Yorkshire dialect

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Yorkshire
Native to England
Region Yorkshire
Native speakers
(no estimate available)
Language codes
ISO 639-3
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Location of Yorkshire within England.

The Yorkshire dialect refers to the varieties of English used in the Northern England historic county of Yorkshire. Those varieties are often referred to as Broad Yorkshire or Tyke.[1] The dialect has roots in older languages such as Old English and Old Norse; it should not be confused with modern slang. The Yorkshire Dialect Society exists to promote use of the dialect in both humour and in serious linguistics; there is also an East Riding Dialect Society.

Yorkshire is generally not as stigmatised as other dialects, and has been used in classic works of literature such as Wuthering Heights, Nicholas Nickleby and The Secret Garden. Studies have shown that accents in the West Riding (that is, mostly, modern West and South Yorkshire) are generally popular and are associated with common sense, loyalty and reliability.[2][3]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Traditionally, there was not one dialect in Yorkshire but several. The Survey of English Dialects identified many different accents in Yorkshire. The Yorkshire Dialect Society draws a border roughly at the River Wharfe between two main zones. The area to the southwest of the river is more influenced by Mercian dialect whilst that to the northeast is more influenced by Northumbrian dialect. The distinction was first made by A.J. Ellis in On Early English Pronunciation. It was approved of by Joseph Wright, the founder of the Yorkshire Dialect Society and the author of the English Dialect Dictionary. Investigations at village level by the dialect analysts Stead (1906), Sheard (1945) and Rohrer (1950) mapped a border between the two areas.[4]

Over time, speech has become closer to Standard English and some of the features that once distinguished one town from another have disappeared. In 1945, JA Sheard predicted that various influences "will probably result in the production of a standard West Riding dialect", and KM Petyt found in 1985 that "such a situation is at least very nearly in existence".[5] However, the accent of Hull and East Yorkshire remains markedly different. The accent of the Middlesbrough area has some similarities with Geordie.[6]

The traditional East Riding dialect has many similarities with the Danish language.[7]

Example of a Yorkshire accent (South Yorkshire)
Voice of John Prescott, recorded February 2012 from the BBC Radio 4 programme Desert Island Discs

Problems playing this file? See media help.

One anomalous case in the West Riding is Royston, which absorbed migrants from the Black Country at the end of the 19th century. The speech of Royston contrasts with that of nearby Barnsley, as it retains some Black Country features.[8][9]

Pronunciation[edit]

Some features of Yorkshire pronunciation are general features of northern English accents. Many of them are listed in the northern English accents section on the English English page. For example, Yorkshire speakers have short [a] in words like bath, grass and chance. The long [ɑː] of southern English is widely disliked in these words.[10]

Vowels[edit]

  • Words such as stut, cut, blood, lunch usually take [ʊ], although [ə] is a middle-class variant.[11][12]
  • In parts of the West Riding, none, one, once, nothing are pronounced with [ɒ] rather than [ʊ].[11] A shibboleth for a traditional Huddersfield accent is the word love as [lɒv], to rhyme with "of".[13]
  • Words such as late, face, say, game are pronounced with a monophthong [eː] or [ɛː]. However, words with gh in the spelling (e.g. straight, weight) are usually pronounced with a diphthong [ɛɪ], and some words with ake at the end may be pronounced with [ɛ], as in tek, mek, and sek for take, make, and sake (but not for bake or cake).[11][14]
  • Words with the RP vowel /əʊ/, as in goat, may have a monophthong [oː] or [ɔː].[11] In a recent trend, a fronted monophthong [ɵː] is common amongst young women.[14][15][16] It has developed only in the last decade, yet it has now spread from Hull to Bradford. (Watt and Tillotson 2001) In the West Riding, there may be a split whereby a diphthong [ɔʊ] coexists in other words, especially where it precedes /l/ or where there is a W at the end of a word (e.g. grow, low).[17]
  • If a close vowel precedes /l/, a schwa may be inserted. This gives [iəl] for /iːl/ and (less frequently) [uəl] for /uːl/.[18]
  • When /e/ precedes /r/ in a stressed syllable, /e/ can become [ə]. For example, very can be pronounced [vərɪ].[19]
  • In Hull, Middlesbrough, and other parts of the east coast, the sound in word, heard, nurse, etc. is pronounced in the same way as in square, dare. This is [ɛː].[14][16][20] The set of words with /ɪə/, such as near, fear, beard, etc., may have a similar pronunciation but remains distinctive as [eɛ].[21]
  • In Hull and much of the East Riding, the phoneme /aɪ/ (as in prize) may become a monophthong [aː] before a voiced consonant. For example, five becomes [faːv], prize becomes [praːz]. This does not occur before voiceless consonants, so "price" is [praɪs].[14][22][23]
  • In some areas, especially in the southern half of Yorkshire, there is a tendency to pronounce the phoneme /aʊ/ (as in mouth) as a monophthong [aː]. This is characteristic of informal speech and may coexist with the more formal [aʊ].[24] In Hull, the offset of /aʊ/ is strongly labialised.[21]
  • Words like city and many are pronounced with a final [ɛ] in the Sheffield area.[11]
  • What would be a schwa on the end of a word in other accents is realised as [ɛ] in Hull.[14][16]
  • A prefix to a word is more likely to be stressed than in other accents. For example, "concern" is [kɒnˈsɜːn] rather than [kənˈsɜːn].[25]

