Yorkshire and the Humber

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This article is about the region. For the European constituency, see Yorkshire and the Humber (European Parliament constituency).
Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber
Yorkshire and the Humber region in England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Country England
Status Region
NUTS 1 UKE
Area
 - Total
Ranked 5th
15,420 km²
5,953 sq mi
Population
 - Total
 - Density
Ranked 7th
5,284,000 (2011)
343/km2 (890/sq mi)
GVA per capita £16,880 (8th)
Admin HQ Wakefield [1]
Leadership Local Government Yorkshire and Humber
Development agency Yorkshire Forward
European parliament Yorkshire and the Humber
Website

Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It comprises most of Yorkshire (South Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, the East Riding of Yorkshire including Hull, the shire county of North Yorkshire and the City of York), North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. It does not include Middlesbrough or Redcar and Cleveland (which are in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire but not in the shire county). The population in 2011 was 5,284,000.[2]

The committees for the regions, including the one for Yorkshire and the Humber, ceased to exist upon the dissolution of Parliament on 12 April 2010; they were not re-established by the newly elected House.[3] Regional ministers were not reappointed by the incoming Coalition Government, and the Government Offices were abolished in 2011.

Geographical context[edit]

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politics and government of
England

Geology[edit]

In the Yorkshire and the Humber region, there is a very close relationship between the major topographical areas and the underlying geology.[4] The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic. The North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age, while the Yorkshire Wolds and Lincolnshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands.[4]

Rivers[edit]

The main rivers of Yorkshire.

The region is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire, the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse, which reaches the North Sea via the Humber Estuary.[5] The most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains Swaledale before passing through Richmond and meandering across the Vale of Mowbray. Next, draining Wensleydale, is the River Ure, which joins the Swale east of Boroughbridge. The River Nidd rises on the edge of the Yorkshire Dales National Park and flows along Nidderdale before reaching the Vale of York.[5]

The Ouse is the name given to the river after its confluence with the Ure at Ouse Gill Beck. The River Wharfe, which drains Wharfedale, joins the Ouse upstream of Cawood.[5] The Rivers Aire and Calder are more southerly contributors to the River Ouse. The most southerly Yorkshire tributary is the River Don, which flows northwards to join the main river at Goole. In the far north of the county, the River Tees flows eastwards through Teesdale and empties its waters into the North Sea downstream of Middlesbrough. The smaller River Esk flows from west to east at the northern foot of the North York Moors to reach the sea at Whitby.[5]

The River Derwent rises on the North York Moors, flows south then westwards through the Vale of Pickering, then turns south again to drain the eastern part of the Vale of York. It empties into the River Ouse at Barmby on the Marsh.[5] To the east of the Yorkshire Wolds, the River Hull flows southwards to join the Humber Estuary at Kingston upon Hull. The western Pennines are served by the River Ribble, which drains westwards into the Irish Sea close to Lytham St Annes.[5]

The highest point of the region is Whernside, in the Yorkshire Dales, at 737 metres (2,418 ft). The largest freshwater lake is Hornsea Mere in the East Riding of Yorkshire.

The Humber Bridge was designed based on ideas by Sir Ralph Freeman before the 1950s, then Sir Gilbert Roberts in 1955 and 1964, and a final complete design by Bernard Wex. It was made with a significant amount of ground granulated blast-furnace slag.

Climate[edit]

This region of England generally has cool summers and relatively mild winters, with the upland areas of the North York Moors and the Pennines experiencing the coolest weather and the Vale of York the warmest. Weather conditions vary from day to day as well as from season to season. The latitude of the area means that it is influenced by predominantly westerly winds with depressions and their associated fronts, bringing with them unsettled and windy weather, particularly in winter. Between depressions, there are often small mobile anticyclones that bring periods of fair weather. In winter anticyclones bring cold dry weather. In summer the anticyclones tend to bring dry, settled conditions which can lead to drought. For its latitude, this area is mild in winter and cooler in summer due to the influence of the Gulf Stream in the northern Atlantic Ocean.

Air temperature varies on a daily and seasonal basis. Cities such as Sheffield, Leeds, and Bradford are generally cooler due to their inland and upland location, while York, Hull, and Wakefield are warmer due to their lowland location. The temperature is usually lower at night; January is the coldest time of the year and July is usually the warmest month.[6]

Snow is not uncommon in the winter, Yorkshire is mostly hilly/mountainous, and the Yorkshire Dales and the Pennines can have extreme snowstorms with high snowdrifts. Inland/upland settlements, such as Skipton or Ilkley, have more snow than coastal towns. Hull and Scarborough have less snow as their weather is moderated by the ocean.

Climate data for settlements in the region:

Climate data for Hull
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
7.3
(45.1)
9.5
(49.1)
11.4
(52.5)
14.6
(58.3)
17.7
(63.9)
20.1
(68.2)
20.2
(68.4)
17.7
(63.9)
14.0
(57.2)
9.9
(49.8)
7.8
(46)
13.1
(55.6)
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
1.7
(35.1)
3.1
(37.6)
4.6
(40.3)
6.9
(44.4)
9.7
(49.5)
12.2
(54)
12.2
(54)
10.4
(50.7)
7.4
(45.3)
4.1
(39.4)
2.4
(36.3)
6.4
(43.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 50.7
(1.996)
38.3
(1.508)
45.6
(1.795)
42.4
(1.669)
43.5
(1.713)
50
(1.97)
38.4
(1.512)
48.7
(1.917)
52.1
(2.051)
46.5
(1.831)
57.2
(2.252)
52.0
(2.047)
565.4
(22.26)
Source: [7]
Climate data for Leeds
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
5.9
(42.6)
8.7
(47.7)
11.3
(52.3)
15.0
(59)
18.2
(64.8)
19.9
(67.8)
19.9
(67.8)
17.3
(63.1)
13.4
(56.1)
8.8
(47.8)
6.7
(44.1)
12.58
(54.63)
Average low °C (°F) 0.3
(32.5)
0.2
(32.4)
1.6
(34.9)
3.1
(37.6)
5.5
(41.9)
8.5
(47.3)
10.4
(50.7)
10.5
(50.9)
8.7
(47.7)
6.3
(43.3)
2.9
(37.2)
1.2
(34.2)
4.93
(40.88)
Rainfall mm (inches) 61
(2.4)
45
(1.77)
52
(2.05)
48
(1.89)
54
(2.13)
54
(2.13)
51
(2.01)
65
(2.56)
57
(2.24)
55
(2.17)
57
(2.24)
61
(2.4)
660
(25.99)
Source: [8]
Climate data for Sheffield
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
6.7
(44.1)
9.3
(48.7)
11.8
(53.2)
15.7
(60.3)
18.3
(64.9)
20.8
(69.4)
20.6
(69.1)
17.3
(63.1)
13.3
(55.9)
9.2
(48.6)
7.2
(45)
13.1
(55.6)
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
1.6
(34.9)
3.1
(37.6)
4.4
(39.9)
7.0
(44.6)
10.0
(50)
12.4
(54.3)
12.1
(53.8)
10.0
(50)
7.2
(45)
4.2
(39.6)
2.6
(36.7)
6.4
(43.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 86.5
(3.406)
63.4
(2.496)
67.9
(2.673)
62.5
(2.461)
55.5
(2.185)
66.7
(2.626)
51.0
(2.008)
63.5
(2.5)
64.3
(2.531)
73.9
(2.909)
77.7
(3.059)
91.9
(3.618)
824.7
(32.469)
Source: The Met Office[9]
Climate data for York
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6
(43)
7
(45)
10
(50)
13
(55)
16
(61)
19
(66)
21
(70)
21
(70)
18
(64)
14
(57)
10
(50)
7
(45)
13.5
(56.3)
Average low °C (°F) 1
(34)
1
(34)
2
(36)
4
(39)
7
(45)
10
(50)
12
(54)
12
(54)
10
(50)
7
(45)
4
(39)
2
(36)
6
(43)
Precipitation mm (inches) 59
(2.32)
46
(1.81)
37
(1.46)
41
(1.61)
50
(1.97)
50
(1.97)
62
(2.44)
68
(2.68)
55
(2.17)
56
(2.2)
65
(2.56)
50
(1.97)
639
(25.16)
Source: BBC Weather[10]

