Yery

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Cyrillic letter Yery
Cyrillic letter Yery - uppercase and lowercase.svg
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
А Б В Г Ґ Д
Ђ Ѓ Е Ѐ Ё Є
Ж З Ѕ И Ѝ І
Ї Й Ј К Л Љ
М Н Њ О П Р
С Т Ћ Ќ У Ў
Ф Х Ц Ч Џ Ш
Щ Ъ Ы Ь Э Ю
Я
Non-Slavic letters
Ӑ Ӓ Ә Ӛ Ӕ Ғ
Ҕ Ӻ Ӷ Ԁ Ԃ
Ӗ Ӂ Җ Ӝ Ԅ Ҙ
Ӟ Ԑ Ӡ Ԇ Ӣ Ҋ
Ӥ Қ Ӄ Ҡ Ҟ Ҝ
Ԟ Ԛ Ӆ Ԓ Ԡ Ԉ
Ԕ Ӎ Ӊ Ң Ӈ Ҥ
Ԣ Ԋ Ӧ Ө Ӫ Ҩ
Ԥ Ҧ Ҏ Ԗ Ҫ Ԍ
Ҭ Ԏ Ӯ Ӱ Ӳ Ү
Ұ Ҳ Ӽ Ӿ Һ Ԧ
Ҵ Ҷ Ӵ Ӌ Ҹ
Ҽ Ҿ Ӹ Ҍ Ӭ Ԙ
Ԝ Ӏ
Archaic letters
Ҁ Ѻ ОУ Ѡ Ѿ Ѣ
Ѥ Ѧ Ѫ Ѩ
Ѭ Ѯ Ѱ Ѳ Ѵ Ѷ

Yery or Yeru (Ы, ы, usually called "Ы" [ɨ] in modern Russian or "еры" yerý historically and in modern Church Slavonic) is a letter in the Cyrillic script. It represents the phoneme /i/ after non-palatalised (hard) consonants in the Belarusian and Russian alphabets. Because of phonological processes, the actual realization of /i/ after alveolar consonants (д, з, л, н, р, с, т, or ц) is retracted to a close central unrounded vowel [ɨ], or [ʷi] after the labials б, в, м, п. In the Rusyn language it represents a sound that is a bit harder than [ɨ] and close to the Romanian sound î. In some situations it may occur after palatalised consonants (e.g.: синьый "blue", which is never the case in Russian), and often follows к, г, ґ and х.

While vowel letters in the Cyrillic alphabet may be divided into iotated and non-iotated pairs (e.g. а and я, both represent /a/ and the latter denotes a preceding palatalised consonant), ы is more complicated; while it appears only after hard consonants, its phonetic value differs from и and there is some scholarly disagreement as to whether or not ы and и denote different phonemes.

Like many Cyrillic letters, originally the letter yery was formed from a ligature: —formed from Yer ъ and і (formerly written either dotless or with two dots) or Izhe (и, whose former letterform resembled н). In mediaeval manuscripts, it is almost without exception found as ъі or ъи. Once the letters ъ and ь subsequently lost their values as vowels in the Slavic languages, the current simplified form ы evolved.[clarification needed]

The letter Yery in several fonts

The letter is usually romanised into English and most other West European languages as y, e.g. Krylov (family name, Крылов), although y may be used for other purposes as well (such as in digraphs).[clarification needed] This spelling matches Polish, where Latin y represents the same sound; Russian ы is used to transliterate Polish y into Cyrillic (e.g. Maryla – Марыля).

Native Russian words do not begin with ы (except for the specific verb ыкать, “to say the ы-sound″), but many proper and common nouns of non-Russian origin (including some geographical names in Russia) that begin with this letter do exist, for example Ytyk-Kyuyol (Ытык-Кюёль), Ygyatta (Ыгыатта), a village and a river in Sakha (Yakutia) Republic respectively, or Eulji Mundeok (Ыльчи Мундок), a Korean military leader.

In the Ukrainian alphabet, the sound [ɨ] is denoted by и, and the letter ы is not used in Ukrainian. Ukrainian и usually is transcribed in Russian as ы.

The letter ы is also used in Cyrillic-based alphabets of several Turkic and Mongolic languages (see the list) where it denotes a darker vowel [ɯ]. Corresponding letter in Latin-based scripts is ı (dotless I).

Related letters and other similar characters[edit]

Computing codes[edit]

Character Ы ы
Unicode name CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YERU CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU CYRILLIC CAPITAL LETTER YERU
WITH BACK YER
CYRILLIC SMALL LETTER YERU
WITH BACK YER
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1067 U+042B 1099 U+044B 42576 U+A650 42577 U+A651
UTF-8 208 171 D0 AB 209 139 D1 8B 234 153 144 EA 99 90 234 153 145 EA 99 91
Numeric character reference Ы Ы ы ы Ꙑ Ꙑ ꙑ ꙑ
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 249 F9 217 D9
Code page 855 242 F2 241 F1
Code page 866 155 9B 235 EB
Windows-1251 219 DB 251 FB
ISO-8859-5 203 CB 235 EB
Macintosh Cyrillic 155 9B 251 FB

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  • The dictionary definition of Ы at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of ы at Wiktionary