Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
|Part of a series on|
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are 196 Indian sūtras (aphorisms) that constitute the foundational text of Ashtanga Yoga, also called Raja Yoga. In medieval times, Ashtanga Yoga was cast as one of the six orthodox āstika schools of Hindu philosophy.
- 1 Author and dating
- 2 Contents
- 3 Philosophical roots and influences
- 4 Commentaries
- 5 Influence
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Sources
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Author and dating
The Indian tradition attributes the work to Patañjali. Much confusion has been caused by the late medieval traditions of conflating Patañjali, the author of the grammatical Mahābhāṣya, with the author of the same name who wrote the Yoga Sūtras. Yet the two works in Sanskrit are completely different in language, style and subject matter. Furthermore, before the time of Bhoja (11th century), Sanskrit authors did not conflate the authors, and treated them quite separately. And modern scholarship shows that these two authors are separated in time by about six hundred years. A third Patañjali is sometimes also invented, an author on medicine, in order to fill out the meaning of Bhoja's verse that said a single Patañjali cured speech through grammar, the mind through yoga, and the body through medicine. However, no major work of medicine by a Patañjali is known to Sanskrit literature.[note 1]
The most recent assessment of Patañjali's date, developed in the context of the first critical edition ever made of the Yoga Sūtras and bhāṣya based on a study of the surviving original Sanskrit manuscripts of the work, is that of Philipp A. Maas. Maas's detailed evaluation of the historical evidence and past scholarship on the subject, including the opinions of the majority of Sanskrit authors who wrote in the first millennium CE, is that Patañjali's work was composed in 400 CE plus or minus 25 years.
The Yoga Sutras are a composite of various texts. They resemble the Buddhist jhanas.[note 2] According to Feuerstein, the Yoga Sutras are a condensation of two different traditions, namely "eight limb yoga" (ashtanga yoga) and action yoga (Karma yoga). The Karma yoga part is contained in chapter 1, chapter 2 verse 1-27, chapter 3 except verse 54, and chapter 4. The "eight limb yoga" is described in chapter 2 verse 28-55, and chapter 3 verse 3 and 54.
According to Maas, Patañjali's composition was entitled Pātañjalayogaśāstra ("The Treatise on Yoga according to Patañjali") and consisted of both Sūtras and Bhāṣya. According to Wujastyk, referencing Maas,
Patanjali took materials about yoga from older traditions, and added his own explanatory passages to create the unified work that, since 1100 CE, has been considered the work of two people.
According to Maas, this means that the earliest commentary on the Yoga Sūtras, the Bhāṣya, that has commonly been ascribed to some unknown later author Vyāsa (the editor), was in fact Patañjali's own work.
Structure of the text
- Samadhi Pada (51 sutras). Samadhi refers to a blissful state where the yogi is absorbed into the One. Samadhi is the main technique the yogin learns by which to dive into the depths of the mind to achieve Kaivalya. The author describes yoga and then the nature and the means to attaining samādhi. This chapter contains the famous definitional verse: "Yogaś citta-vritti-nirodhaḥ" ("Yoga is the restraint of mental modifications").
- Sadhana Pada (55 sutras). Sadhana is the Sanskrit word for "practice" or "discipline". Here the author outlines two forms of Yoga: Kriya Yoga (Action Yoga) and Ashtanga Yoga (Eightfold or Eightlimbed Yoga).
- Kriya Yoga is closely related to Karma Yoga, which is also expounded in Chapter 3 of the Bhagavad Gita, where Arjuna is encouraged by Krishna to act without attachment to the results or fruit of action and activity. It is the yoga of selfless action and service.
- Ashtanga Yoga describes the eight limbs that together constitute Rāja Yoga.
- Vibhuti Pada (56 sutras). Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation". 'Supra-normal powers' (Sanskrit: siddhi) are acquired by the practice of yoga. Combined simultaneous practice of Dhāraṇā, Dhyana and Samādhi is referred to as Samyama, and is considered a tool of achieving various perfections, or Siddhis. The temptation of these powers should be avoided and the attention should be fixed only on liberation. The purpose of using samadhi is not to gain siddhis but to achieve Kaivalya. Siddhis are but distractions from Kaivalaya and are to be discouraged. Siddhis are but maya, or illusion.
- Kaivalya Pada (34 sutras). Kaivalya literally means "isolation", but as used in the Sutras stands for emancipation, liberation and used interchangeably with moksha (liberation), which is the goal of yoga. The Kaivalya Pada describes the process of liberation and the reality of the transcendental ego.