Settlements[edit]

Leeds, the largest settlement in the region

There are seven cities in Yorkshire and the Humber: Bradford, Kingston upon Hull, Leeds, Ripon, Sheffield, Wakefield and York. Large towns in the area include Doncaster, Grimsby, Halifax, Huddersfield and Scunthorpe. Leeds is the largest settlement and the largest part of an urban area with a population of 1.5 million. Leeds is now one of the largest financial centres in the United Kingdom. Sheffield is the second-largest settlement and is a large manufacturing centre. Bradford is the third-largest city and was traditionally a textile manufacturing city. The decline of this industry as jobs moved offshore has resulted in a more diverse economy, as Bradford has developed new directions. Kingston upon Hull is the main port in the region and historically a notable fishing harbour. While cities such as Bradford, Leeds and Sheffield grew during the industrial revolution, older cities in the region, such as Wakefield and York, were established in trade and politics before them.

The tallest occupied building in Yorkshire is Bridgewater Place in central Leeds, commonly referred to as The Dalek. Built in 2007, at 361 feet it is the 34th tallest building in the UK. The 37-storey Sky Plaza in Leeds is the world's second-tallest student accommodation building at 338 feet, and the second tallest building in the region, and the UK's 42nd tallest building, built in 2009. The 32-storey St Pauls Tower is now the tallest building in Sheffield at 331 feet. The Royal Hallamshire Hospital at 249 feet is the tallest hospital in the UK outside of London, and was built in 1979.

Local government[edit]

The official region consists of the following subdivisions:[11]

Map Ceremonial county County/ unitary Districts
Yorkshire and the Humber counties 2009 map.svg 1. South Yorkshire * aSheffield, bRotherham, cBarnsley, dDoncaster
2. West Yorkshire * aWakefield, bKirklees, cCalderdale, dBradford, eLeeds
North Yorkshire
(part only)
3. North Yorkshire † aSelby, bHarrogate, cCraven, dRichmondshire, eHambleton, fRyedale, gScarborough
4. York U.A.
East Riding of Yorkshire 5. East Riding of Yorkshire U.A.
6. Kingston upon Hull U.A.
Lincolnshire
(part only)
7. North Lincolnshire U.A.
8. North East Lincolnshire U.A.

Key: †shire county | *metropolitan county

North Lincolnshire, North East Lincolnshire, East Riding of Yorkshire and Kingston Upon Hull unitary authorities used to form the non-metropolitan county of Humberside which meant the region was called Yorkshire & Humberside.

History[edit]

Industrial history[edit]

Stainless steel was invented in 1913 by Harry Brearley of Sheffield, working for Firth Brown Steels (now called Sheffield Forgemasters). Crucible steel had been invented in the 1740s by Benjamin Huntsman of Epworth in Lincolnshire (part of the region). Sheffield early steel used Swedish bar iron as it had less phosphorus. The fast acting tilting converter was a huge improvement in 1860 for Sheffield steel; the process meant high-phosphorus iron ore from local mines could be used. At one point, Sheffield was producing 10,000 tons of steel a week. The metallurgist Eric Colbeck, when working at Hadfields Limited in Sheffield, invented boron steel for control rods for nuclear reactors. Metallurgists at Firth-Vickers developed the heat-resistant stainless steel (Rex 78) for the turbine blades of Frank Whittle's first engines, and Britain's first jet aircraft. John Marshall of Yorkshire developed the first ever iron-framed buildings (industrial mills).

Matthew Murray of Leeds built the first commercially-successful steam locomotive (Salamanca) in 1812. The Manchester–Sheffield–Wath electric railway was the UK's longest electrified railway in 1953 when opened. What is now West Yorkshire in the nineteenth century was the heart of Britain's woollen weaving wills, often using Alpaca fiber and by connections to the important Leeds and Liverpool Canal.

Joseph Aspdin from Leeds invented Portland cement in 1824; when mixed with aggregates and sand, this produced concrete. John Smeaton was a famous civil engineer from Leeds, and notable for building the first modern-day lighthouse (Eddystone Lighthouse) and for developing hydraulic lime (it is able to set under water), which would lead to cement.

The Clarence Flour Mill was built in 1891 in Hull and produced Britain's first white bread; it became part of Rank Hovis McDougall (RHM) in 1962. Smith & Nephew launched Elastoplast in 1928; since 1992 this has been owned by the German Beiersdorf company.

From 1945 to 2002 all the tennis balls for Wimbledon were made by Slazenger off the A61 in the south of Barnsley.

The CEGB's 400kV Supergrid was first tested on 15 December 1963 when High Marnham Power Station connected to Monk Fryston substation (near the Selby Fork junction).

David Mellor of Sheffield produced the standard design for street furniture, including traffic lights, in the UK from 1973. Britain's first permanent traffic lights were at the junction of Park Row, Leeds and Bond Street in 1928; America had installed its first electric traffic lights in August 1914 in Cleveland.

Scientific heritage[edit]

John Harrison of Barrow upon Humber (but born in Yorkshire at Foulby), invented the marine chronometer which allowed longitude to be accurately measured, and hence navigation at sea. This allowed Captain James Cook of Whitby to colonise much of Australia. Harrison also invented the bimetallic strip and the rolling bearing, without which most vehicles could not move.

Albert Crewe, born near Huddersfield in 1927 and attended grammar school in Bradford, invented the scanning electron microscope in 1970 at the Argonne National Laboratory (USA). John Carbutt (1832-1905), from Sheffield and moved to America, founded his Keystone Dry Plate Works in 1879 and was the first to develop sheets of celluloid coated with photographic emulsion for making films in 1888, and for William Kennedy Dickson's Kinetoscope around 1890, which set the 35mm standard for motion and still cameras. Roundhay Garden Scene, shot on 14 October 1888 by Louis Le Prince, is the oldest surviving film in existence.

Smithson Tennant born Selby, educated in Beverley, discovered osmium and iridium in 1803; the two are atomic numbers 76 and 77, with osmium being the densest naturally occurring element, and iridium is the next densest. Fred Hoyle was an important physicist from Bingley, who discovered how stars made chemical elements.