The following features are now confined to older speakers in Yorkshire:

  • [uː] in words such as book, cook, and look.[26]
  • Where and there often become a diphthong [iə]. This sound may also be used in words with ea in the spelling: for example, head as [iəd], leaves as [liəvz][11]
  • [eɪ] may take the place of /iː/, especially in words such as key, meat, speak.[11][27]
  • Words such as door, floor, four may take a variety of diphthongal pronunciations [uə, oə, ɔə, ʊə].[24][28]
  • Words with a velar fricative may have [oʊ~ɔʊ] for /ɔː/ (e.g. brought, fought, thought).[11]
  • Some words that end -ight can still be heard in their dialectal forms. For example, night as [niːt] and right as [riːt] or, in some areas, [reɪt].[24]

Consonants[edit]

  • In some areas, an originally voiced consonant followed by a voiceless one can be pronounced as voiceless. For example, Bradford may be pronounced as if it were Bratford, with [t] (although more likely with a glottal stop, [ʔ]) instead of the [d] employed in most English accents. Absolute is often pronounced as if it were apsolute, with a [p] in place of the [b].[29]
  • As with most dialects of English, final [ŋ] sound in, for example, hearing and eating are often reduced to [n]. However, [ŋɡ] can be heard in Sheffield.[12][30]
  • H-dropping is common in informal speech, especially amongst the working-classes.[12]
  • Omission of final stops /d, t/ and fricatives /f, θ, ð/, especially in function words.[12] As in other dialects, with can be reduced to wi, especially before consonants.[31]
  • A glottal stop may also be used to replace /k/ (e.g. like becomes [laɪʔ]) at the end of a syllable.[32]
  • In the Middlesbrough area, glottal reinforcement occurs for /k, p, t/.[6]

Most Yorkshire accents are non-rhotic, but rhotic accents do exist in some areas that border with Lancashire.[citation needed] At the time of the Survey of English Dialects, much of the East Riding was partially rhotic: a final r on a word, as in letter, hour, and quarter would be pronounced in a rhotic manner, but an r mid-way through a word, as in start, yard, and burn would be pronounced in a non-rhotic manner.[33]

Some consonant changes amongst the younger generation are typical of younger speakers across England, but are not part of the traditional dialect:[34]

  • Th-fronting so that [f, v] for /θ, ð/. (Although Joseph Wright noted TH-fronting in the Windhill area in 1892)[35]
  • T-glottalisation. A more traditional pronunciation is to realise /t/ as [r] in certain phrases, which leads to eye-dialect such as gerroff.
  • [ʋ] for /r/.

The following are typical of the older generation:

  • In Sheffield, cases of initial "th" /ð/) become [d]. This pronunciation has led to Sheffielders being given the nickname "dee dahs" (the local forms of "thee" and "thou"/"tha").[36]
  • Initial /ɡ, k/ realised as [d, t] before /l/). For example, clumsy becomes [tlʊmzɛ].[12][37]

Further information[edit]

These features can be found in the English Accents and Dialects collection on the British Library website. This website features samples of Yorkshire (and elsewhere in England) speech in wma format, with annotations on phonology with X-SAMPA phonetic transcriptions, lexis and grammar.