The eight limbs of Yoga
Yoga consists of the following limbs as prescribed by Patanjali: The first five are called external aids to Yoga (bahiranga sadhana).
- Yama refers to the five abstentions: how we relate to the external world. (The five vows of Jainism are identical to these).
- Ahimsa: nonviolence, inflicting no injury or harm to others or even to one's own self, it goes as far as nonviolence in thought, word and deed.
- Satya: non-illusion; truth in word and thought.
- Asteya: non-covetousness, to the extent that one should not even desire something that is one's own; non-stealing.
- Brahmacharya: abstinence, particularly in the case of sexual activity. Also, responsible behavior with respect to our goal of moving toward the truth. It suggests that we should form relationships that foster our understanding of the highest truths. "Practicing brahmacharya means that we use our sexual energy to regenerate our connection to our spiritual self. It also means that we don’t use this energy in any way that might harm others."
- Aparigraha: non-possessiveness; non-hoarding
- Niyama refers to the five observances: how we relate to ourselves, the inner world.
- Shaucha: cleanliness of body and mind.
- Santosha: satisfaction; satisfied with what one has.
- Tapas: austerity and associated observances for body discipline and thereby mental control.
- Svādhyāya: study of the Vedic scriptures to know about God and the soul, which leads to introspection on a greater awakening to the soul and God within,
- Ishvarapranidhana: dedicating all of one's efforts to God or surrender to God.
- Asana: Discipline of the body: rules and postures to keep it disease-free and for preserving vital energy. Correct postures are a physical aid to meditation, for they control the limbs and nervous system and prevent them from producing disturbances.
- Pranayama: control of life force energies. Beneficial to health, steadies the body and is highly conducive to the concentration of the mind.
- Pratyahara: withdrawal of senses from their external objects.
The last three levels are called internal aids to Yoga (antaranga sadhana)
- Dharana: concentration of the Chitta upon a physical object, such as a flame of a lamp, the midpoint of the eyebrows, or the image of a deity.
- Dhyana: steadfast meditation. Undisturbed flow of thought around the object of meditation (pratyayaikatanata). The act of meditation and the object of meditation remain distinct and separate.
- Samadhi: oneness with the object of meditation. There is no distinction between act of meditation and the object of meditation. Samadhi is of two kinds,[web 1] with and without support of an object of meditation:[web 2]
- Samprajnata Samadhi, also called savikalpa samadhi and Sabija Samadhi,[web 3][note 3] meditation with support of an object.[web 2][note 4]
Samprajata samadhi is associated with deliberation, reflection, bliss, and I-am-ness.[note 5] The first two, deliberation and reflection, form the basis of the various types of samapatti:
- Savitarka, "deliberative":[note 6] The citta is concentrated upon a gross object of meditation,[web 2] an object with a manifest appearance that is perceptible to our senses, such as a flame of a lamp, the tip of the nose, or the image of a deity. Conceptualization (vikalpa) still takes place, in the form of perception, the word and the knowledge of the object of meditation. When the deliberation is ended this is called nirvitaka samadhi.[note 7]
- Savichara, "reflective": the citta is concentrated upon a subtle object of meditation,[web 2] which is not percpetible to the senses, but arrived at through interference, such as the senses, the process of cognition, the mind, the I-am-ness,[note 8] the chakras, the inner-breath (prana), the nadis, the intellect (buddhi). The stilling of reflection is called nirvichara samapatti.[note 9]
- Asamprajnata Samadhi, also called Nirvikalpa Samadhi[web 1] and Nirbija Samadhi:[web 1][note 11] meditation without an object,[web 2] which leads to knowledge of purusha or consciousness, the subtlest element.[note 12]
Ananda and asmita
According to Ian Whicher, the status of sananda and sasmita in Patanjali's system is a matter of dispute. According to Maehle, the first two constituents, deliberation and reflection, form the basis of the various types of samapatti. According to Feuerstein,
"Joy" and "I-am-ness" [...] must be regarded as accompanying phenomena of every cognitive [ecstasy]. The explanations of the classical commentators on this point appear to be foreign to Patanjali's hierarchy of [ecstatic] states, and it seems unlikely that ananda and asmita should constitute independent levels of samadhi.