Kenneth Bentley of Reckitt & Colman at Hull in 1963 discovered his Bentley compounds (orvinols), which included etorphine,which for many years was the most-powerful analgesic, and is the drug most often used to safely immobilise elephants and other large animals, and is now manufactured solely by MacFarlan Smith of Edinburgh. Prof Robert Lowry Turner and George Whyte-Watson developed chemotherapy for breast cancer in 1959 at Bradford Royal Infirmary.

At the former Sheffield Royal Infirmary in the north-west of the city centre on 25 November 1930, Cecil Paine, a pathologist, cured patients with eye infections (including pneumococcus) completely with Penicillin, having been a bacteriology student of Alexander Fleming two years previously, and had grown Penicillium notatum (now called Penicillium chrysogenum) in some meat broth. This was the first ever cure of human disease with an antibiotic, and only gained public attention in 1983 when his medical notes were emerged by Prof Milton Wainwright in an office in Firth Court. Howard Florey was working as a Professor of Pathology from 1931-35 at the city's university, and Paine's work gave impetus for Florey to work out how to purify penicillin, but it would be February 1941 before he treated his first patient. Prontosil, discovered by Bayer in Wuppertal, Germany in 1932, would be the first commercially-available (a sulfonamide) antibiotic.

John Venn, born in Hull although moved to London, developed his well-known and ubiquitous diagrams in 1880.

Culture[edit]

The area is well known for its brass bands, with the Brighouse and Rastrick Brass Band, Black Dyke Band, Grimethorpe Colliery Band, Carlton Main Frickley Colliery Band, Rothwell Temperance Band and Hammonds Saltaire Band. Brass bands have mostly been linked with coal mines.

The Brontë family are the region's best known authors. The region's most popular city for tourists is York.

Castleford is the birthplace of the world famous sculptor Henry Moore.

Regional assembly[edit]

The Yorkshire and Humber Assembly was a partnership of all local authorities in the region and representatives of various economic, social and environmental sectors. The full Assembly normally met three times a year, normally in February, June and October.

The full Assembly is responsible for providing regional leadership, agreeing regional strategic priorities, directing the development of the Integrated Regional Framework and endorsing key regional strategies. Membership comprises all 22 local authorities in this region, plus 15 Social, Economic and Environmental partners, and the National Parks for planning purposes.[12]

On 31 March 2009, the Assembly was abolished and replaced by Local Government Yorkshire and Humber, which continues to be based in the former Assembly premises in King Street in Wakefield.[13][14]

Yorkshire is one of the two regions (along with the North West) that were expected to have a referendum about the establishment of an elected regional assembly. When the North East region of England rejected having an elected regional assembly in a referendum, the then Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott announced that he would not move orders for other referendums before the relevant provisions expired in June 2005.

European Parliament[edit]

The European constituency of Yorkshire and the Humber is coterminous with the English region. After the European Parliament election in May 2014, Yorkshire and the Humber is represented by three UK Independence Party two Labour and one Conservative MEPs.

Election results 2014[edit]

Ingleborough in the Yorkshire Dales - the second highest point in the region
Historic region of Yorkshire

Elected candidates are shown in bold. Brackets indicate the number of votes per seat won.

European Election 2014: Yorkshire and The Humber[15][16]
List Candidates Votes % ±%
UKIP Jane Collins, Amjad Bashir, Mike Hookem,
Gary Shores, Jason Smith, Anne Murgatroyd
403,630 31.1 +13.7
Labour Linda McAvan, Richard Corbett,
Eleanor Tunnicliffe, Asghar Khan, Helen Mirfin-Boukouris, Darren Hughes
380,189 29.3 +10.6
Conservative Timothy Kirkhope,
Alex Story, John Procter, Carolyn Abbott, Michael Naughton, Ryan Stephenson
248,945 19.2 −5.3
Green Andrew Cooper, Shan Oakes, Dr Vicky Dunn, Denise Craghill, Martin Hemingway, Kevin Warnes 102,282 7.9 −0.6
Liberal Democrat Edward McMillan-Scott, James Monaghan, Joe Otten, Chris Foote-Wood, Jacqueline Bell, Aqila Choudhry 81,108 6.25 −6.9
An Independence from Europe Christopher Booth, Kerrie Oxenham, Malcolm Snelling, John Buchanan Martin, Paul Balderson Sootheran, Howard Roy Blake 24,297 1.9 N/A
BNP Marlene Guest, Adam Walker, Danny Cooke, Joanne Brown, Steven Richard Harrison, Stuart Henshaw 20,138 1.6 −8.2
Yorkshire First Stewart Arnold, Richard Carter, Richard Honnoraty 19,017 1.5 N/A
English Democrats Chris Beverley, David Wildgoose, Ian Sutton, Colin Porter, Tom Redmood, David Allen 13,288 1.0 −1.5
No2EU Trevor Howard, Mary Jackson, Carrie Hedderwick, Adrian O’Malley, Steven John Andrew, Iain Alaistair Dalton 3,807 0.29 −1.0
Turnout 1,296,701 33.5 +1.2

Demographics[edit]

Population, density and settlements[edit]

Region/County Population Population Density Largest town/city Largest urban area
Yorkshire and the Humber 5,177,200 328/km² Leeds (761,100) West Yorkshire Urban Area (1,499,465)
West Yorkshire 2,118,600 1,004/km² Leeds (761,100) West Yorkshire Urban Area (1,499,465)
South Yorkshire 1,292,900 833/km² Sheffield (551,800) Sheffield Urban Area (640,720)
East Riding of Yorkshire 587,100 137/km² Kingston upon Hull (257,000) Kingston upon Hull Urban Area (301,416)
North Yorkshire 1,061,300 123/km² City of York (193,300) York Urban Area (137,505)
North Lincolnshire 159,000 188/km² Scunthorpe (72,660) Scunthorpe (72,660)
North East Lincolnshire 158,900 828/km² Grimsby (87,574) Grimsby/Cleethorpes (138,842)

[17]

The region has fewer degree-educated adults than the England average and the UK's highest rate of cancer.

Teenage pregnancy[edit]

For top-tier authorities, Kingston upon Hull has the highest teenage pregnancy rate, closely followed by North East Lincolnshire. For top-tier authorities, North Yorkshire has the lowest teenage pregnancy rate. For council districts, Ryedale has the lowest rate, closely followed by Craven. Only North Yorkshire has council districts in the region.

Rotherham had the UK's youngest grandmother - 26 years old. Her 12 year old daughter gave birth on 26 August 1999.[18]

Social deprivation[edit]

For multiple deprivation in England, measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007,[19] the most deprived council districts in the region are, in descending order - Kingston upon Hull (11th in England), Bradford (32nd), Doncaster (41st), Barnsley (43rd), North East Lincolnshire (49th), Sheffield (63rd), Wakefield (66th), Rotherham (68th), Kirklees (82nd), Leeds (85th), and Scarborough (97th). These areas are mostly represented by Labour MPs, with a few Conservative MPs representing parts of Leeds (with a Lib Dem MP) and North East Lincolnshire, and all of Scarborough. Apart from Scarborough, they are unitary authorities.