See also Wells (1982), section 4.4.

Vocabulary and grammar[edit]

A list of non-standard grammatical features of Yorkshire speech is shown below. In formal settings, these features are castigated and, as a result, their use is recessive. They are most common amongst older speakers and amongst the working-classes.

  • Definite article reduction: shortening of the to a form without a vowel, often written t'. See this overview and a more detailed page on the Yorkshire Dialect website, and also Jones (2002). This is most likely to be a glottal stop [ʔ], although traditionally it was [t] or (in the areas that border Lancashire) [θ].[38]
  • Some dialect words persist, although most have fallen out of use. The use of owt and nowt, derived from Old English a wiht and ne wiht, mean anything and nothing. They are pronounced [aʊt] and [naʊt] in North Yorkshire, but as [ɔʊt] and [nɔʊt] in most of the rest of Yorkshire. Other examples of dialect still in use include flayed (sometimes flayt) (scared), laik (play), roar (cry), aye (yes), nay (emphatic "no"), and all (also), anyroad (anyway) and afore (before).[39]
  • When making a comparison such as greater than or lesser than, the word "nor" can be used in place of "than", e.g. better nor him.[40]
  • Nouns describing units of value, weight, distance, height and sometimes volumes of liquid have no plural marker. For example, ten pounds becomes ten pound; five miles becomes five mile.[41]
  • The word us is often used in place of me or in the place of our (e.g. we should put us names on us property).[42] Us is invariably pronounced with a final [z] rather than an [s].[43]
  • Use of the singular second-person pronoun thou (often written tha) and thee. This is a T form in the T-V distinction, and is largely confined to male, mostly older speakers.[44]
  • Were can be used in place of was when connected to a singular pronoun.[45]
  • While is often used in the sense of until (e.g. unless we go at a fair lick, we'll not be home while seven.) Stay here while it shuts might cause a non-local to think that they should stay there during its shutting, when the order really means that they should stay only until it shuts.[46]
  • The word self may become sen, e.g. yourself becomes thy sen, tha sen.[47]
  • Similar to other English dialects, using the word them to mean those is common, eg This used to be a pub back in them days.
  • As in many non-standard dialects, double negatives are common, e.g. I was never scared of nobody.[48]
  • The relative clause may be what rather than that, e.g. other people what I've heard. Alternatively there may be no relative clause, e.g. I've a sister lives there.[48]

Contracted negatives[edit]

In informal Yorkshire speech, negatives may be more contracted than in other varieties of English. These forms are shown in the table below. Although the final consonant is written as [t], this may be realised as [ʔ], especially when followed by a consonant.[49]

Word Primary Contraction Secondary Contraction
isn't ɪznt ɪnt
wasn't wɒznt wɒnt
doesn't dʊznt dʊnt
didn't dɪdnt dɪnt
couldn't kʊdnt kʊnt
shouldn't ʃʊdnt ʃʊnt
wouldn't wʊdnt wʊnt
oughtn't ɔːtnt ɔːnt
needn't niːdnt niːnt
mightn't maɪtnt maɪnt
musn't mʊsnt mʊnt (uncommon)
hasn't aznt ant
haven't avnt ant

Hadn't does not become reduced to [ant]. This may be to avoid confusion hasn't or haven't, which can both be realised as [ant].[50]

Yorkshire dialect and accent in popular culture[edit]

The director Ken Loach has set several of his films in South Yorkshire and has stated that he doesn't want actors to deviate from their natural accent.[51] The dialect is strongest in the 1969 film Kes, filmed around Barnsley with local actors. The films Looks and Smiles (1981) and The Navigators (2001) were both set in Sheffield. Loach has noted that the speech is less regionally-marked in his more recent films and has attributed this to changing speech habits in Yorkshire.[52] Dialect of the northern dales featured in the series All Creatures Great and Small.