Ian Whicher disagrees with Feuerstein, seeing ananda and asmita as later stages of nirvicara-samapatti. Whicher refers to Vācaspati Miśra (900-980 CE), the founder of the Bhāmatī Advaita Vedanta who proposes eight types of samapatti:
- Savitarka-samāpatti and Nirvitarka-samāpatti, both with gross objects as objects of support;
- Savicāra-samāpatti and Nirvicāra-samāpatti, both with subtle objects as objects of support;
- Sānanda-samāpatti and Nirānanda-samāpatti, both with the sense organs as objects of support
- Sāsmitā-samāpatti and Nirasmitā-samāpatti, both with the sense of "I-am-ness" as support.
Vijnana Bikshu (ca. 1550-1600) proposes a six-stage model, explicitly rejecting Vacaspati Misra's model. Vijnana Bikshu regards joy (ananda) as a state that arises when the mind passes beyond the vicara stage. Whicher agrees that ananda is not a separate stage of smadhi. According to Whicher, Patanjali's own view seems to be that nirvicara-samadhi is the highest form of cognitive ecstasy.
Philosophical roots and influences
The Yoga Sutras incorporated the teachings of many other Indian philosophical systems prevalent at the time. Samkhya and Yoga are thought to be two of the many schools of philosophy that originated over the centuries that had common roots in the non-Vedic cultures and traditions of India.[note 13][note 14] The orthodox Hindu philosophies of Samkhya, Yoga, Vedanta, as well as the non-orthodox Nastika systems of Jainism and Buddhism can all be seen as representing one stream of spiritual activity in ancient India, in contrast to the Bhakti traditions and Vedic ritualism which were also prevalent at the same time. The Vedanta-Sramana traditions, Idol worship and Vedic rituals can be identified with the Jnana marga, Bhakti marga and the Karma marga respectively that are outlined in the Bhagavad Gita.
The Yoga Sutras are built on a foundation of Samkhya philosophy, an orthodox (Astika) and atheistic Hindu system of dualism, and are generally seen as the practice while Samkhya is the theory. The influence of Samkhya is so pervasive in the Sutras that the historian Surendranath Dasgupta went so far as to deny independent categorization to Patañjali's system, preferring to refer to it as Patanjala Samkhya, similar to the position taken by the Jain writer Haribhadra in his commentary on Yoga. Patañjali's Yoga Sutras accept the Samkhya's division of the world and phenomena into twenty-five tattvas or principles, of which one is Purusha meaning Self or consciousness, the others being Prakriti (primal nature), Buddhi (intellect or will), Ahamkara (ego), Manas (mind), five buddhindriyas (sensory capabilities), five karmendriyas (action-capabilities) and ten elements. The second part of the Sutras, the Sadhana, also summarizes the Samkhya perspectives about all seen activity lying within the realm of the three Gunas of Sattva (illumination), Rajas (passion) and Tamas (lethargy).
The Yoga Sutras diverge from early Samkhya by the addition of the principle of Isvara or God, as exemplified by Sutra 1.23 - "Iśvara pranidhãnãt vã", which is interpreted to mean that surrender to God is one way to liberation. Isvara is defined here as "a distinct Consciousness, untouched by afflictions, actions, fruitions or their residue". In the sutras, it is suggested that devotion to Isvara, represented by the mystical syllable Om may be the most efficient method of achieving the goal of Yoga. This syllable Om is a central element of Hinduism, appearing in all the Upanishads, including the earliest Chandogya and Brihadaranyaka Upanishads, and expounded upon in the Mandukya Upanishad.
Another divergence from Samkhya is that while the Samkhya holds that knowledge is the means to liberation, Patañjali's Yoga insists on the methods of concentration and active striving. The aim of Yoga is to free the individual from the clutches of matter, and considers intellectual knowledge alone to be inadequate for the purpose – which is different from the position taken by Samkhya.
However, the essential similarities between the Samkhya and Patañjali's system remained even after the addition of the Isvara principle,[note 15] with Max Müller noting that "the two philosophies were in popular parlance distinguished from each other as Samkhya with and Samkhya without a Lord...." The Bhagavad Gita, one of the chief scriptures of Hinduism, is considered to be based on this synthetic Samkhya-Yoga system.
Vyasa's Yogabhashya, the commentary to the Yogasutras, and Vacaspati Misra's subcommentary state directly that the samadhi techniques are directly borrowed from the Buddhists' Jhana, with the addition of the mystical and divine interpretations of mental absorption. According to David Gordon White, the language of the Yoga Sutras is often closer to "Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit, the Sanskrit of the early Mahayana Buddhist scriptures, than to the classical Sanskrit of other Hindu scriptures.