The least deprived districts are, in descending order - Harrogate, Hambleton, Richmondshire, Craven, and Selby - all in North Yorkshire. Like all of North Yorkshire, they are represented by Conservative MPs. At county level, the least deprived areas are, in descending order - North Yorkshire, York and the East Riding of Yorkshire which all have roughly the same level of deprivation, and lower than the majority of England, including Cheshire and Northamptonshire.

The region as a whole is one of the more deprived in England, measured by having far more Lower Layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs) in the 20% most deprived districts than the 20% least deprived districts.

Kingston upon Hull has the highest proportion of NEETs in the region (and fairly high for the UK - 10.6%).[20][21] This is another demographic extreme it shares with Knowsley in Merseyside.

In March 2011 the region had the third highest overall unemployment claimant count in England with 4.4%. For the region, Hull has the highest rate with 7.8% which is the highest for any English district; North East Lincolnshire is next with 6.4%, and Doncaster has 5.2%. Richmondshire has the lowest rate with 1.8% and Harrogate is next lowest with 1.9%.[22]

Elections[edit]

In the 2010 general election, the region was evenly split between Labour and Conservative; 35% of the region's electorate voted Labour, 33% Conservative and 23% Liberal Democrat.[23] However Labour have almost twice as many seats than the Conservatives with 32 Labour, 18 Conservative and 3 Liberal Democrat. The Conservatives gained 10 seats, with the other two parties losing seats; there was a 6.6% swing from Labour to Conservative. However although Labour has around 60% of the region's seats, the geographic spread is mostly Conservative, due to the Labour seats having a much smaller geographic area. All of South Yorkshire is Labour apart from the Liberal seat of Sheffield Hallam (the least deprived area of South Yorkshire), and Labour is concentrated in the other coalfield areas and Hull.

Eurostat NUTS[edit]

In the Eurostat Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), Yorkshire and the Humber is a level-1 NUTS region, coded "UKE", which is subdivided as follows:

NUTS 1 Code NUTS 2 Code NUTS 3 Code
Yorkshire and the Humber UKE East Riding and North Lincolnshire UKE1 Kingston upon Hull UKE11
NUTS 3 regions of Yorkshire and the Humber 2010 map.svg East Riding of Yorkshire UKE12
North and North East Lincolnshire UKE13
North Yorkshire UKE2 York UKE21
North Yorkshire CC UKE22
South Yorkshire UKE3 Barnsley, Doncaster and Rotherham UKE31
Sheffield UKE32
West Yorkshire UKE4 Bradford UKE41
Leeds UKE42
Calderdale and Kirklees UKE44
Wakefield UKE45


Transport[edit]

Transport policy[edit]

M62 Ouse Bridge, built in 1976

As part of the national transport planning system, the Regional Assembly is required to produce a Regional Transport Strategy (RTS) to provide long term planning for transport in the region. This involves region wide transport schemes such as those carried out by the Highways Agency and Network Rail.[24] Within the region the local transport authorities plan for the future by producing Local Transport Plans (LTP) which outline their strategies, policies and implementation programmes.[25] The most recent LTP is that for the period 2006–11. In the Yorkshire and The Humber region the following transport authorities have published their LTP online: East Riding of Yorkshire U.A.,[26] Kingston upon Hull,[27] North East Lincolnshire U.A.,[28] North Lincolnshire U.A.,[29] North Yorkshire,[30] South Yorkshire,[31] West Yorkshire[32] and York U.A.[33]

Road[edit]

The M62's route in relation to the four major cities it serves: Liverpool, Manchester, Leeds and Hull.

The M62 motorway is Yorkshire's main east-west thoroughfare, and north-south routes are the M1 and the A1, with only the A1 continuing further north, with an upgrade to motorway status currently being built between Dishforth and Leeming. The other main north-south road in the region is the A19.[34] The M180 (continuing as the A180) connects the ports at Grimsby and Immingham via the M18 (European route E22).

The A64 road connects areas in the North East of the region to the main body of motorways. The M1 was originally designed to finish at the A1 at Doncaster; this section became the M18. The section from the Thurcroft Interchange to Leeds was essentially designed to replace the A61, which is still the main road that connects the centres of Sheffield, Barnsley, Wakefield and Leeds, and continues through Harrogate and Ripon to Thirsk. The M180 is shadowed by the A18, which is the main road through Scunthorpe. The single-carriageway A1079 connects Hull to York, and has been exceeding its designed capacity for many years.

The main north-south and east-west routes interchange at a series of junctions to the south and east of Leeds, near Castleford. Leeds and Bradford have inner-city urban motorways, while Sheffield has the Sheffield Parkway and Hull has the Clive Sullivan Way (A63) which connect the city centres with the motorway network. Leeds has an inner-ring road network made mostly out of purpose-built motorway stretches which is mostly sub-terrain to the north of the city centre. Bradford, Huddersfield, Sheffield and York have inner-ring roads made by re-aligning existing roads while Halifax has a town-centre relief scheme made up of the Aachen Way and the North Bridge flyovers.

The Humber Bridge, the tallest bridge in the UK at 538 feet, was the world's longest suspension bridge from 17 July 1981 until 5 April 1998. It was built to connect with a proposed new town near the A15/M180 interchange.

Rail[edit]

Leeds City railway station is the busiest in the region.

The central hubs of the rail network in the region are Leeds, Sheffield and York. The East Coast Main Line passes through Leeds and York, operated by East Coast which is based in York, and England's only state-owned train company. The Midland Main Line finishes at Sheffield, with a less regular service to Leeds, operated by East Midlands Trains. East-west routes are the North TransPennine to Manchester, and South TransPennine through Doncaster.[35] Leeds has a fairly extensive commuter network and an electrified section in the North of Bradford provides many commuter services. Sheffield has a smaller commuter rail network and there are also less extensive systems in Doncaster, Huddersfield, Wakefield and Harrogate, which connect the districts of the settlements to the centre by rail. The express service between Leeds and Huddersfield is notably quick.

SYPTE and WYPTE subsidise commuters' travel with discount schemes. Tram-trains have also been proposed in the area, however no scheme has yet been approved.

Hull is now connected to the capital with its much-improved First Hull Trains service. North Yorkshire has a skeleton train network, with Scarborough and York being the main destinations. The Yorkshire Coast Line connects Hull to Scarborough. The Hull to York Line runs along the north of the Humber through Selby, and takes in Sherburn-in-Elmet and nearby rural stations south of York, being of great use to commuters to York since being reopened in the 1980s.

A GNER InterCity 125 (or High Speed Train [HST]) near York. The InterCity 125 set the current world speed record for a diesel train (148 mph) near Thirsk in 1987.

South of the Humber, Scunthorpe and nearby rural stations are connected by a branch of the main Sheffield to Hull Line (through Doncaster), via the branch from Hatfield and Stainforth, run by Northern Rail. Grimsby is connected (also through Scunthorpe) on First TransPennine Express's South TransPennine route from Sheffield (originating at Manchester Airport).


