From top left, clockwise: Tugu Monument, Malioboro Street, Kraton Yogyakarta, Bank Indonesia Yogyakarta, Gadjah Mada University
|Nickname(s): Kota Pelajar (Student's City), Kota Budaya (Cultural City), Kota Gudeg (Gudeg City)|
|Motto: Memayu Hayuning Bawono|
Location of Yogyakarta in Yogyakarta Special Region
|Province||Yogyakarta Special Region|
|• Mayor||Haryadi Suyuti|
|• City||32.5 km2 (12.5 sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,114.16 km2 (430.18 sq mi)|
|Elevation||113 m (371 ft)|
|• Density||20,000/km2 (51,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||2,100/km2 (5,600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||WIB (UTC+7)|
|Area code(s)||+62 274|
Yogyakarta (// or //; also Jogja, Jogjakarta) is a city and the capital of Yogyakarta Special Region in Java, Indonesia. It is renowned as a center of education (Kota Pelajar), classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry, and puppet shows. Yogyakarta was the Indonesian capital during the Indonesian National Revolution from 1945 to 1949. One of the districts in Yogyakarta, Kotagede, was the capital of the Mataram Sultanate between 1575 and 1640. The city is named after the Indian city of Ayodhya from the Ramayana epic. Yogya means "suitable, fit, proper", and karta, "prosperous, flourishing" (i.e., "a city that is fit to prosper").
The Dutch name of the city is Djokjakarta.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 Administration
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Tourism
- 8 Culture
- 9 Education
- 10 Transportation
- 11 Health facilities
- 12 Twin towns – Sister cities
- 13 See also
- 14 Notes
- 15 External links
Mataram Kingdom (8th – 10th century CE)
According to Canggal inscription dated 732, the area traditionally called as "Mataram" became the capital of Medang Kingdom, identified as Mdang i Bhumi Mataram established by King Sanjaya. Mataram became the center of a refined and sophisticated Javanese Hindu-Buddhist culture, for about three centuries its heartland in Kewu Plain (southern slope of Mount Merapi) around Prambanan witnessed the construction of numerous candi including Borobudur and Prambanan.
Around the year 929, the centre of the kingdom was shifted to East Java by Mpu Sindok, who established the Isyana Dynasty. The exact cause of the move is still uncertain; however, a severe eruption of Mount Merapi volcano or a power struggle probably caused the move. Historians suggest that, some time during the reign of King Wawa of Mataram (924–929), Merapi volcano erupted and devastated the kingdom's capital in Mataram. Although missing from the historical record since the migration of the capital of Medang kingdom in the 10th century to the eastern Java, the valley area in the south of Mount Merapi since the 15th century still inhabited and according to later account, perhaps become part of the region called "Pengging".
Majapahit Empire (1293–1527)
During the Majapahit era, the area surrounding modern Yogyakarta identified again as "Mataram" and recognize again as one of Majapahit 12 provinces in Java ruled by a Duke titled 'Bhre Mataram'. During the reign of Hayam Wuruk (1350 to 1389), the title of Bhre Mataram was held by king's nephew also son in-law Wikramawardhana.
Mataram Sultanate (1575–1620)
Kotagede (now part of districts in Yogyakarta) was established as the capital of Mataram Sultanate. The palace of the founder of Mataram Sultanate, Panembahan Senopati established in scene of part of Alas Mentaok. During the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo (1613-1645), Sultanate Mataram reach its zenith as the greatest kingdom in Java, expanded its influence to Central Java, East Java and half of West Java. After a two times move its capital, (Palace of Pleret and Place of Kerta, both located in Bantul Regency), the capital of Mataram Sultanate moved to Kartasura.
Aftermath of the Gianti Treaty (1745–1945)
During the reign of Pakubuwono II, a civil war broke out in Mataram Sultanate. The civil war was fought between Prince Mangkubumi and his elder brother, Sunan Pakubuwono II. The civil war started when Sunan Pakubuwono II agreed to cooperate with the VOC, ceded some of Mataram territory to the Dutch, and submitted to foreign powers. His younger brother, Prince Mangkubumi stood against the agreement due to concern that his people would become slaves under Dutch rule. Prince Mangkubumi defeated the Pakubuwono forces and declared sovereignty in the Kingdom of Yogjakarta occupying southern parts of the former Mataram Sultanate.