A number of popular bands hail from Yorkshire and have distinctive Yorkshire accents. Joe Elliott and Rick Savage, vocalist and bassist of Def Leppard, Alex Turner, vocalist of the Arctic Monkeys,[53] Jon McClure, of Reverend and The Makers,[54] Jon Windle, of Little Man Tate,[55] Jarvis Cocker, vocalist of Pulp[56] and Joe Carnall, of Milburn[57] and Phil Oakey (of The Human League) are all known for their Sheffield accents, whilst The Cribs, who are from Netherton, sing in a Wakefield accent.[58] Graham Fellows, in his persona as John Shuttleworth, uses his Sheffield accent, though his first public prominence was as cockney Jilted John.

Actor Sean Bean normally speaks with a Yorkshire accent in his acting roles, as does actor Matthew Lewis, famously known for playing Neville Longbottom in the Harry Potter films.[59][60]

The late British Poet Laureate, Ted Hughes originated from Mytholmroyd, close to the border with Lancashire, and spent much of his childhood in Mexborough, South Yorkshire.[61] His own readings of his work were noted for his "flinty" or "granite" voice and "distinctive accent"[62][63] and some said that his Yorkshire accent affected the rhythm of his poetry.[64]

The soap opera Emmerdale, formerly Emmerdale Farm, was noted for use of Broad Yorkshire but the storylines involving numerous incomers has diluted the dialect until it is hardly heard.

In the ITV Edwardian/interwar period drama Downton Abbey, set at a fictional country estate in North Yorkshire between Thirsk and Ripon, many of the servants and nearly all of the local villagers have Yorkshire accents.

In the HBO television adaptation of George R.R. Martin's Game of Thrones, many of the characters from the North of Westeros speak with Yorkshire accents, matching the native dialect of Sean Bean, who plays Lord Eddard "Ned" Stark.

Several of the dwarves in the Peter Jackson film adaptation of The Hobbit, namely Thorin Oakenshield, Kíli and Fili, speak with Yorkshire accents.