The region is home to a rail land speed record. On 1 November 1987, a British Rail HST travelled at 238 km/h between Northallerton and Thirsk. The train consisted of power cars 43102 (City of Wakefield)[36] and 43159, and three Mark 3 carriages. This is the world speed record for diesel trains, which used the Paxman Valenta engine.[37]

Mass transit[edit]

Sheffield Supertram in 1998

Only Sheffield has its own mass-transit system, the Supertram, owned by SYPTE and run by Stagecoach. Leeds and Bradford have more developed commuter rail systems but lack any mass transit system. The Leeds Supertram was an approved scheme in Leeds, however the funding was pulled and the scheme has been replaced by the proposed Leeds Trolleybus scheme. In the past Bradford, Halifax, Huddersfield, Kingston upon Hull, Leeds, Rotherham, Sheffield and York have all had mass-transit systems.

Air[edit]

Leeds Bradford International Airport is the busiest in the region.

Airports in the region are Leeds Bradford International Airport at Yeadon, Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield (which opened in April 2005 on the former RAF Finningley) near Doncaster and Humberside Airport (which opened in April 1974 on the former RAF Kirmington) near Brigg in North Lincolnshire. Leeds Bradford International Airport is the largest in the region by passenger numbers, Robin Hood boasts the longest runway (2.7 km) of any airport in the region and Humberside Airport boasts an active heliport.

Sheffield Airport formerly served the city of Sheffield, however the airport struggled to attract many scheduled services and closed following the opening of Robin Hood Doncaster Sheffield Airport.

Lying outside of the region Durham Tees Valley Airport (former RAF Middleton St. George) serves the northernmost areas of the region, being next to the River Tees, and less than a mile from Over Dinsdale on North Yorkshire's northern edge. There are day and night direct rail connections from the region to Manchester Airport.[38] National Express coach services also run directly to London Heathrow Airport from the region.

Water[edit]

The Pride of Rotterdam ferry operates from Hull

Hull has daily ferries (former North Sea Ferries) to Zeebrugge and Rotterdam (Europoort).[39] Hull also has a large freight port and an active fishing port. Immingham carries much freight transport via DFDS Tor Line and the Stena Line. Goole is Britain's most inland port and is used mostly for importing commodities such as coal and timber.

The region also has a canal network. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal links West Yorkshire with the North West and the Aire and Calder Navigation links Leeds and the coal fields of West and North Yorkshire with the ports to the East of the region. There are also several smaller canals in the region, often built for quite specific purposes. Many stretches of the smaller canals in the region have been backfilled.


Economy[edit]

Drax power station's 850 foot chimney is the tallest in the UK

Until 2011Yorkshire Forward was the Regional Development Agency charged with improving the Yorkshire and Humber economy, where some 270,000 businesses contribute to an economy worth in excess of £80 billion. With over 5 million people living in the region it ranks alongside some small countries including Ireland, Greece, Norway and Singapore.[40] The region has the second lowest rate of GVA in England. However Leeds has a much higher average GVA than most of South Yorkshire. Business Link Yorkshire[41] is on the Capitol Business Park in Dodworth, west of the M1 near Barnsley near the bypass (A628). The region's Manufacturing Advisory Service is at [42] is in Potternewton next to Chapel Allerton Hospital, on the former A61, with two other offices at the Advanced Manufacturing Park, Catcliffe off the A630 Sheffield Parkway, and also on St. Georges Road in the west of Hull.

NHS Yorkshire and the Humber, the regional strategic health authority, is at the roundabout at the bottom of Kirkstall Road in Leeds, with another office ion the north of Sheffield. The charity-funded Yorkshire Air Ambulance is based at Leeds Bradford Airport and Bagby, near Thirsk. The state-funded Yorkshire Ambulance Service is based next to Coca-Cola on the Wakefield 41 Business Park, near the A650.

Yorkshire in the past has been synonymous with coal mining. Many pits closed in the 1990s, with only two in the Pontefract area left at Kellingley and Sharlston. In South Yorkshire, there is Maltby Main Colliery and Hatfield Colliery at Stainforth. The NUM was very Yorkshire-dominated. Coal still plays a part in the economy - there are three large power stations along the Aire Valley, with Drax being the second largest in Europe with 3,945 MW of capacity. The distribution area once looked after by the regional electricity company Yorkshire Electricity is now looked after by YEDL, owned by CE Electric UK.

East and North[edit]

Tata Steel Europe steelworks at Scunthorpe

Scunthorpe is where steel is smelted by Tata Steel Europe (former Corus Group before September 2010) in the east of the town; Golden Wonder crisps are made in Frodingham, opposite the steel works; also Esca Food Solutions (another plant was in Milton Keynes before October 2007) make all the beef patties for McDonald's in the UK and Ireland at their factory in Crosby in the north-west of the town, processing around 7000 cattle a week - about 12,000 kg an hour. TSC Foods on the Queensway Ind Estate at the A18/A1029 roundabout in south-east Scunthorpe supply many foodservice products (sauces) to most UK pub chains. Caparo Merchant Bar, next to steel works in Scunthorpe, are the UK's largest producer of merchant bar. Nearby is Tata Steel Wire Rod. Pipers Crisps are on a former airfield next to the A15 at Elsham. There are two large oil refineries west of Immingham, owned by ConocoPhillips (Jet) and Total. Kimberly-Clark make all of its Huggies nappies for Europe at Barton-upon-Humber.

Grimsby is home of England's fishing industry (although most fish is transported from the Peterhead area of Scotland via road), and has many frozen food factories such as Young's Bluecrest. Auto-Trail makes motorhomes on the Europarc, Grimsby, owned by Paris-based Trigano. Wyndeham Gait is a main printer next to the A180/A16 roundabout. Fabricom GDF Suez, an engineering consultancy based on the A1173 in Immingham work in the oil and gas industry.

There is a BP chemical works at Saltend in Hull, and Ineos Enterprises produces vinyl acetate monomer. Croda International, the chemical company, is in East Cowick. Smith & Nephew (wound management division) and Reckitt Benckiser medical and household products companies originated in Hull, and still have large factories there. When Reckitt & Colman merged with the Dutch Benckiser in 1999, much production was moved from Hull to Swindon. Heron Frozen Foods is based there near St Andrew's Quay, and Cranswick plc are a food-processing company based in the north of Hull. Aunt Bessie's is a large food company in the west of Hull near the A63 and Hessle. Nearby Norbert Dentressangle claim to run the largest pea processing factory in the world[43] at the junction of the A1166 and the Clive Sullivan Way (A63), which now supplies all of Birds Eye's peas. Ideal Standard, the plumbing company, now in north Hull next to the Yorkshire Coast Line, was formed in Hull in 1936. Ideal Heating, owned by Stelrad and based nearby, make domestic boilers, and have diversified into air source heat pumps and solar thermal water heaters. Comet, who originated there, had some main offices on George Street. Logan Teleflex (former Fabricom Airport Systems, and owned by Daifuku) makes luggage sorting systems near the B1237/A1033 junction in north Hull. KCOM Group (former Kingston Communications) is an iconic telecommunications company based next to Hull City Hall. Seven Seas, owned by Merck KGaA, make cod liver oil and multivitamins is on the A1033 in Marfleet. Fenner plc is in Hessle. BAE Systems Military Air Solutions (former Blackburn Aircraft, and under threat of imminent closure) at Brough is known as the Home of the Hawk, and recently made the Hawk 128, with a fully digital cockpit. Guardian Industries makes float glass in Goole. Swift Group in Cottingham are the only UK manufacturer of caravans.

