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- For the town in Armenia, see Ovuni.
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Cossacks in Russia
- Генеральный есаул (Generalny yesaul) - General Yesaul
- Походный есаул (Pokhodny yesaul) - Campaign Yesaul
- Войсковой есаул (Voiskovoy yesaul) - Army Yesaul
- Полковой есаул (Polkovoy yesaul) - Regimental Yesaul
- Артиллерийский есаул (Artilleriysky yesaul) - Artillery Yesaul
- Сотенный есаул (Sotenny yesaul) - Company Yesaul (commander of a sotnia)
- Станичный есаул (Stanichny yesaul) - Yesaul of a stanitsa
In Ukraine of 17th and 18th centuries osaul was a military and administrative official performing the duties of aide-de-camp. The head of state, hetman, would appoint up to two osauls known as a General Osaul. There also was a Regimental Osaul as well as Company Osaul, with each regular cossack regiment and company except artillery having two of each. Beside them there were osauls under special assignments one of them serving for General Obozny (quartermaster) who performed duties of a chief executive and was the second in importance after Hetman.
A senior officer of a Hetmanate cossack army who was a member of the general officer staff.
- supervising army's condition
- leading large detachments (wartime)
- managing muster rolls
- directing the army engineers
- commanding mercenary troops
- sometimes serving as an acting hetman
Other duties consisted of being a hetman's envoy, supervised matters of internal security, conducted annual regimental musters and inspections. Among the notorious osauls were Petro Doroshenko, Demian Mnohohrishny, Ivan Mazepa, and Ivan Skoropadsky.