You'll Never Walk Alone
|"You'll Never Walk Alone"|
|Introduced in the 1945 musical, Carousel|
|Song by Christine Johnson|
|Lyricist||Oscar Hammerstein II|
|Recorded by||Judy Garland
Gerry & The Pacemakers
"You'll Never Walk Alone" is a show tune from the 1945 Rodgers and Hammerstein musical Carousel. In the second act of the musical, Nettie Fowler, the cousin of the female protagonist Julie Jordan, sings "You'll Never Walk Alone" to comfort and encourage Julie when her husband, Billy Bigelow, the male lead, kills himself to avoid capture during a failed robbery. It is reprised in the final scene to encourage a graduation class of which Louise (Billy and Julie's daughter) is a member. The now invisible Billy, who has been granted the chance to return to Earth for one day in order to redeem himself, watches the ceremony and is able to silently motivate the unhappy Louise to join in the song.
The song is also sung at association football clubs around the world, where it is performed by a massed chorus of supporters on matchday; this tradition began at Liverpool Football Club in the early 1960s and later spread to several other clubs.
Christine Johnson, who created the role of Nettie Fowler, introduced the song in the original Broadway production. Later in the show Jan Clayton, as Julie Jordan, reprised it, with the chorus joining in.
Besides the recordings of the song on the Carousel cast albums and the film soundtrack, the song has been recorded by many artists, with notable hit versions made by Roy Hamilton, Frank Sinatra, Gerry & the Pacemakers, Judy Garland, Elvis Presley, Andy Williams, and Doris Day. Progressive rock group Pink Floyd took a recording by the Liverpool Kop choir, and "interpolated" it into their own song, "Fearless", on their 1971 album Meddle.
From 1964 through 2010, Jerry Lewis concluded the annual Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon by singing the song. After the end of a concert by the rock band Queen, the audience spontaneously sang this song, according to lead guitarist Brian May, and this helped to inspire the creation of their songs "We Are the Champions" and "We Will Rock You". Italian-American tenor Sergio Franchi sang a notable version accompanied by the Welsh Men's Choir on the June 9, 1968 telecast of The Ed Sullivan Show. He also covered this song in his 1964 RCA Victor album The Exciting Voice of Sergio Franchi. American singer and songwriter Barbra Streisand sang this song in a surprise appearance at the close of the 2001 Emmy Awards, in honor of the victims of the September 11th, 2001 attacks.
In The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, the onboard computer Eddie sings this song in an attempt to calm the crew of the Heart of Gold as their imminent destruction approaches in the form of a missile.
In 2010, this was sung during the festivities of the Last Night of the Proms, with the choir at the Royal Albert Hall joined by crowds of the public from Hillsborough Castle, Northern Ireland; Caird Hall, Dundee; Hyde Park, London; Salford, Greater Manchester; and Wales, to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the death of Oscar Hammerstein II.
|"You'll Never Walk Alone"|
|Single by Gerry and the Pacemakers|
|from the album How Do You Like It|
|Recorded||July 2, 1963, EMI Studios, London|
|Label||Columbia (EMI) (UK)
Laurie Records (US)
|Gerry and the Pacemakers singles chronology|
In the United Kingdom, the song's most successful cover was released in 1963 by the Liverpudlian Merseybeat group Gerry and the Pacemakers, peaking at number one in the singles chart for four consecutive weeks.
The song quickly became the anthem of Liverpool Football Club and is invariably sung by its supporters moments before the start of each home game. The words "You'll Never Walk Alone" also feature in the club crest and on the Shankly Gate entrance to Anfield, the home stadium.
According to former player Tommy Smith, lead vocalist Gerry Marsden presented Liverpool manager Bill Shankly with a recording of his forthcoming cover single during a pre-season coach trip in the summer of 1963. "Shanks was in awe of what he heard. ... Football writers from the local newspapers were travelling with our party and, thirsty for a story of any kind between games, filed copy back to their editors to the effect that we had adopted Gerry Marsden's forthcoming single as the club song." The squad was subsequently invited to perform the track with the band on The Ed Sullivan Show and Shankly later picked the song as his eighth and final selection for Desert Island Discs on the eve of the 1965 FA Cup Final.
Marsden himself told BBC Radio how, in the 1960s, the disc jockey at Anfield would play the top-ten commercial records in ascending order, with the number one single transmitted last, shortly before kickoff. Spectators would sing along, but unlike with other hit singles, once "You'll Never Walk Alone" dropped out of the top-ten, instead of disregarding the song, supporters continued to sing it.