Theakston Visitor Centre in Masham

There are many RAF bases in North Yorkshire, close to the A1, Catterick Garrison is the largest army base in Europe near Richmond, and the Defence School of Transport Leconfield is near Beverley. RAF Fylingdales is an important, though secret, part of NATO's Ballistic Missile Early Warning System. Nestlé in the UK are based in York, with operations in Halifax. Persimmon plc (the UK's largest builder of houses) is at the A19/A64 junction near Fulford. The Shepherd Building Group (who ownPortakabin) and Portasilo, which makes bulk handling equipment such as silos, are in Huntington, off the A1036 in the east of York. East Coast (former National Express East Coast before November 2009) is near the railway station. Terry's chocolate was closed in September 2005 by its new owner Kraft Foods, and production moved to Poland. Costcutter is based on the A1079 in Dunnington. Best Western Hotels UK are based at Clifton Without.

The Canadian McCain Ltd has been in Scarborough in 1969; Legrand UK make cable management systems at Cayton south of Scarborough on the B1261 next to McCain, and along the road from the coach builder Plaxton. AlphaGraphics UK are based in Seamer. Whitby Seafoods Ltd is in Whitby. Westlers, based on the B1257 in Amotherby make tinned convenience food, and the MoD's military ration packs (also made by Vestey Foods of Coulsdon in London). Dalepak is based in Leeming Bar which is owned by ABP Food Group; Vale of Mowbray have made pork pies in Aiskew since 1928. John Smith's Brewery is at Tadcaster, owned by Heineken UK, which started brewing Newcastle Brown Ale in May 2010,[44] and Samuel Smith Brewery. At Masham, there is the Theakston Brewery and the Black Sheep Brewery. Skipton Building Society is in Skipton. NatWest Streamline, the UK's main merchant account provider, is on the B6162 at Harlow Hill in the west of Harrogate; Principal Hayley Group UK (hotels), is at Oatlands in the south of the town. Silver Cross, the iconic pram manufacturer named after Silver Cross Street in Leeds, is headquartered in Broughton at the junction of the A59 and A56 west of Skipton, although its Heritage prams are made in Bingley (most are made overseas). Quorn is made in Stokesley by Marlow Foods. Slingsby Aviation make gliders and planes in Kirkbymoorside, on the A170. Perry Slingsby Systems (part of Forum Energy Technologies), next to Slingsby make remotely operated underwater vehicles (ROVs), who have helped to develop the NATO Submarine Rescue System. South of Selby, Saint-Gobain Glass UK (Solaglas) has made float glass for low emissivity windows since 2000 next to the A19 at the A645 roundabout, directly south of the Eggborough power station.

West and South[edit]

Asda's Headquarters, Asda House in Leeds

Leeds is now a centre of financial services companies,[45][46] with Direct Line[47] and First Direct[48] based there, as well as Asda,[49] Arla Foods UK (maker of Lurpak and Anchor butter) in Stourton near the A639 junction 44 of the M1 (formerly in Kirkstall near Yorkshire Television). The Green Flag roadside recovery firm has its main call centre (in Farsley). HSBC opened their first UK call centre in the city, taking advantage of its advanced communications network which also led to the founding of Freeserve in Leeds. The Department of Health has a large administration operation at Quarry House, a local landmark. The Waddingtons board game company was founded in Leeds, as was the Burton tailoring company (the Burton Group became the Arcadia Group) and M & S. The Tetley's Brewery closed in 2011 and moved operations to Northampton (Carlsberg). Optare make buses in Cross Gates. Dr. Oetker products are made at Colton near the M1 junction and Sherburn-in-Elmet. Craftsman Tools on the A659 in Otley make toolholding systems and fixtures. Aramark UK is in West Park, Leeds. Unilever have their aerosol division at Whinmoor, in north-east Leeds, administrated by Lever Fabergé. It claims to be the largest aerosol factory in the world, and has their research centre, and makes Impulse, Lynx, Dove and Sure. WABCO Vehicle Control Systems UK (air brakes) is in Morley, and QHotels are on Bruntcliffe Road (A650) in Bruntcliffe. Hermes Europe (former Parcelnet before 2009, which was Directline and Speedlink before 1999), based at Capitol Park on the A650 at Topcliffe, is the UK's largest home delivery company, and is part of Grattan's parent company. ATB Morley, on the B6157 next to the Owlcotes Centre and owned by Antriebstechnik AG, make electric motors. Symington's make breakfast cereals on the Thornes Business Park, near the A63. The British Library is sited at Thorpe Arch near Wetherby, home of Goldenfry. Clariant UK, the chemical company, is in Yeadon, with a factory in Horsforth. Daniels Group, makers of New Covent Garden Food Company soups (made on the Europarc, Grimsby), are on the Acorn Business Park, off the A64, next to the Asda at Killingbeck. Leeds is the second largest manufacturing city in the UK, after London.

Morrisons is based in Bradford, as are Club 18-30, Provident Financial, Hallmark Cards UK, Seabrook Potato Crisps, Safestyle UK, Yorkshire Building Society, Stylo, the Grattan (owned by Otto GmbH since 2000)[50] catalogue retailer, and Yorkshire Water. Abbey (soon to be Santander) has its savings division there. The Halifax bank (former Building Society) is based in Halifax, the Yorkshire Bank and Leeds Building Society in Leeds, and the Bradford & Bingley in Bingley. The area between Leeds, Bradford and Wakefield is known as the Rhubarb Triangle.

Haribo factory in Pontefract

Ciba Specialty Chemicals (former Allied Colloids) is in Low Moor. Bowers Metrology Group, on the B6381 near the junction with A6177 at Bradford Moor, are a leading measuring instruments company, and part of Spear & Jackson. Federal-Mogul, off the A650 in east Bradford, makes automotive parts. Knightsbridge Furniture is on the B6165 in Lister Hills. Pace plc in Saltaire is the global market leader in set-top boxs. Denso Marston Ltd make car radiators in Shipley.

Reflecting Roadstuds Ltd, where cat's eyes were invented by Percy Shaw, are in Boothtown, in the north of Halifax. Crosslee plc, south of Hipperholme on the A644 towards Brighouse, is Europe's largest independent tumble dryer manufacturer, under the White Knight brand. Calrec Audio, an electronics firm that makes mixing desks, are on the A6033 at Nutclough, Hebden Bridge.

Syngenta works in Huddersfield

Fox's Biscuits (part of Northern Foods) and Cattles are in Batley. Birkby’s Plastics make automotive components in Liversedge, and was the first company in the UK to mould plastic in the First World War. Rieter Automotive make car furnishings on the A638 in Heckmondwike. Poundstretcher is in Deighton east of Huddersfield, and on Leeds Road (A62) Syngenta have a large factory (former ICI then AstraZeneca) manufacturing herbicides and cyhalothrin insecticide. David Brown Ltd. is in Lockwood in Huddersfield; this company owned Aston Martin from 1947–72 and is the company is now part of Textron. In Huddersfield are Cummins Turbo Technologies (former Holset) who make turbochargers, VTL Group make automotive components, Fired Up Group who own Armco Security and Corby of Windsor (trouser press), Brook Crompton (electric motors) and Graham Group (plumbing retail).

