeongsi 2 김병시 1832–1898 x ws
19 1896–1898 Yun Yongseon ws

This table started as a translation of the Yeonguijeong[12] Korean page. The corresponding items are tagged "kp" in the "source column. Not a single reference were provided. For the 1st-14th reigns, an Gregorian installation date is given (the best possibility). In case of multiple occurrences e.g. Seong Seokrin during Taejong reign, this is acknowledged by a tag in the "#" column. For the 14th-26th reigns, only the names are given, so that chronological order is not enforced. For example Chae Jegong was cited once for the Jeongjo reign, but the corresponding Korean page lists 1776, 1790, 1793. A "x" in the KO column means the existence of a Korean Wiki page for a given statesman.

Additional material coming from the WorldStatesmen page [13] is tagged as "ws" in the source column. Here too, no references are given. When a cross-checking with the Korean page of a given statesman has been possible, hangul transcription and life dates are also provided.

List of the Chief State Councilors / Prime Ministers of the Korean Empire[edit]

Changes of Yeonguijeong's roles[edit]

Until April 1436, the 18th year of Sejong the Great's reign, Jwauijeong and Uuijeong concurrently served as Panijosa (判吏曹事) and Panbyeongjosa (判兵曹事) respectively, so that they governed personnel affairs of yangban (the literary and military nobility).

Yeonguijeong continued to exist as an honorary post, and so only managed to contemplate and adjust diplomatic documents or re-examine the cases of condemned people.

However, when Hwang Hui was appointed as "Yeonguijeong busa" in that same year, the king modified the government system to strengthen the power of Samjeongseung from the Yukjo (Six Ministries) centered system. With the reform, Sejong noted that a situation in which three highest senior advisors could not participate in the state affairs contravened the original intention to have them as the high state councillors.[4]

During the reform, Yukjo conferred with Uijeongbu regarding the responsibilities of each minister. Uijeongbu discussed legitimacy of the issues, and then reported to the king. After receiving an approval from the king, Uijeongbu returned to Yujo to enact the assigned affairs. As a result Yeonguijeong came to participate more actively in the representative work as the head of Uijeongbu. However, other ministerial duities, such as the rights of Ijo (吏曹; Ministry of Personnel[14]) and Byeongjo (兵曹, Ministry of Military Affairs[15]) to implement personnel management, Byeongjo's mobilization of soldiers, Hyeongjo (刑曹, Ministry of Punishments[16])'s right to handle all criminals other than condemned people, were still directly operated by the related ministers.[4]

When Prince Suyang usurped the place of his nephew, King Danjong, the function of Yeonguijeong was relegated to its previous powerless position. This was because when the King Sejo was still a prince, his actions were greatly restricted by his political rivals, Yeonguijeong, Hwangbo In (皇甫仁) and Jwauijeong, Kim Jong-seo (金宗瑞). So during the reigns of King Seongjong and Jungjong, there were several proposals to restore the former powers of Uijeongbu, but those suggestions were not implemented.[4]

Major affairs of the state were discussed when Bibyeonsa was established in 1558 (during the 10th year of King Myeongjong's reign). The three High Councillors attended meetings only as "Dojejo" (Supreme Commissioner[17][18]). So the power of Yeonguijeong tended to be increased or decreased, depending on the political atmosphere of the times, such as the degree of the king's power, the relationship between Uijeongbu and Yukjo, the establishment of Bibyeonsa (備邊司; Border Defense Command[19]), the later administration of Kyujanggak (the Royal Library), the conflicts between political parties, and the advancement of "in-law government" (勢道政治, Sedo jeongchi [20]), among others. Regardless, the title "Yeonguijeong" continued as the apex in the bureaucratic system throughout the entire Joseon period.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "영의정(領議政 ), yeong-uijeong" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  2. ^ Choi (2006), The Origin of the Roman Catholic Church in Korea p. 375
  3. ^ "영의정" (in Korean/English). Daum Korean-English Dictionary. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "영의정 (領議政)" (in Korean). Empas /EncyKorea. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  5. ^ "도평의사사 (都評議使司), Dopyeonguisasa" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  6. ^ "경국대전(經國大典), Gyeonggukdaejeon" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  7. ^ John B. Duncan (2000). The Origins of the Chosŏn Dynasty. University of Washington Press. p. 229. ISBN 0-295-97985-2. 
  8. ^ Choi (2006), The Origin of the Roman Catholic Church in Korea p. 372
  9. ^ "좌의정(左議政), Jwauijeong" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  10. ^ "우의정(右議政), uuijeong" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  11. ^ "정승(政丞), Jeongseung" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-29. 
  12. ^ "Yeonguijeong" (in Korean). Wikipedia. Retrieved 2011-07-14. 
  13. ^ "WorldStaesmen". Retrieved 2011-08-01. 
  14. ^ "이조(吏曹), Ijo" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  15. ^ "병조(兵曹), Byeong-jo" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  16. ^ "형조(刑曹), Hyeongjo" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  17. ^ James B. Palais (1996). Confucian Statecraft and Korean Institutions: Yu Hyŏngwŏn and the Late Chosŏn Dynasty. University of Washington Press. p. 1271. ISBN 0-295-97455-9. 
  18. ^ "도제조 (都提調)" (in Korean). Empas/EncyKorea. 
  19. ^ "비변사(備邊司), Bibyeonsa" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. 
  20. ^ "세도정치(勢道政治), sedo jeongchi" (in Korean/English). The Academy of Korean Studies. 

External links[edit]