The Yogyakarta Sultanate was established as a result of the Treaty of Giyanti (Perjanjian Gianti) by Prince Mangkubumi, who later ascended the throne as Sultan Hamengkubuwono I. Officially, the creation of Yogyakarta Sultanate is dated at 7 October 1756 as a result of civil war among the princes of The Mataram Sultanate. This civil war marked the end of the Mataram Sultanate and resulted in the birth of the Yogyakarta Sultanate and the Surakarta Sunanate.
However, in later years both of the heir of Mataram, the Yogyakarta Sultanate and the Surakarta Sunanate confined their power and were reduced as Dutch East Indies protectorate kingdoms under the crown of the Kingdom of Netherlands, identified as Vorstenlanden Mataram.
Republic of Indonesia era (1945–present)
In 1942 the Japanese Empire invaded Dutch East Indies and ruled Java until they were defeated in 1945. Sukarno proclaimed the independence of the Indonesian Republic on August 1945. Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX promptly send a letter to Sukarno, expressing his support for the newly born nation of Indonesia and acknowledging Yogyakarta Sultanate as part of the Indonesian Republic. The Sunanate of Surakarta did the same, and both of the Javanese kingdoms were awarded special status as "Special Region" within the Indonesian Republic. However because of a leftist anti-royalist uprising in Surakarta, the Sunanate of Surakarta lost its special administrative status in 1946 and was absorbed into Central Java Province.
Yogyakarta's support was essential in the Indonesian struggle for independence, during the Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1949). The city of Yogyakarta became the capital of the Indonesian Republic from 1946 to 1948, after the fall of Jakarta to the Dutch. Later the Dutch also invaded Yogyakarta, causing the Republic's capital to be transferred once again, to Bukittinggi in West Sumatra on 19 December 1948. Because of its significant contribution to the survival of the Indonesian Republic, Yogyakarta was given the status of Special Administrative Region, making Yogyakarta the only region headed by a monarchy in Indonesia.
The area of the city of Yogyakarta is 32.5 square kilometres (12.5 square miles). While the city spreads in all directions from the kraton (the Sultan's palace), the core of the modern city is to the north, centring around Dutch colonial-era buildings and the commercial district. Jalan Malioboro, with rows of pavement vendors and nearby market and malls, is the primary shopping street for tourists in the city, while Jalan Solo, further north, is a shopping district more frequented by locals. At the southern end of Malioboro, on the east side is the large local market of Beringharjo, not far from Fort Vredeburg, a restored Dutch fort.
At Yogyakarta's centre is the Kraton, or Sultan's palace. Surrounding the kraton is a densely populated residential neighbourhood that occupies land that was formerly the Sultan's sole domain. Evidence of this former use remains in the form of old walls and the ruined Taman Sari, built in 1758 as a pleasure garden. No longer used by the sultan, the garden had been largely abandoned. For a time, it was used for housing by palace employees and descendants. Reconstruction efforts began in 2004, and an effort to renew the neighbourhood around the kraton has begun. The site is a developing tourist attraction.
Nearby to the city of Yogyakarta is Mount Merapi. The northern outskirts of the city run up to the southern slopes of the mountain in Sleman Regency (Indonesian language–Kabupaten). Gunung Merapi (literally "mountain of fire" in Indonesian/Javanese), is an active Stratavolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. The volcano last erupted in November 2010.
Yogyakarta features a tropical monsoon climate. The city features a lengthy wet season running from October until June and a short dry season that only covers the months of July, August and September. The city averages roughly 2,200 mm (87 in) of precipitation annually. Yogyakarta experiences particularly heavy rainfall from November through April. Temperatures remain relatively constant throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures at around 30 degrees Celsius and average lows at around 22 degrees Celsius.
|Climate data for Yogyakarta|
|Average high °C (°F)||29
|Average low °C (°F)||22
|Precipitation mm (inches)||350
The Yogyakarta Special Region is actually a special district on the provincial level, of which Greater Yogyakarta is located within. The regencies of Bantul and Sleman have population densities far higher than the surrounding countryside (over 1,500 per square kilometer) and effectively are bedroom communities of Yogyakarta. Within Greater Yogyakarta lies the municipality of Yogyakarta, called Kota Yogyakarta.
- Mantrijeron (31,267)
- Kraton (17,471)
- Mergangsan (29,292)
- Umbulharjo (76,743)
- Kotagede (31,152)
- Gondokusuman (45,293)
- Danurejan (18,342)
- Pakualaman (9,316)
- Gondomanan (13,029)
- Ngampilan (16,320)
- Wirobrajan (24,840)
- Gedong Tengen (17,185)
- Jetis (23,454)
- Tegalrejo (34,923)
In 2011, Yogyakarta's Gross Domestic Regional Product (GDRP) is IDR 12.960 trillions with per capita income is around IDR 33.185 millions.