Hickson & Welch (owned by Arch Chemicals) were in Castleford and closed in 2005. Netto UK (now owned by Asda) is in South Elmsall. Nestle make Toffee Crisp and After Eight in Castleford (until 2011) and Haribo makes liquorice and Pontefract cakes in Pontefract. Ardagh Glass UK is at Knottingley, with sites at Monk Bretton and Wheatley (Doncaster). Coca-Cola UK claim to have the largest soft drinks factory in the world at its 41 acre site, with 71,000 sq metres of buildings, at Outwood, which was built in 1989, and produces 6,000 cans (over 100 cans a second, on three canning lines) and 3,300 bottles a minute (seven PET bottling lines, the fastest 2 litre bottling plant in the world), producing 100 million cases of soft drinks a year. To keep up with supply, Rexam have a can factory next door. Nearby is the headquarters of Card Factory. Bombardier built trains at Horbury until 2006 where they made CrossCountry's Class 221 Super Voyager and Class 220 Voyager (and were also assembled at the BN plant in Bruges, Belgium and Crespin in France, the former ANF Industrie). Northern Foods are now based at Trinity Business Park off the A636 south of Wakefield town centre. Wakefield Shirt Group is next to the River Calder.

Cadbury Trebor Bassett at the former Bassett's factory in Owlerton

Sheffield is known for its steel industry, which has declined in recent years. Little Chef are based there, in Carbrook near the Don Valley Stadium. Outokumpu (former British Steel Stainless) near the Tinsley Viaduct make stainless steel. Durham Duplex and High Speed and Carbide make razor blades and industrial knives on the B6082 in Wood Hill. Nearby Davy Markham (owned by IVRCL) on the A6102 at Darnall, fabricate steel and it has one of largest engineering workshops in western Europe. In the same area is William Cook Cast Products. Magtec, on the B6083 in Brightside next to the River Don, makes diesel-electric hybrid drive systems that can be retro-fitted to vehicles. Polestar, at Tinsley off the A631 next to the M1, claim to have the most advanced gravure printing plant in Europe. Tinsley Bridge off the A631 makes suspension springs and torsion bars. SIG plc (Europe's largest insulation distributor) and Stanley Tools UK are at the city airport, with a manufacturing plant off the A631 on the Hellaby Ind Estate next to the M18, and had a former site on the B6075 in Sheffield. Cadbury UK (formerly Bassett's) make liquorice allsorts in the north of Sheffield on the A61 next-door to Owlerton Stadium; it is Cadbury's Gum & Liquorice division. Swann Morton is a world-leading manufacturer of scalpel blades and medical equipment at Owlerton opposite Bassetts on the A61. Plusnet (owned by BT), learndirect (owned by Ufi Ltd), UK Online Centres, and Jobcentre Plus are in the city centre. Spear & Jackson, the garden tool company, are in the north of Sheffield. Ronseal is based in Chapeltown in Sheffield.

Rosebys were in Rotherham, before 2008, and KP make their nuts in Eastwood, to the north of the town. MTL Group, a steel fabrication company, is based off the A631 in Brinsworth who claim to have the largest press brake in the world (made by Ursviken). Tata Steel Europe (former Corus) Steel Narrow Strip is in Templeborough and Brinsworth,[51] with the main plant at Aldwarke. LuK UK (owned by the Schaeffler Group) make clutches at Wales, south of Aston near the M1 junction 31 with the A57. Laycast were nearby until November 2006, based off the B6200 at Aston cum Aughton, at which steel flywheels, vibration dampers and compacted graphite iron clutch plates were cast at its foundry. Fresh-Pak Chilled Foods, off the A633 at Waterside Park, Wombwell, make most of the egg mayonnaise (250 tonnes a week) found in British sandwiches and for sandwich fillers.[52] Morphy Richards and Roberts Radio are based between Swinton and Mexborough. Maplin Electronics is based on the former site of Manvers Main Colliery in Wath-upon-Dearne, off the A6023, with the call centre of Orange broadband next door. The UK Commission for Employment and Skills (Sector Skills Councils) is nearby, next to Dearne Valley College. Stelrad in Swinton Bridge is the UK's largest producer of domestic radiators, producing 2.5 million a year, and Europe's leading radiator company, based off the A6022.

Mr Kipling is based at Carlton just north of Barnsley, and makes Battenberg cakes there. Wharncliffe Publishing are in Barnsley, and to the east on the A628 in Oakwell, Potters Europe make glass microspheres for road reflectors. Galpharm International (bought by Perrigo in January 2008) and Koyo Bearings are at Dodworth near Barnsley. Kostal UK make steering column switches and electrical connectors off the A635 at Highgate in Goldthorpe.

DFS is at Adwick le Street near the A1/A638 junction. Crompton Lighting have their main factory in Wheatley Park on the A630 in north-east Doncaster. Wabtec Rail make railway air brakes near Doncaster railway station. DB Schenker Rail (UK) (former EWS) is on the A6182 in the south of Doncaster. Bridon International, a world-leading manufacturer of wire ropes (part of Melrose plc), are based at Balby Carr, off M18 junction 3, and Montracon (vehicle trailers) are headquartered there, with a manufacturing site at Market Weighton. Polypipe (uPVC pipes) is in Edlington. CME Sanitary Systems in Warmsworth (a former division of Polypipe, now owned by Wirquin of France) makes the UK's best selling plastic toilet seats off junction 36 of the A1(M).

Sport[edit]

Football[edit]

The region is home to numerous Premier League and Football League clubs. Leeds United, Sheffield Wednesday, Sheffield United and Huddersfield Town are the most successful clubs in the region in terms of trophies won, each winning 9, 9, 5 and 4 major trophies respectively. Leeds United are the most successful club in terms of European appearances and success, they have also been the UEFA coefficient Top Club on 3 occasions, more than any other English club.

Here is a list of the Football League clubs in the region ranked in their final league position in the 2013–14 season.

  1. Hull City (16th in the Premier League[53])
  2. Leeds United (15th in the Championship[54])
  3. Sheffield Wednesday (16th in the Championship[54])
  4. Huddersfield Town (17th in the Championship[54])
  5. Doncaster Rovers (22nd in the Championship[54] − relegated to League One)
  6. Barnsley (23rd in the Championship[54] − relegated to League One)
  7. Rotherham United (4th in League One[55] − promoted to the Championship via play-offs)
  8. Sheffield United (7th in League One[55])
  9. Bradford City (11th in League One[55])
  10. Scunthorpe United (2nd in League Two[56] − promoted to League One)
  11. York City (7th in League Two[56])

Rugby League[edit]

The area, similar to north Cheshire and parts of Greater Manchester (along the M62), is synonymous with rugby league. Tanya Arnold, presents the BBC rugby league programme Super League Show.

Local teams are:

Education[edit]

There are 15 Local Education Authorities in the Yorkshire and Humber region.[57] The schools in each authority are listed in the following -

Secondary education[edit]

Schools are mostly comprehensive, with some grammar schools in North Yorkshire, Calderdale and Kirklees.[58]

There are around 235,000 at the region's secondary schools, the 4th lowest for English regions. The region has the highest overall truancy rate in England for both urban and rural areas. Inside the region for districts, Leeds has the highest rate with 6.9% persistent truants at secondary school, then Hull is second with 6.3%. Calderdale has the lowest truancy rate for unitary authorities, almost half that of Leeds, followed by North Lincolnshire. For districts Craven has the lowest rate.

