Yesün Temür Khan, Emperor Taiding of Yuan
|Yesün Temür Khan
Emperor Taiding of Yuan
|Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty
Khagan of the Mongols
Emperor of China
|A modern portrait of Yesün Temür Khan (Emperor Taiding)|
|Reign||October 4, 1323 – August 15, 1328|
|Coronation||October 4, 1323|
|Predecessor||Gegeen Khan Shidebala|
|Mongolian: ᠶᠡᠰᠦᠨ ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠷ
Yesün Temür Khan
|Taiding (泰定) 1324–1328
Zhihe (致和) 1328
|Mother||Buyan Kelmish of the Khunggirat|
|Born||November 28, 1293|
|Died||August 15, 1328
Yesün Temür (Mongolian: Есөн Төмөр; Chinese temple name: Taidingdi; Chinese: 元泰定帝, November 28, 1293 – August 15, 1328) was a great-grandson of Kublai Khan to rule as Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty from 1323 to 1328. He is regarded as the 10th Khagan of the Mongols in Mongolia. In Chinese, Yesün Temür Khan who was very fond of the traditional ways of the Mongols is known as the Emperor Taiding (Chinese: 泰定帝) from his era's name. His name means "nine iron Khan" in the Mongolian language.
He was probably the emperor visited by the Franciscan monk Odoric, who left an excellent record of his travels.
Early life 
Yesün Temür was born in Mongolia in 1293 to Gammala, a son of Zhenjin, who was presumed heir to his father Kublai Khan. Gammala was appointed as Jinong (jinwang, 晉王) in 1292 after Zhenjin's death, but he lost the race for successor to his younger brother Temür. Khanship was assumed by Temür, Darmabala and their sons and grandson, so Gammala and his son Yesün Temür were out of the race. As Jinong, Gammala owned Mongolia north of the Gobi Desert and enshrined Genghis Khan in the Four Great Ordo. In 1302 Gammala died and Yesün Temür took over as Jinong.
During the reigns of Kulug Khan, Ayurbarwada and Gegeen Khan, Yesün Temür, who had a large fief and powerful army in Mongolia, became one of the princes most respected by the court and emerged as the undisputed leader of the princes in the steppe.
In 1323 when Shidebala Gegeen Khan (Emperor Yingzong) was assassinated by Grand Censor Tegshi and Esen Temur, the rebellious group welcomed Yesün Temür since he was mothered by Buyan Kelmish of the Khunggirad clan. According to the official history of the Yuan, Yesün Temür caused Tegshi's envoy Walus to be seized, and sent notice of the plot to Shidebala Khan; but the messengers arrived too late.
He was not merely the principal beneficiary of the conspiracy but was also very likely a participant in it. It is said that his administrator Dawlat Shah had established close contact with the conspirators. After receiving the imperial seal sent by the conspirators, he ascended to the throne on the bank of the Kherlen River in Mongolia in October 4, 1323. Esen Temur was made the grand councillar of the right, and Tegshi, the manager of the Bireau of Military Affairs.
But on having it represented to him that by this he would incur the suspicion of having been a party to the murders, he suddenly reversed his policy, and ordered Tegshi, Esen Temur and others to be put to death. Under the leadership of Chang Kuei, the late Khagan's officials sent a letter to Yesün Temür urging him to accept the throne and to punish the conspirators. He sent troops to Dadu and Shangdu, and executed rebellious officers before he entered Dadu because he feared to become a puppet of them. The five princes who had been involved were exiled to Yunnan, Hainan, and other distant places.