On Ilkla Moor Bar t'At, a popular folk song, is sung in the Yorkshire dialect and accent and considered to be the unofficial anthem of Yorkshire.[65]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Keane, Peter. "Tyke: It's all the Vikings' fault (sort of)". BBC Bradford and West Yorkshire. BBC. Retrieved 16 April 2008. 
  2. ^ "Can I help you!". BBC Bradford and West Yorkshire. BBC. 5 October 2006. Retrieved 5 January 2007. 
  3. ^ Yorkshire named top twang as Brummie brogue comes bottom | UK news | guardian.co.uk
  4. ^ The Yorkshire Dialect Border
  5. ^ KM Petyt, "‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire", page 327, John Benjamins Publishing, 1985
  6. ^ a b Joan C. Beal, An Introduction to Regional Englishes, Edinburgh University Press, 2010, pages 95–99
  7. ^ Rev. M C F. Morris, BCL, MA, YORKSHIRE: The British Workman - Chapter XII: Our Vernacular
  8. ^ Where the Black Country meets Black Barnsley, Kate Burland, University of Sheffield
  9. ^ "Royston Accent Stands Out". We Are Barnsley. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  10. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, page 286, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Stoddart, Upton and Widowson in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 74
  12. ^ a b c d e Stoddart, Upton and Widowson in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 76
  13. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pp.94, 201
  14. ^ a b c d e Williams and Kerswill in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 146
  15. ^ BBC – Voices – The Voices Recordings
  16. ^ a b c Williams and Kerswill in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 143
  17. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, pages 124–132, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985
  18. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, pages 217–218, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985
  19. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, page 218, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985
  20. ^ Handbook of Varieties of English, page 125, Walter de Gruyter, 2004
  21. ^ a b Williams and Kerswill in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 147
  22. ^ Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, pages 156–7
  23. ^ Williams and Kerswill in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, pages 157–159
  24. ^ a b c Stoddart, Upton and Widowson in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 75
  25. ^ Lewis, Jack Windsor. "The General Central-Northern, Non-Dialectal Pronunciation of England". points 4–13. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  26. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pp.168–172
  27. ^ Williams and Kerswill in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 146
  28. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pp.132–137
  29. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, p.205
  30. ^ See section on "Conservative Northernisms" in Our Changing Pronunciation by John C Wells
  31. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pages 146–7
  32. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, p.147
  33. ^ See the Welwick and Nafferton accents on the S.E.D.[1] [2]
  34. ^ Williams and Kerswill in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 159
  35. ^ Wright, Joseph (1892). A Grammar of the Dialect of Windhill. London: Truebner & Co. p. 91. 
  36. ^ Stoddart, Upton and Widowson in Urban Voices, Arnold, London, 1999, page 79
  37. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pages 216–7
  38. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pages 196–8
  39. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pages 239–240
  40. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pages 202–3
  41. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pages 191–3
  42. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pages 190–1, 233
  43. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, page 205
  44. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pages 373–9
  45. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, pages 193–4
  46. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, page 236
  47. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, page 231
  48. ^ a b KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1985, page 238
  49. ^ All information in this table: KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, pages 182–183, John Benjamins Publishing, 1985
  50. ^ KM Petyt, ‘Dialect’ and ‘Accent’ in Industrial West Yorkshire, page 183, John Benjamins Publishing, 1985
  51. ^ Dialect in Films: Examples of South Yorkshire. Grammatical and Lexical Features from Ken Loach Films, Dialectologica 3, page 6
  52. ^ Dialect in Films: Examples of South Yorkshire. Grammatical and Lexical Features from Ken Loach Films, Dialectologica 3, page 19
  53. ^ Petridis, Alex (15 April 2006). "Made in Sheffield". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  54. ^ McCudden, Louise (13 July 2009). "Reverend and the Makers, Koko, July 8th". In the news. www.inthenews.co.uk. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  55. ^ Dean, Will (31 January 2007). "Little man tate about what you know". Drowned in Sound. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  56. ^ Burton, Jane (November 1995). "Cocker Of The North". Telegraph Magazine. Retrieved 15 July 2010. 
  57. ^ "Milburn"These are the facts"". Canadian Content. canadiancontent.net. 1 July 2007. Retrieved 17 May 2012. 
  58. ^ Campling, Katie (28 January 2008). "Interview: Cribs' Ryan Jarman". Huddersfield Daily Examiner. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  59. ^ "» The Syndicate". Matthew-Lewis.com. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  60. ^ "Macbeth - Reviews - Daily Telegraph". Compleatseanbean.com. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  61. ^ Ford, Mark (6 November 2008). "The Myths of Ted Hughes". The New York Review of Books. NYREV Inc. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  62. ^ Anon. "Ted Hughes (1930–1998)". Faber and Faber. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  63. ^ Armitage, Richard. "The Ted Hughes Letters". Richard Armitage Online. RichardArmitageOnline.com. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  64. ^ Anon. "Ted Hughes: Biography". ExampleEssays.com. Retrieved 26 November 2009. 
  65. ^ "The National Anthem of Yorkshire 'God's own county'". DKSnakes.co.uk. 24 October 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2014. 
  • Alexander, D. (2001). Orreight mi ol'. Sheffield: ALD. ISBN 1-901587-18-5. A book about the traditional Sheffield dialect.
  • Jones, M. J. (2002). "The origin of Definite Article Reduction in northern English dialects: evidence from dialect allomorphy". English Language and Linguistics 6.2: 325–345.
  • Wakelin, M. F. (1977). English Dialects: An Introduction, Revised Edition, London: The Athlone Press.
  • Watt, D. and Tillotson, J. (2001). "A spectrographic analysis of vowel fronting in Bradford English". English World-Wide 22:2, pp 269–302. Available at [3]
  • Wells, J. C. (1982). Accents of English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28540-2.

Books written in Yorkshire Dialect[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • All Creatures Great And Small by James Herriot (film and TV series)
  • Up And Down In The Dales, In the Heart Of The Dales, Head Over Heels In The Dales, by Gervase Phinn
  • KM Petyt, Emily Brontë and the Haworth Dialect
  • Joseph Wright, A Grammar of the Dialect of Windhill
  • Hans Tidholm, The Dialect of Egton in North Yorkshire
  • Arnold Kellett, The Yorkshire Dictionary of Dialect, Tradition and Folklore, Smith Settle, 1994.

Several nineteenth century books are kept in specialist libraries.

External links[edit]