According to Karel Werner,
Patanjali's system is unthinkable without Buddhism. As far as its terminology goes there is much in the Yoga Sutras that reminds us of Buddhist formulations from the Pāli Canon and even more so from the Sarvāstivāda Abhidharma and from Sautrāntika."
Robert Thurman writes that Patañjali was influenced by the success of the Buddhist monastic system to formulate his own matrix for the version of thought he considered orthodox. However, it is also to be noted that the Yoga Sutra, especially the fourth segment of Kaivalya Pada, contains several polemical verses critical of Buddhism, particularly the Vijñānavāda school of Vasubandhu.
The five yamas or the constraints of the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali bear an uncanny resemblance to the five major vows of Jainism, indicating influence of Jainism. Three other teachings closely associated with Jainism also make an appearance in Yoga: the doctrine of "colors" in karma (lesya); the Telos of isolation (kevala in Jainism and Kaivalyam in Yoga); and the practice of nonviolence (ahimsa), though nonviolence (ahimsa) made its first appearance in Indian philosophy-cum-religion in the Hindu texts known as the Upanishads [the Chāndogya Upaniṣad, dated to the 8th or 7th century BCE, one of the oldest Upanishads, has the earliest evidence for the use of the word Ahimsa in the sense familiar in Hinduism (a code of conduct). It bars violence against "all creatures" (sarvabhuta) and the practitioner of Ahimsa is said to escape from the cycle of metempsychosis/reincarnation (CU 8.15.1). It also names Ahinsa as one of five essential virtues].
Many commentaries have been written on the Yoga Sutras.[note 16]
The Yogabhashya is a commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patañjali which has traditionally been attributed in the discourse of the tradition to Vyasa. But according to Philipp A. Maas, Patañjali's composition was entitled Pātañjalayogaśāstra ("The Treatise on Yoga according to Patañjali") and consisted of both Sūtras and Bhāṣya. which means that the Bhāṣya was in fact Patañjali's own work. These research findings change the historical understanding of the yoga tradition, since they allow us to take the Bhāṣya as Patañjali's very own explanation of the meaning of his somewhat cryptic sūtras.[note 17]
The Yogabhashya states that 'yoga' in the Yoga Sutras has the meaning of 'samadhi'. Shankara in his commentary, the Vivarana, confirms the interpretation of yogah samadhih (YBh. I.1): 'yoga' in Patañjali's sutra has the meaning of 'rest'. The interpretation of the word 'yoga' as union is the result of later, external influences that include the bhakti movement, Vedanta and Kashmiri Sivaism. But "Svaroopa-pratishthaa" (last sutra of last chapter in Patañjali's Yoga-Sutra), i.e., "resting in one's real identity" is the ultimate goal of Yoga, and it can also be expressed as "union with one's real identity, after putting to rest all movements in the mind", because 'Yoga' literally means 'Union'.
Ganganath Jha (1907) rendered a version of the Yoga Sutras with the Yogabhashya attributed to Vyasa into English in its entirety. This version of Jha's also include notes drawn from Vācaspati Miśra's Tattvavaiśāradī amongst other important texts in the Yoga commentarial tradition. Even though Vyasa is credited with the Yogabhashya, many hold its authorship to Vyasa impossible, particularly if Vyasa's immortality is not considered.
Countless commentaries on the Yoga Sutras are available today. The Sutras, with commentaries, have been published by a number of successful teachers of Yoga, as well as by academicians seeking to clarify issues of textual variation. There are also other versions from a variety of sources available on the Internet.[note 18] The many versions display a wide variation, particularly in translation. The text has not been submitted in its entirety to any rigorous textual analysis, and the contextual meaning of many of the Sanskrit words and phrases remains a matter of some dispute. Some modern transaltions and interpretations are:
- Raja Yoga - a book by Swami Vivekananda which provides translation and an in-depth explanation of Yoga Sutra.
- Shri Shailendra Sharma, relying on his own experience as a practitioner of Karma yoga, translated the Sutras into Hindi and included a commentary on them.
- Sri Sri Ravi Shankar, taught a course in December 1994 on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the substance of which was published as a new commentary.
Patañjali was not the first to write about yoga. Much about yoga is written in the Mokṣadharma section of the epic Mahābhārata. The members of the Jaina faith had their own, different literature on yoga, and Buddhist' yoga stems from pre-Patanjali sources.