The schools in Hull have often performed among the worst (on average) in England at GCSE[59] after Knowsley in Merseyside. To Hull's credit, three schools in its LEA get above-average GCSE results whereas Knowsley usually has none (it managed two in 2010). Also at GCSE, schools in Barnsley and Bradford have low-achieving results with Barnsley the worst of these, and the lowest in the region in 2010. All three of these areas coincidentally have an above-average teenage pregnancy problem. In past years, Doncaster would be included in this group, but has managed to perform much better. For the metropolitan areas, Calderdale and Wakefield consistently perform the best, with both above the England average. Rotherham usually has the best results in South Yorkshire, but in 2010 it was Doncaster. York and North Yorkshire consistently perform the best at GCSE in the region, and with the East Riding of Yorkshire have results above the UK average.

Schoolchildren in Kingston upon Hull are most likely not to pass any GCSEs - over 6% with Bradford having a similar proportion, closely followed by Sheffield and North East Lincolnshire. The East Riding of Yorkshire and North Lincolnshire have the fewest not passing any GCSEs, followed by York.

For OFSTED inspections across England, the region has the highest proportion of schools (2.7%) with bad behaviour and the lowest proportion (16.3%) of schools with good behaviour. South West England has the best behaving schoolchildren. Inside the region, Hull has the highest proportion (16.7%) of schools with bad behaviour - the worst in England (Wandsworth and Bristol come joint second) - and York schools have the highest proportion (30%) of schools with outstanding behaviour.

At A-level North Lincolnshire, Kirklees, Hull, York and North Yorkshire perform quite well with Kirklees consistently being the best by a large margin and one of the highest in England, all having results above the England average. Wakefield and Calderdale were also close to the England average. The excellent Kirklees result is due to Greenhead College in Huddersfield, and North Lincolnshire's results are due to the John Leggott College, also a sixth form college. The districts of South Yorkshire perform the least in the area at A-level with Rotherham having the best results in this area, slightly below-average, and the other three districts achieve similar results, much lower than those in the former districts of Humberside. Leeds and Bradford now get the lowest results in West Yorkshire.

For both A-level and GCSE, Barnsley and Bradford are very low performing, with Barnsley usually getting the lowest A-level results in the region, but in 2010 North East Lincolnshire came bottom with unusually low results. Hull and northern Lincolnshire have a wide socio-economic diversity – many under-achieving pupils at 16 but with high performers at A-level. Hull, although much worse at GCSE, outperforms the East Riding of Yorkshire at A-level.[60]

School children in North Yorkshire (with York and Kirklees) are the most likely to go to university - they also get the best A level results, and those in the East Riding of Yorkshire are likely to go to university, but get lower overall A level results.

Top twenty state schools in Yorkshire and the Humber (2011 A-level results)[edit]

Harrogate Grammar School
Heckmondwike Grammar School

[61]

Colleges[edit]

There are twenty seven FE colleges. The main four colleges are Bradford College, Grimsby Institute, Doncaster College and Hull College.

The University of Leeds - looking towards the Roger Stevens Building

Universities[edit]

The University of Sheffield's Arts Tower (1966) is the tallest university building in the UK at 78 metres (255 ft), although Imperial College's decorative Queen's Tower is 87 metres (287 ft) and the University of Birmingham's clock tower is around 100 metres (330 ft)[citation needed]

There are ten universities and three higher education colleges in Yorkshire and the Humber, along with (in 2007) 27 Further Education colleges teaching some Higher Education courses.[62]

The Krebs Cycle was discovered at the University of Sheffield in 1937. Liquid crystal displays were developed by the University of Hull in 1972, in conjunction with the Royal Radar Establishment in Worcestershire. Low fat spreads were developed at the University of Leeds (in conjunction with Unilever) in the 1980s, and in the 1930s William Astbury's x-ray diffraction experiments at the university started the road to the discovery of the double helix structure.

Sheffield Hallam University is the largest in the region with 37,000 students, but does not have the most funding. The University of Leeds is not too far behind. The University of York, a large campus similar to a collegiate university, gets much less funding than Leeds and Sheffield, but has quite a high research grant for its size, about half that of Leeds or Sheffield. The other universities do not have large research grants. Leeds and Sheffield have around twice as much total income than any other university. York and Bradford are the two smallest universities.[citation needed]

For first degree students at universities in the region, 27% are native to the region, 16% are from North West England and 11% from the East Midlands; 48% are from Northern England and around 25% from Southern England.[citation needed] Access to the M62 determines the regions from which the region's universities' students originate from - the nearer there are to the motorway the easier it is to study in the Yorkshire and Humberside region.[clarification needed][citation needed] For first degree students native to the region, 43% stay in the region, 16% go to the North West, 11% to the North East and 11% to the East Midlands; just under 10% go to Southern England, with 70% staying in Northern England.

Once graduated, 53% of the region's universities' graduates (native and non-native) stay to find work in the region, with around 10% moving to the North West (Manchester); 70% stay in Northern England, with 20% going to Southern England.[citation needed]

Local media[edit]

BBC in Queens Gardens, Hull

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Government Offices | National | Contact Us". Local Government Yorkshire and Humber. Retrieved 23 April 2011. 
  2. ^ "2011 Census - Population and Household Estimates for England and Wales, March 2011" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 2012. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  3. ^ Department of the Official Report (Hansard), House of Commons, Westminster (27 May 2010). "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 27 May 2010 (pt 0001)". Publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 24 November 2010. 
  4. ^ a b "Yorkshire Geology". Genuki.org. Retrieved 24 October 2007. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f British Canoe Union, Yorkshire and Humberside Region, Access and Recreation Committees ; prepared by Mike Twiggs and David Taylor. (1992). Yorkshire Rivers: A Canoeists Guide. Menasha Ridge Press. ISBN 978-1-871890-16-7. OCLC 27687324. 
  6. ^ "English Climate". Met Office. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 3 May 2008. 
  7. ^ "Cleethorpes 1971–2000 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 7 June 2008. 
  8. ^ "Leeds average weather data.". www.worldtravels.com. Retrieved 14 November 2010. 
  9. ^ "Sheffield 1971–2000 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 17 July 2010. 
  10. ^ "Average Conditions - York, United Kingdom". BBC Weather. BBC. Retrieved 8 March 2010. 
  11. ^ "Local Authorities". Government Office for Yorkshire and the Humber. April 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2008. 
  12. ^ "What is the Assembly and how does it work?". Retrieved 12 May 2008. 
  13. ^ Smithard, Tom (31 March 2009). "The short life and changing times of a people's parliament that never was". Yorkshire Post. Johnston Press Digital Publishing. Retrieved 9 January 2010. 
  14. ^ "Yorkshire and Humber Assembly". Retrieved 12 May 2008. 
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External links[edit]

Coordinates: 53°34′N 1°12′W / 53.567°N 1.200°W / 53.567; -1.200