The song was later adopted by Scottish team Celtic and is now sung by their fans prior to every home European tie. The song has also been adopted by Dutch teams Feyenoord, FC Twente and SC Cambuur, Germany's Borussia Dortmund, TSG 1899 Hoffenheim, Mainz 05, 1. FC Kaiserslautern, Borussia Mönchengladbach, Alemannia Aachen, FC St Pauli, SV Darmstadt 98 Eintracht Braunschweig, Belgium's Club Brugge, Japan's F.C. Tokyo, Spain's CD Lugo. and the Marist St. Pats MSP 80/80 Blues. In Ice Hockey, the song has been adopted by German Deutsche Eishockey Liga side Krefeld Pinguine and Croatian Medveščak Zagreb.
A special recording of the song was made in solidarity with Bradford City following the Valley Parade fire in 1985, when 56 spectators died and many more were seriously injured. The song was performed by The Crowd, featuring Gerry Marsden and Paul McCartney, among others.
Some years later, after witnessing a rendition of "You'll Never Walk Alone" at Anfield in 2007, the President of the Spanish Olympic Committee, Alejandro Blanco, said he felt inspired to seek lyrics to his country's wordless national anthem, the Marcha Real, ahead of Madrid's bid to host the 2016 Olympic Games.
The song is also the corps song for the Madison Scouts Drum & Bugle Corps of Madison, Wisconsin.
During the 2014 Hong Kong protests, legislator Tam Yiu Chung quoted the song during a Legislative Council of Hong Kong meeting, to salute the Hong Kong Police, who had widespread criticism for using excessive force against pro-democracy protesters. More than 2,000 Liverpool Football Club fans in Hong Kong condemned his inappropriate use of the song, comparing his support of the police action to the police actions in the 1989 Hillsborough disaster, where British Police were found to have distorted facts relating to the accidental death of 96 Liverpool supporters.   
- The Adicts
- Alfie Boe ("Onward") (2007)
- Alicia Keys (Hurricane Katrina disaster relief, 2005)
- André Hazes
- André Rieu (2009 Maastricht concert)
- Aretha Franklin (1972, on the live album Amazing Grace)
- The Bachelors
- Barbra Streisand
- Barry Manilow & Cilla Black (1993)
- Bela B. & the Tikiwolves feat. Gary'o'Wolf (official FC St. Pauli Stadionhymn, 1992)
- Bernadette Peters
- Billy Eckstine (1960): Live album No Cover, No Minimum, recorded in Las Vegas. Production was by Teddy Reig. The album was originally released by Roulette Records, but is also available on the Blue Note label.
- Bryn Terfel (1996) – Something Wonderful: Bryn Terfel Sings Rodgers and Hammerstein
- Charice (2008)
- Celtic Woman (Believe 2011)
- Chris de Burgh (2008)
- Christy Gibson (Thai Language Version) (2001) – Soo Yod Kao
- Christine Johnson on the Carousel Original Cast Album (1945)
- Claramae Turner on the Carousel film soundtrack (1956)
- The Crusaders (1966)
- David Campbell (2010)
- David Phelps on the album Classic (2012)
- David Whitfield
- Die Toten Hosen (2000, Bayern ep)
- Dionne Warwick (1967, On Stage and in the Movies album track)
- Doris Akers (1963)
- Doris Day (on the You'll Never Walk Alone album) (1962)
- Dudu Fisher (2006)
- Elvis Presley (1968 single release)
- Frank Sinatra (1945) (1963)
- Frankie Vaughan (1979)
- Gene Vincent (1958) (Gene Vincent Rocks and the Blue Caps Roll album track)
- Gerry & The Pacemakers (1963)
- Hayley Westenra (2001)
- Il Divo (A Musical Affair, 2013)
- Jackie Wilson (1965)
- Jerry Reed (1971) (Ko-Ko Joe album track)
- John Barrowman (2010) (John Barrowman album track)
- John Farnham (1998) - The Spirit of Christmas (compilation album)
- Johnny Cash (2003)
- Jo Stafford and Gordon MacRae (1963)
- Johnny Maestro & The Brooklyn Bridge (1969)
- Joseph Calleja (Last Night of the Proms, 2012)
- Josh Groban (2015) 
- Joyce DiDonato (2012)
- Juan Diego Flórez (Live 8 – Berlin) (2005)
- Judy Garland (1960)
- Katherine Jenkins (2005)
- Kevin Rowland (1999)
- Kiri Te Kanawa with the Mormon Tabernacle Choir (1990) – Songs of Inspiration
- KUKU (2013) – Being there - Orange CAN 2013"
- Lee Greenwood
- Lee Towers (1976)
- The Lettermen (1964)
- Liverpool F.C. (1977) (FA Cup single: A-side - "We Can Do It" / "Liverpool Lou" B-side - "We Shall Not Be Moved" / "You'll Never Walk Alone")
- Los Fastidios
- Louis Armstrong (1954) in a medley with Tenderly
- Mahalia Jackson