The Chinese officials repeatedly urged Yesün Temür to extend the purge to all former allies of Temuder and Tegshi and their families; but Yesün Temür Khan refused. He issued an amnesty decree and the confiscated properties of the executed conspirators were returned to their families.
|"The Empire is a family of which the Emperor is the father."|
|Yesün Temür Khan, c. 1324, The History of the Yuan|
As a ruler who had seized the throne by intrigue and violence, Yesün Temür tried to win the widest possible support. To seek support as Emperor of China from Chinese populance, he duly showed his respect for the Confucian tradition from the beginning of his reign. Nevertheless, Muslim and Mongol officials from the steppe (who came with him from Mongolia) constituted the majority of posts in the Yuan government during this period. Kumeijil and Tas Temur served as grand councillars of the right; Dawlat Shah served as the manager of the governmental affairs of the Central Secretariat (中書省), then as censor in chief, and finally as grand councillar of the left; and Andachu, the manager of the Bureau of Military Affairs.
In addition to Dawlat Shah, there were two Muslims, Ubaidullah and Bayanchar, who served as managers of governmental affairs in the Secretariat. In the Bureau of Military Affairs, Mahumud Shah and Hasan Khoja were its managers. In contrast with the Muslims, Chinese officials exerted little influence on the administration. The high point of the Mongol partner-merchants' operations came under Yesün Temür, whose administration exempted Christians and Muslims from any corvee payments and guaranteed huge payments promised by the Mongolian nobility in return for luxury goods (тансаг).
Yesün Temür Khan denounced the extravagance of the court in buying costly precious stones, imported by foreign merchants, and sold for ten times their value, while the poor were starving. In 1326, Ozbeg Khan of the Golden Horde sent cheetahs to Yesün Temür Khan who responded with grants of gold, silver, cash, and silks.
During his reign Yesün Temür Khan divided the empire into eighteen departments which were controlled by a board called "the Lords of the Provinces". It had formerly been divided into 12. Reports were presented on the condition of the Yuan provinces was also full of complaints of the Lamas who, armed with their golden seals, rode about the province making exaction and treating it over the people in a shameful way. They put up at private houses, drove out their masters, and debauched their wives, and did pretty much as they wished. The fear of offending the Mongols and the Lamas prevented him doing anything effectual at first. Finally, the Emperor forbade the Lamas to enter China. Besides Buddhism, Yesün Temür Khan neglected the ancient worship of the sky of the Mongols.
He left the empire's governance to his Muslim aide Dawlat Shah and Khatun Babukhan. He suddenly died in Shangdu in August 15, 1328. His son Ragibagh was installed by Dawlat Shah but was defeated by his rival Tugh Temür in three months.
|Ancestors of Yesün Temür Khan, Emperor Taiding of Yuan|
Yesün Temür Khan, Emperor Taiding of YuanBorn: 1293 Died: 1328
Gegeen Khan, Emperor Yingzong
|Emperor of the Yuan Dynasty
Ragibagh Khan, Emperor Tianshun
|Great Khan of the Mongol Empire
|Emperor of China
- B. Shirėndėv, Sh Luvsanvandan, A. Luvsandėndėv – Olon Ulsyn Mongolch Ėrdėmtniĭ III Ikh Khural, p.347
- Herbert Franke, Denis Twitchett, John King Fairbank-The Cambridge History of China: Alien regimes and border states, 907–1368, p.535
- Kao Weng te argued that he was born in 1276. But Yesün Temür is said to have been born in residence of the prince of Chin, Gammala who was appointed only in 1292. Moreover, Yesün Temür Khan referred Khayisan (b.1281) and Ayurbarwada (b.1286) as elder brothers.
- Henry Hoyle Howorth-History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century: Part 1 the Mongols proper and the Kalmuks, p.302
- Yu Chi-Tao yuan hsue ku lu, i8. p12a
- Yuan shi, 29. pp.641–648
- Shih-Shan Henry Tsai-Perpetual Happiness, p.153
- Henry Hoyle Howorth. History of the Mongols: From the 9th to the 19th Century (new edition). Cosimo, Inc.
- The Cambridge History of China, vol6, pg539
- Tu-Meng wu erh shih chi, 157. pp.26a
- C.P.Atwood-Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol Empire, p.430
- Thomas T. Allsen-The royal hunt in Eurasian history, p.256
- Henry Hoyle Howorth-History of the Mongols: From the 9th to the 19th Century, p.303