Some of the major commentaries on the Yoga Sutras were written between the ninth and sixteenth century. After the twelfth century, the school started to decline, and commentaries on Patanjali's Yoga philosophy were few. By the sixteenth century Patanjali's Yoga philosophy had virtually become extinct. The manuscript of the Yoga Sutras was no longer copied, since few read the text, and it was seldom taught.
Popular interest arose in the 19th century, when the practice of yoga according to the Yoga Sutras became regarded as the science of yoga and the "supreme contemplative path to selfrealization" by Vivekananda, following Helena Blavatsky, president of the Theosophical Society.
According to David Gordon White, the Yoga Sutras popularity is of a very recent date. They were
[v]irtually forgotten in India for hundreds of years and maligned when it was first discovered in the West, the Yoga Sutra has been elevated to its present iconic status--and translated into more than forty languages--only in the course of the past forty years.
It was only with the rediscovery by a British Orientalist in the early 1800s that wider interest in the Yoga Sutras in the West arose.
Christian and Islamic response
There has recently been considerable debate in non-dharmic contexts regarding the philosophical debt that Yoga owes to the Hindu civilizational milieu that it arose in. Controversy has arisen from the claims by Christian and Muslim religious leaders that the practice of Yoga violates the core tenets of Christianity and Islam owing to its unmistakably Hindu content. This was attempted to be overcome by promoting Yoga as divorced from Hindu spirituality, which in turn led to protests from Hindu and Indian groups.
- Radhakrishnan and Moore attribute the text to the grammarian Patañjali, dating it as 2nd century BCE, during the Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE): see Radhakrishnan and Moore, p. 453. Scholars such as S.N. Dasgupta, (Yoga-As Philosophy and Religion Port Washington: Kennikat Press, 1924) claim this is the same Patañjali who authored the Mahabhasya, a treatise on Sanskrit grammar. For an argument about the philosophical nature of Sanskrit grammarian thought see: Lata, Bidyut (editor); Panini to Patañjali: A Grammatical March. New Delhi, 2004. Against these older views, Axel Michaels disagrees that the work was written by Patañjali, characterizing it instead as a collection of fragments and traditions of texts stemming from the 2nd or 3rd century: see Michaels, p. 267.
- See also theravadin.wordpress.com (2010), The Yoga Sutra: a handbook on Buddhist meditation?, and Eddie Crangle (1984), Hindun and Buddhist techniques of Attaining Samadhi
- The seeds or samskaras are not destroyed.[web 3]
- According to Jianxin Li Samprajnata Samadhi may be compared to the rupa jhanas of Buddhism. This interpretation may conflict with Gombrich and Wynne, according to whom the first and second jhana represent concentration, whereas the third and fourth jhana combine concentration with mindfulness. According to Eddie Crangle, the first jhana resembles Patnajali's Samprajnata Samadhi, which both share the application of vitarka and vicara.
- Yoga Sutra 1.17: "Objective samadhi (samprajnata) is associated with deliberation, reflection, bliss, and I-am-ness (asmita).
- Yoga Sutra 1.42: "Deliberative (savitarka) samapatti is that samadhi in which words, objects, and knowledge are commingled through conceptualization."
- Yoga Sutra 1.43: "When memory is purified, the mind appears to be emptied of its own nature and only the object shines forth. This is superdeliberative (nirvitaka) samapatti."
- Following Yoga Sutra 1.17, meditation on the sense of "I-am-ness" is also grouped, in other descriptions, as "sasmita samapatti"
- Yoga Sutra 1.44: "In this way, reflective (savichara) and super-reflective (nirvichara) samapatti, which are based on subtle objects, are also explained."
- See also Pīti
- Without seeds or Samskaras[web 1] According to Swami Sivananda, "All the seeds or impressions are burnt by the fire of knowledge [...] all the Samskaras and Vasanas which bring on rebirths are totally fried up. All Vrittis or mental modifications that arise form the mind-lake come under restraint. The five afflictions, viz., Avidya (ignorance), Asmita (egoism), Raga-dvesha (love and hatred) and Abhinivesha (clinging to life) are destroyed and the bonds of Karma are annihilated [...] It gives Moksha (deliverance form the wheel of births and deaths). With the advent of the knowledge of the Self, ignorance vanishes. With the disappearance of the root-cause, viz., ignorance, egoism, etc., also disappear."[web 1]
- According to Jianxin Li, Asamprajnata Samadhi may be compared to the arupa jhanas of Buddhism, and to Nirodha-Samapatti. Crangle also notes that sabija-asamprajnata samadhi resembles the four formless jhanas. According to Crangle, the fourth arupa jhana is the stage of transition to Patanjali's "consciousness without seed".
