Special Region of Yogyakarta
|Special Region of Yogyakarta
Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta
Parangtritis Beach, Yogyakarta
|Motto: Memayu Hayuning Bawana (Javanese)
(The Vision to Perfect Society) written in Javanese Script
Location of the Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia
|• Sultan & Paku Alam||Hamengkubuwono X
Paku Alam IX
|• Total||3,133.15 km2 (1,209.72 sq mi)|
|Population (2014)Provicial Estimate|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (3,000/sq mi)|
|• Ethnic groups||Javanese (96,82%), Sundanese (0,56%), Tionghoa (0,32%) |
|• Religion||Islam (91.4%), Christianity (8.3%), Hinduism and Buddhism (0.3%)|
|• Languages||Indonesian, Javanese|
|Time zone||WIB (UTC+7)|
Yogyakarta is historically and culturally part of the Central Java region, although it is now a separate administrative entity. It is the only region in Indonesia that is still governed by a pre-colonial monarchy, the Sultan of Yogyakarta, who serves as the hereditary governor of the region. Other than the special capital territory of Jakarta, it is the smallest region of Indonesia.
The Sultanate has existed in various forms through prehistory, and survived through the rule of the Dutch and the 1942 invasion of the Dutch East Indies by the Japanese Empire. In August of 1945 Indonesia's first president, Sukarno proclaimed the independence of the Indonesian Republic, and by September of that year, Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX and duke Sri Paku Alam VIII had sent letters to Sukarno expressing their support for the newly-born nation of Indonesia, in which they acknowledged the Yogyakarta Sultanate as part of the Indonesian Republic. The Sunanate of Surakarta did the same, and both of the Javanese kingdoms were awarded special status as special regions within Indonesian Republic. However, due to a leftist anti-royalist uprising in Surakarta, the Sunanate of Surakarta lost its special administrative status in 1946 and was absorbed into the province of Central Java.
Yogyakarta's support was essential in the Indonesian struggle for independence during the Indonesian National Revolution (1945-1949). The city of Yogyakarta became the capital of the Indonesian Republic from January 1946 to December 1948 after the fall of Jakarta to the Dutch. Later, the Dutch also invaded Yogyakarta causing the Indonesian Republic's capital to be transferred again to Bukittinggi in West Sumatra on 19 December 1948. In return for Yogyakarta's support, the declaration of Special Authority over Yogyakarta was granted in full in 1950 and Yogyakarta was given the status as a Special Administrative Region, making Yogyakarta the only region headed by a monarchy in Indonesia.
The Special Region was struck by a 6.3-magnitude earthquake on 27 May 2006, killing 5,782 people, injuring approximately 36,000 and leaving 600,000 people homeless. The region of Bantul suffered the most damage and deaths.
|Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2010|
The Special Region is located near the southern coast of Java, wholly within the province of Central Java. The population at the 2010 Census was 3,452,390, but according to the latest official estimate (for January 2014) thisa has since risen to 3,594,290. It has an area of 3,133.15 km2, making it the second-smallest area of the provinces in Indonesia, after the Jakarta Capital Region. Along with surrounding areas in Central Java, it has some of the highest population densities of Java.
Mount Merapi is located to the immediate north of the city of Yogyakarta and Sleman Regency. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It last erupted in October–November 2010, killing and injuring many people and temporarily displacing approximately 100,000 residents.
|Gunung Kidul Regency||Wonosari||1,485.36||670,400||681,554||674,408||702,104|
|Kulon Progo Regency||Wates||586.30||371,000||373,757||388,755||404,155|
|Yogyakarta City||Yogyakarta City||32.50||396,700||433,539||388,088||404,003|
Located within the Special Region of Yogyakarta, the city of Yogyakarta is known as a center of classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry and puppet shows. It is also one of Indonesia's most renowned centers of higher education. At the city's center is the Sultan's palace called the kraton. While the city sprawls in all directions from the kraton, the core of the modern city is to the north.
Yogyakarta is served by Adisucipto International Airport. There are two train stations: Lempuyangan and Yogyakarta (also called Tugu station). Yogyakarta is considered one of the major hubs that links the west-east main railway route in Java island. To the south, in the Bantul region, is the Giwangan bus station, the largest bus station in Indonesia. The centre of metropolitan Yogyakarta is surrounded by a ring road.
Since 2008, the Special Region of Yogyakarta launched bus rapid transit system, the Trans Jogja, which connects many places in and around Yogyakarta city, including the airport and Prambanan temple.
Yogyakarta is home to more than 100 institutions of higher education in Indonesia, the highest number of higher education institutions of any province in Indonesia. Hence, Yogyakarta earned its nickname "Kota Pelajar" (The City of Students).
The Special Region is also the home of the first-established private university in Indonesia, the Islamic University of Indonesia, which was founded in 1945. The Indonesia Institute of Arts, the first-established university in fine arts, is also in the region. Other large universities include Gadjah Mada University, Institute of Science & Technology AKPRIND in Yogyakarta, University of Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa in Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta State University, Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta and Atma Jaya University in Yogyakarta.
Yogyakarta has signed a sister relationship agreement with city/state:
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- Ricklefs, M.C. (2001) A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200 (3rd ed.). Stanford: Stanford University Press. pp. 126–139, 269-271. ISBN 0-8047-4480-7
- Ricklefs, M.C. (1974) Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749–1792: A history of the division of Java. London Oriental Series, vol. 30. London : Oxford University Press, (Revised Indonesian edition 2002)
- Soemanto, Bakdi (1992) Cerita Rakyat dari Yogyakarta Jakarta: Grasindo (In Indonesian)
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- Sochaczewski, Paul Spencer (1994-06-14). "A True Javanese Fairy Tale: The Sultan and the Mermaid". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
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