Yotsukaidō was inhabited by the Mononobe clan in ancient Japan, from whose name the Monoi region of the city is derived. In the Heian and Kamakura period, it was under the control of shōen ruled by the Chiba clan for over 600 years. During the Edo period, portions were ruled by the Sakura Domain, and portions were tenryō under the direct control of the Tokugawa shogunate . After the Meiji Restoration, the villages of Chiyoda and Asahi were founded on April 1, 1889 within Inba District, Chiba Prefecture. However, much of the area of these villages was already under the control of the Imperial Japanese Army, who had established a field artillery training school in 1886. The artillery school remained an active military installation until 1945. Chiyoda was elevated to town status on December 23, 1940, and merged with Asahi Village on March 10, 1955 to form Yotsukaidō Town. Yotsukaidō was elevated to city status on April 1, 1981. Proposals to merge the city into neighboring Chiba were rejected by public referendum in 2003 and 2004.