- Zimmer: "[Jainism] does not derive from Brahman-Aryan sources, but reflects the cosmology and anthropology of a much older pre-Aryan upper class of northeastern India - being rooted in the same subsoil of archaic metaphysical speculation as Yoga, Sankhya, and Buddhism, the other non-Vedic Indian systems."
- Zimmer's point of view is supported by other scholars, such as Niniam Smart, in Doctrine and argument in Indian Philosophy, 1964, p.27-32 & p.76, and S.K. Belvakar & R.D. Ranade in History of Indian philosophy, 1974 (1927), p.81 & p.303-409. See Crangle 1994 page 5-7.
- Zimmer (1951), p. 280.These two are regarded in India as twins, the two aspects of a single discipline. Sāṅkhya provides a basic theoretical exposition of human nature, enumerating and defining its elements, analyzing their manner of co-operation in a state of bondage ("bandha"), and describing their state of disentanglement or separation in release ("mokṣa"), while Yoga treats specifically of the dynamics of the process for the disentanglement, and outlines practical techniques for the gaining of release, or "isolation-integration" ("kaivalya").
- For an overview of the scope of earlier commentaries: Complete Commentary by Sankara on the Yoga Sutras: Vivarana Sub-commentary to Vyasabhasya on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Tr.fr. Sanskrit, Trevor Leggett, Rev. Ed. Routledge (1990) ISBN 978-0-7103-0277-9.
- See James Woods, The yoga-system of Patañjali; or, The ancient Hindu doctrine of concentration of mind, embracing the mnemonic rules, called Yoga-sutras, of Patañjali, and the comment, called Yoga-bhashya (1914), archive.org for a complete translation
- A list of 22 Classical commentaries can be found among the listings of essential Yoga texts at mantra.org).Mantra.org.in, Fundamental Texts of Yoga
- Wujastyk 2011, p. 33.
- Feuerstein 1978, p. 108.
- Tola, Dragonetti & Prithipaul 1987, p. x.
- Wujastyk 2011, p. 32-33.
- Tola, Dragonetti & Prithipaul 1987, p. xi.
- Maas, Philipp A. (2006). Samādhipāda: das erste Kapitel des Pātañjalayogaśāstra zum ersten Mal kritisch ediert. Aachen: Shaker. ISBN 3832249877.
- Pradhan 2015, p. 151-152.
- Woods 2003.
- Iyengar 2012.
- Madhvacarya 2008.
- Radhakrishnan and Moore, p.454
- "The Eight Limbs of Yoga, A Basic Overview". Expressionsofspirit.com. Retrieved 2012-07-29.
- Jones & Ryan 2006, p. 377.
- Maehle 2007, p. 177.
- Whicher 1998, p. 254.
- Maehle 2007, p. 179.
- Maehle 2007, p. 178.
- Whicher 1998, p. 253.
- Whicher 1998, p. 253-254.
- Zimmer 1951, p. 217, 314.
- p222. A history of Indian philosophy, Volume 1 By Surendranath Dasgupta
- Indian Philosophy Vol 2, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan. p314
- p236. Classical Sāṃkhya: an interpretation of its history and meaning, By Gerald James Larson
- Reconciling yogas: Haribhadra's collection of views on yoga. By Christopher Chapple, Haribhadrasūri, John Thomas Casey p16
- Yoga sutras of Patañjali Sutra 1.23, from Light on the Yoga Sutras of Pantanjali by B.K.S Iyengar
- Reconciling yogas: Haribhadra's collection of views on yoga. By Christopher Chapple, Haribhadrasūri, John Thomas Casey. p15
- An outline of the religious literature of India. By John Nicol Farquhar. p. 132.
- Meditation on Om in the Mandukya Upanishad
- Müller (1899), Chapter 7, "Yoga Philosophy," p. 104.
- "Samkhya: Right Understanding – The Teachings of the Bhagavadgita – Chapter 3". Swami-krishnananda.org. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- "Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 6: Sankhya-yoga". Asitis.com. 1972-12-12. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- David, John (1914). The Yoga System of Patanjali with commentary Yogabhashya attributed to Veda Vyasa and Tattva Vaicharadi by Vacaspati Misra. Harvard University Press.
- White 2014, p. 10.
- Karel Werner, The Yogi and the Mystic. Routledge 1994, page 27.
- Robert Thurman, "The Central Philosophy of Tibet. Princeton University Press, 1984, page 34.