Large majority of the population are native Javanese. However as the city with large numbers of Schools and Universities (the most famous is Gadjah Mada University) and relatively lower cost of living compared to other Indonesian cities, Yogyakarta has attracted large numbers of students from all over Indonesia. As the result there are many other Indonesian ethnic groups living in Yogyakarta, especially from eastern parts of Indonesia. Yogyakarta also has large numbers of Chinese Indonesian ethnic, clustered in and around Yogyakarta Chinatown near Malioboro. The inter-ethnic relations between Chinese Indonesian and native Javanese in Yogyakarta are mainly harmonious as Chinese Indonesian here were absorbed within Javanese culture and cultural exchanges is common. For example the Yogyakarta bakpia sweet pastry is actually derived from Chinese pastry.
As the second most popular tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali, Yogyakarta has attracted large numbers of foreign visitors. However, there are also significant numbers of foreign people residing in the city. Most of them are foreign students that usually stay to learn Indonesian or Javanese culture. This status makes Yogyakarta as one of the most heterogeneous cities in Indonesia.
Because of its proximity to world famous Borobudur and Prambanan temples, also because having unique Javanese court Kraton culture of Kraton Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta has become the second most important tourist destination in Indonesia after Bali. Most tourists come to Yogyakarta as an accommodation base on visiting Borobudur and Prambanan and also for its strong Javanese culture and tradition. This makes it prominent among other Javanese cities, along with Surakarta or Solo, a city lying about 64 kilometres (40 miles) to the east, Yogyakarta is the centre of Javanese culture.
Nine rock sites in the Yogyakarta area have been declared as geoheritage sites.
Some of the famous culture of Yogyakarta are:
- Batik fabrics production area, the most famous batik marketplace is in Beringharjo market.
- Silverwork, fine filigree jewellery, the production center is in Kotagede area
- Traditional Javanese dance performance, especially Ramayana Wayang wong dance performed in Prambanan and Purowisata. Other Javanese court dances are also performed in Kraton Yogyakarta.
- Wayang kulit, a traditional Javanese leather puppetry used for shadow plays.
- Contemporary puppetry and theatre, for example Papermoon Puppet Theatre
- Gamelan music, including the local Gamelan Yogyakarta which was developed in the courts.
- Annually held traditional Javanese festival such as Sekaten or Gerebeg Mulud.
- Visual artists including Taring Padi community in Bantul.
- Gudeg Yogya: a traditional food from Yogyakarta and Central Java which is made from young unripe jack fruit boiled for several hours with palm sugar, and coconut milk. This is usually accompanied by opor ayam (chicken in coconut milk), hard boiled egg stew, and krechek a spicy beef inner skin and tofu stew. This dish has a unique sweet and savoury taste. The Yogyakarta gudeg is dryer and have reddish coloring because the addition of Java teak leaf.
- Ayam goreng Kalasan: chicken, stewed in spices consist of coriander, garlic, candlenut, and coconut water feature strongly, then deep-fried until crispy. Served with sambal and raw vegetable salad.
- Sego kucing: rice with side dishes in small portion.
- Mung bean cake: a sweet pastry filled with sugared mung bean paste. Derived from Chinese pastry. The famous bakpia producing area is pathok area near Malioboro thus the famous bakpia is bakpia pathok.
- Ronde (wedhang ronde): a hot Javanese dessert containing glutinous rice balls stuffed with peanut paste, floating in a hot and sweet ginger and lemongrass tea.
- Angsle (wedhang angsle): a hot soupy dessert of sago pearls, pre-cooked glutinous rice and mung beans, putu mayang (brightly colored, noodle-shaped flour cakes), fried peanuts all drowned in hot, sweet coconut milk.
- Kipo: the name derived from Javanese word iki opo? (what is this?), a small sweet snack from Kotagede made of glutinous rice flour and coconut milk dough filled with grated coconut and palm sugar.
- Wedhang Uwuh (wedhang uwuh) : a hot Javanese drink of clove leaves.
Yogyakarta contains several site museums in Hindu period temple such as Candi Prambanan, museums in the royal court, and museums in colonial buildings such as Yogyakarta Fortress Museum, the former Dutch Fort Vredeburg. Due to the importance of Yogyakarta during the war of independence from the Dutch, there are numerous memorials and museums such as Yogya Kembali.
To the east of the town centre is a large air force museum; as Indonesia was for a period in the Soviet sphere of influence this museum contains a number of vintage Russian aircraft not widely available for inspection in the NATO sphere of influence. The collection includes examples of the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 trainer, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 and Tupolev Tu-16, together with an assortment of American and British aircraft.
