Yevgenia Bosch

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Yevgenia Gotlieb Bosch
Евге́ния Богда́новна Бош
Eugenia Bosz.jpg
People's Secretary of Internal Affairs
In office
December 30, 1917 – March 1, 1918
Preceded by position introduced
Succeeded by Yuriy Kotsiubynsky
Chairman of the People's Secretariat (acting)
In office
December 30, 1917 – March 1, 1918
Preceded by position introduced
Succeeded by Mykola Skrypnyk
Personal details
Born (1879-08-23)August 23, 1879
Ochakiv, Russian Empire
Died January 5, 1925(1925-01-05) (aged 45)
Moscow, Soviet Union
Citizenship Russia, Soviet
Nationality German
Political party Russian Social Democratic Labour Party,
Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Ukraine
Spouse(s) Peter Bosch
Georgy Pyatakov
Children two daughters:
Olha Kotsyubynska
?
Alma mater Voznesensk Female Gymnasium (1903)

Yevgenia Bosch (Ukrainian: Євгенія Богданівна (Готлібівна) Бош; Russian: Евге́ния Богда́новна (Го́тлибовна) Бош) (Yevgenia Bogdanovna (Gotlibovna) Bosh) (August 23, 1879—January 5, 1925) was a Bolshevik activist, politician, and member of the Soviet government in Ukraine during the revolutionary period earlier in the 20th century.

Early years[edit]

Officially Bosch was born in Ochakiv, in the Kherson Governorate of the Russian Empire, but some records have another information - village of Adjigol, Odessa uyezd, Kherson Governorate[1] in a family of a German colonist, mechanic, and landowner Gotlieb Meisch and Bessarabian noblewoman Maria Krusser. Yevgenia Bosch was the fifth and the last born child in family. Soon after the death of Gotlieb Meisch, Maria Krusser married her husband's brother Theodore Meisch. For three years Yevgenia attended Voznesensk Female Gymnasium, after which due to her health conditions she worked for her stepfather as a secretary. Being stuck in parents household Yevgenia sought means to leave. Her older brother Oleksiy acquainted her with his friend Peter Bosch who was an owner of a local small wagon shop. At 16 Yevgenia married Bosch and later gives birth to two daughters.

First Party Years[edit]

In 1901, at 22, she became a member of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) and after the II Party Congress became a bolshevik. She tried to educate herself while raising her two daughters. In 1907 she divorced her husband and moved to Kiev where Bosch lived at vulytsia Velyka Pidvalna, 25 (today vulytsia Yaroslaviv Val). In Kiev she established contact with local bolshevik faction and together with her younger sister Elena Rozmirovich (future wife of Nikolai Krylenko, chekist) conducted underground revolutionary activities. In 1911 Bosch is the secretary of the Kiev Committee of the RSDLP(b) exchanging letter with Lenin and Krupskaya. In April 1912 she was arrested and imprisoned in one of the Yekaterinoslav's prisons. There her health worsened as she had inborn heart and lung disease. The Kiev Court Chamber convicted her to life-term exile in Siberia while she suffered from tuberculosis.

The fate was merciful to her nevertheless as she together with other convicted bolsheviks (Pyatakov) managed to escape from Kachuga volost, Upper-Lena uyezd, Irkutsk Governorate first to Vladivostok, and then with a short stint in Japan to the United States. Later Bosch moved to Switzerland where she took part in the Bern conference. There together with Georgy Pyatakov they established the so-called Bogie group (Bogie is a suburb of Lausanne) which included Nikolai Bukharin, G.Krylenko, and others and stood in opposition to Lenin, concerning the nationalities factor. Afterward for some time with Pyatakov she resided in Stockholm and Kristiania (Oslo). After the February Revolution at that time they returned to what then was the Russian Republic to organize an opposition to the Lenin's course. But after the April conference of the RSDLP Bosch changed to the Lenin's course. She was elected as the chairmen of a district (okrug) Party Committee and then an oblast Party Committee in the Southwestern Krai. Her reconciliation with Lenin costed her a married life.

In 1918, she was the chairwoman of Penza Gubernia Party Committee during the controversy that led to the issue of the nso-called Lenin's Hanging Order.

Later party years and suicide[edit]

Bosch joined the left opposition in 1923.[2] Due to heart disease, cardiac asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis she committed suicide in January 1925.

Aftermath[edit]

Yevgeniya Bosch Bridge that existed in Kiev from 1925 to 1941 was named after her. The bridge was constructed by Evgeny Paton on the base of the remnants of Nicholas Chain Bridge blown up by retreating Polish troops in 1920. A lot of other important objects in Ukraine and other places of the former USSR were given her name (most of them were renamed after 1991).

Her daughter Olha married Yuriy Kotsyubynsky and gave birth to Oleh Yuriyovych Kotsyubynsky.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Biography of Bosch
  2. ^ Revolutionary women: Yevgenia Bosch Fifth International Accessed 16 Feb 2009

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
office installed
People's Secretary of Internal Affairs
December 1917–April 1918
Succeeded by
office liquidated