- An outline of the religious literature of India, By John Nicol Farquhar p.132
- Christopher Chapple (2008) Yoga and the Luminous: Patanjali's Spiritual Path to Freedom New York: SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7475-4 p. 110
- Zydenbos, Robert. Jainism Today and Its Future. München: Manya Verlag, (2006) p.66
- A History of Yoga By Vivian Worthington (1982) Routledge ISBN 978-0-7100-9258-8 p. 29
- Tähtinen pp. 2–5; English translation: Schmidt p. 631.
- Christopher Chapple (2008) Yoga and the Luminous: Patañjali's Spiritual Path to Freedom New York: SUNY Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-7475-4
- Sankaracarya; Patañjali; T. S. Rukmani; Vyasa. Yogasutrabhasyavivarana of Sankara: Vivarana Text with English Translation, and Critical Notes along with Text and English Translation of Patañjali's Yogasutras and Vyasabhasya. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers, 2001. ISBN 978-81-215-0908-4.
- Ganganatha Jha (translator) (1907). The Yoga Darśana: The Sutras of Patañjali with the Bhāṣya of Vyāsa. With notes from Vācaspati Miśra's Tattvavaiśāradī, Vijnana Bhiksu's Yogavartika and Bhoja's Rajamartanda. Rajaram Tukaram Tatya: Bombay Theosophical Publication Fund. Source:  (accessed: January 16, 2011)
- Christopher Key Chapple; Reading Patañjali without Vyasa: A Critique of Four Yoga Sutra Passages, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring, 1994), pp. 85-105.
- "English translation". Shailendrasharma.org. Retrieved 2013-03-16.
- "Patanjali Yoga Sutras | Patanjali Yoga | Commentary Sri Sri Ravi Shankar". The Art of Living. Retrieved 2012-07-29.
- Tola, Dragonetti & Prithipaul 1987, p. xii.
- Williams, R. (1998). Jaina Yoga. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-8120807754.
- Tola, Dragonetti & Prithipaul 1987, p. xi note 3.
- White 2014, p. 6.
- White 2014, p. 16.
- White 2011, p. 20-21.
- Princeton University Press, The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: A Biography. David Gordon White
- Brant, Robin (November 22, 2008). "Malaysia clerics issue yoga fatwa". BBC News.
- "Why yoga is unlawful – Islam web – English". Islam web. Retrieved 2012-07-29.
- "Indonesia's Fatwa Against Yoga". Time. January 29, 2009.
- "Health – Should Christians Do Yoga?". Cbn.com. 2001-02-25. Retrieved 2012-07-29.
- Grossman, Cathy Lynn (September 20, 2010). "Yoga poses dangers to genuine Christian faith: Theologian". USA Today.
- Vitello, Paul (November 27, 2010). "Hindu Group Stirs Debate in Fight for Soul of Yoga". The New York Times.
- Jianxin Li year unknown.
- Wynne 2007, p. 106; 140, note 58.
- Crangle 1984, p. 191.
- Maehle 2007, p. 156.
- Crangle 1984, p. 194.
- Zimmer 1951, p. 217.
- Crangle 1994, p. 7.
- Crangle 1994, p. 5-7.
- Chatterjee, Satischandra; Datta, Dhirendramohan (1984). An Introduction to Indian Philosophy (Eighth Reprint ed.). Calcutta: University of Calcutta. ISBN 978-81-291-1195-1.
- Crangle, Eddie (1984), "A Comparison of Hindu and Buddhist Techniques of Attaining Samādhi", in Hutch, R.A.; Fenner, P.G., Under The Shade of the Coolibah Tree: Australian Studies in Consciousness (PDF), University Press of America
- Crangle, Edward Fitzpatrick (1994), The Origin and Development of Early Indian Contemplative Practices, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag
- Feuerstein, George (1978), Handboek voor Yoga (Dutch translation; English title "Textbook of Yoga", Ankh-Hermes
- Feuerstein, George (translator) (1989), The Yoga-Sutra of Patañjali: A New Translation and Commentary, Inner Traditions, ISBN 978-0-89281-262-2
- Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0.