Museum Pusat Dirgantara Mandala (Muspurdila) or Mandala Air and Space Museum Center has 36 aircraft in the building and six aircraft in the yard of the museum.
Yogyakarta is well known as home of University of Gadjah Mada, one of Indonesia's most prominent universities. The others public university in Yogyakarta are Yogyakarta State University, Sunan Kalijaga Islamic University, Indonesian Institute of the Arts. This city also houses several well-known private universities such as Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta, Ahmad Dahlan University, Islamic University of Indonesia, Atma Jaya University, Duta Wacana Christian University and Sanata Dharma University.
Yogyakarta is served by Adisucipto International Airport which connects the city with some other major cities in Indonesia, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Denpasar, Makassar, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Pekanbaru, Palembang and Pontianak. It also connects the city with Singapore (operated by Indonesia AirAsia) and Kuala Lumpur (operated by AirAsia).
The city is located on one of the two major railway lines across Java between Jakarta / Bandung and Surabaya. It has two passenger railway stations, Tugu railway station which serves business and executive class trains, and Lempuyangan Station which serves economy class trains. Both stations are located in the heart of the city. Commuter train in Yogyakarta is Prambanan Ekspress, also known as Prameks, this train goes from Lempuyangan Station to Solo Balapan Station at Surakarta (Solo) (East of Yogyakarta), Kutoharjo Station at Kutoharjo (West of Yogyakarta). The other commuter train is Madiun Jaya (Madiun-Lempuyangan), and Joglosemar (Semarang-Lempuyangan).
The city has an extensive system of public city buses, and is a major destination for inter-city buses to elsewhere on Java or Bali, as well as taxis, andongs, and becaks. Motorbikes are by far the most commonly used personal transportation, but an increasing number of residents own automobiles. Yogyakarta also have a highway named Ringroad. An Overpass including Janti Overpass, Lempuyangan Overpass, and a recently built overpass in the northern part of the Ringroad.
Starting from early 2008, the city has operated a bus rapid transit system called Trans Jogja, also known as "TJ" (Indonesian), Abbervation from "T" for 'Trans', and "J" for 'Jogja'. This system is modeled after TransJakarta. But unlike Trans Jakarta, there is no particular lane for Trans Jogja buses, they run on main streets. Currently there are six lines of Trans Jogja service, with routes throughout main streets of Yogyakarta, which some overlap one another. The lines extend from Jombor bus station in the north as far as Giwangan main bus terminal in the south and Prambanan bus shelter in the east via Adisucipto International Airport. Trans Jogja has now become a new trademark of Yogyakarta and frequently used by local citizens and tourists alike.
In a recent[when?] forum discussion on long-term transportation plans in Yogyakarta held at Universitas Gadjah Mada, the head of the Yogyakarta region transportation master plan team, Prof Ahmad Munawar, said that in 2016 modern transport modes including monorail, aerobus, and tram will begin operating in the city and the region.
The notable hospitals in Yogyakarta including :
- Dr. Sardjito Hospital (state-owned, the largest hospital in Yogyakarta)
- Bethesda Hospital
- Panti Rapih Hospital
- Muhammadiyah Hospital
Twin towns – Sister cities
- Gangbuk-gu, South Korea
- Baalbek, Lebanon
- Huế, Vietnam
- Hefei, China
- Kyoto, Japan
- Commewijne, Suriname.
- Bonn, Germany
- Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia
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- E.M. Pospelov, Geograficheskie nazvaniya mira (Moscow: Russkie slovari, 1998), p. 138.
- Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
- "Candi Borobudur dicatatkan di Guinness World Records". Antara News. Retrieved 10 July 2014.
- 'Nine unique geo-heritage sites declared', The Jakarta Post, 3 November 2014.
- Tempat Makan Favorit di 6 Kota. AgroMedia. 2008. p. 136. ISBN 9789790061668.
- "Muspusdirla, Koleksi Pesawatnya Luar Biasa". 19 April 2012.
-  "Tahun 2016, di DIY akan Beroperasi Monorail, Aerobus, dan Trem Listrik" (Indonesian)
- "Peringatan 25 Tahun Sister City Kyoto-Yogya, Kedua Kota Mendapat Manfaat" (in Indonesian). Koran Tempo. October 6, 2010. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
- "Kerjasama Sister City, Eratkan RI-Suriname" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Republic of Indonesia. April 7, 2011. Retrieved May 20, 2014.
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