- Iyengar, B. K. S. (2002), Light on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, HarperCollins UK
- Jianxin Li (n.d.), A Comparative Study between Yoga and Indian Buddhism, asianscholarship.org
- Johnston, Charles (2014) , The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali: The Book of the Spiritual Man, Kshetra Books, ISBN 9781484926635
- Jones, Constance; Ryan, James D. (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase Publishing
- Madhvacarya; Beloved, Michael (2008), Yoga Sutras of Pataņjali, Lulu.com
- Maas, Philipp A. (2006), Samādhipāda. Das erste Kapitel des Pātañjalayogaśāstra zum ersten Mal kritisch ediert. (Samādhipāda. The First Chapter of the Pātañjalayogaśās-tra for the First Time Critically Edited)., Aachen: Shaker
- Maas, Philipp A. (2013), A Concise Historiography of Classical Yoga Philosophy, in: Eli Franco (ed.), Periodization and Historiography of Indian Philosophy., Vienna: Sammlung de Nobili, Institut für Südasien-, Tibet- und Buddhismuskunde der Universität Wien
- Maehle, Gregor (2007), Ashtanga Yoga: Practice and Philosophy, New World Library
- Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism: Past and Present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08953-9.
- Müeller, Max (1899). Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7661-4296-1. Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy.
- Pradhan, Basant (2015), Yoga and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy, Springer
- Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, C. A. (1957). A Source Book in Indian Philosophy. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01958-1. Princeton paperback 12th printing, 1989.
- Ranganathan, Shyam (2008). Patañjali's Yoga Sūtra: Translation, Commentary and Introduction. Delhi: Penguin Black Classics. ISBN 978-0-14-310219-9.
- Sharma, Chandradhar (1987). An Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0365-7.
- Tola, Fernando; Dragonetti, Carmen; Prithipaul, K. Dad (1987), The Yogasūtras of Patañjali on concentration of mind, Motilal Banarsidass
- Tubb, Gary A.; Boose, Emery R. (2006). Scholastic Sanskrit: A Manual for Students. New York, New York: Columbia University Press (published 2007). ISBN 978-0-9753734-7-7.
- Whicher, Ian (1998), The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga, SUNY Press
- White, David Gordon (2011), Yoga, Brief History of an Idea (Chapter 1 of "Yoga in practice") (PDF), Princeton University Press
- White, David Gordon (2014), The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: A Biography, Princeton University Press
- Woods, James Haughton (translator) (2003), The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Courier Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-43200-7
- Wujastyk, Dominik (2011), The Path to Liberation through Yogic Mindfulness in Early Ayurveda. In: David Gordon White (ed.), "Yoga in practice", Princeton University Press
- Wynne, Alexander (2007), The Origin of Buddhist Meditation (PDF), Routledge
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1951), Philosophies of India, New York, New York: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01758-1 Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Cambell.
- David Gordon White (2014). The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: A Biography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14377-4.
- Bryant, Edwin F. (2009) The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. New York: North Point Press. ISBN 978-0-86547-736-0
- Tola, Fernando; Dragonetti, Carmen; Prithipaul, K. Dad (1987), The Yogasūtras of Patañjali on concentration of mind, Motilal Banarsidass
- Practice and commentaries
- Govindan, Marshall. Kriya Yoga Sutras of Patanjali and the Siddhas, Babaji’s Kriya Yoga and Publications,2000, 2nd edition 2010, ISBN 978-1-895383-12-6
- Iyengar, B.K.S. (1993, 2002). Light on Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali. Hammersmith, London, UK: Thorsons. ISBN 978-0-00-714516-4
- Master, E. K. The Yoga of Patañjali Kulapathi Book Trust ISBN 978-81-85943-05-3
- Swami Satyandanda Four Chapters on Freedom: Commentary on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali ISBN 81-85787-18-2
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- Works by Patañjali at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Yoga Sutras of Patanjali at Internet Archive
- James Woods, The yoga-system of Patañjali; or, The ancient Hindu doctrine of concentration of mind; Yoga-sutras, of Patañjali (1914) Harvard University Press
- The Yoga Sutras of Patañjali, translation by BonGiovanni, at sacred-texts.com
- Yoga Sutras and related yoga texts, at sanskritdocuments.org
- Yoga bhashya
- Patañjali - Yoga-Sutras: A word by word translation with grammar and comment
- The Yoga Sutras of Patañjali: the Book of the Spiritual Man by Patañjali, an interpretation by Charles Johnston, at Project Gutenberg
- The Yoga Sutras of Patañjali by Charles Johnston. Read Online at LibriPass
- Audio lectures on the Yoga Sutras, by Swami Harshananda, at archive.org
- Yoga Sutras Online Program by A. G. Mohan
- Yoga Sutras of Patañjali: a Buddhist Commentary.