- Malena Ernman (2013)
- Malcolm Vaughan (1959)
- Mario Lanza (1952 and 1956)
- Maureen Forrester on the Carousel MCA Classics album (1987)
- Melanie Chisholm (2012)
- Michael Crawford (1987)
- Mormon Tabernacle Choir (1971)
- Nina Simone (1959)
- Olivia Newton-John (1989) – Warm and Tender
- Patricia Neway in the soundtrack of the 1967 television adaptation of Carousel (1967)
- Patti Labelle & The Blue Belles (1964)
- Patti LaBelle (1980's)
- Pink Floyd (1971) – "Fearless"
- Pips, Chips & Videoclips (Dernjava album, 1995)
- The Priests (2009)
- Perry Como (1956)
- Ray Charles (Ingredients in a Recipe for Soul album track, July 1963)
- Regine Velasquez (2004)
- Renée Fleming (2003)
- The Righteous Brothers (1965)
- Robson & Jerome (1996)
- Roy Hamilton (1954)
- Samuel Ramey (1989)
- Sergio Franchi recorded on 1964 RCA album, The Exciting Voice of Sergio Franchi
- The Shadows (Reflection album track, 1990)
- Shirley Bassey (1962, single B-side to "Ave Maria")
- Shirley Jones recorded it on the original movie soundtrack of Carousel and again on her 1989 album Silent Strength
- Sissel Kyrkjebø (2004)
- Smoking Popes
- The Soldiers (2011)
- Steven Houghton (1997) – Steven Houghton
- Susan Boyle (Standing Ovation: The Greatest Songs from the Stage, 2012)
- Tammy Wynette
- The 465 CT Transit driver with Máiréad Nesbitt on the Violin during EWR's Arrivals Ceremony (2013)
- The Three Tenors (1998)
- Tokyo Ska Paradise Orchestra (2009) – Paradise Blue
- Tom Jones (1969)
- Vocal Majority (1997) – How Sweet the Sound
- Wayne Hussey and Julianne Regan (2011) (in support of Liverpool F.C.'s disability charity, Respect 4 All)
- Liverpool vs. Leeds United on YouTube, F.A. Cup Final, BBC, 1965. "The song was covered by Liverpool group Gerry & The Pacemakers in 1963. At this time, supporters standing on the Spion Kop terrace at Anfield began singing popular chart songs of the day. The mood was captured on camera by a BBC Panorama camera crew in 1964. One year later, when Liverpool faced Leeds in the cup final, the travelling Kop sang the same song and match commentator Kenneth Wolstenholme commended the 'Liverpool signature tune'." Paul Coslett, You'll Never Walk Alone BBC Online. June 9, 2008.
- "You'll Never Walk Alone (original version 1945)". Youtube. Retrieved April 20, 2011.
- Gilliland, John (1969). "Show 3 - The Tribal Drum: The rise of rhythm and blues. [Part 1]" (AUDIO). Pop Chronicles. Digital.library.unt.edu.
- "Milestones: Retiring: Jerry Lewis", Time magazine, May 30, 2011, p. 17
- Interview with Tom Browne for BBC Radio One, broadcast Christmas Eve and Boxing Day 1977
- DVD is not dated
- [dead link]
- Streisand's stage fright spiked with thought of terror, By Edna Gundersen, USA Today, December 12, 2001
- "The Hitchhiker's Guide To The Galaxy – Character Guide – British Comedy Guide". Comedy.co.uk. Retrieved April 20, 2011.
- Video on YouTube
- Gallo, Phil (January 18, 2009). "We Are One: The Obama Inaugural Celebration". Variety. RBI. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- Gerry and the Pacemakers diary
- Aldred, Jessica. Liverpool or Celtic: who Walked Alone first? The Guardian. March 12, 2003.
- Smith, Tommy. Anfield Iron, Bantam Press, p. 68-69
- Hart, Simon (25 October 2013). "Anfield’s 50 years of never walking alone". The Independent. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
- Bill Shankly, Desert island Discs BBC, Mon April 26, 1965.
- Cavanagh, John. "The History of You'll Never Walk Alone", BBC Songlines, 2006.
- Morgan, John. "The Other Mersey Sound", BBC Panorama, 1964.
- Whyatt, Chris. McClaren's new charges BBC. August 13, 2008.
- Bela B. & The Tikiwolves feat. Gary 'O' Wolf: You'll Never Walk Alone (FC St. Pauli hymn) at Discogs (list of releases)
- Nagatomo tells Japan "You'll never walk alone", The mainichi Daily News. March 2011.
- "You´ll never walk alone" in Anxo Carro. Punto Pelota TV Programm
- Liverpool fans inspire Spain to write words to anthem, Reuters. June 5, 2005
- Spain to add lyrics to wordless national anthem, MSNBC. June 26, 2007.
- Legistrative Council Record.
-  Hong Kong Legislative Council Record
- Yahoo News
-  Hong Kong Legislative Council Record 08:07:18 - 08:07:35
- John The Punk. "Welcome to The Adicts Official Website!". Adicts.us. Retrieved April 20, 2011.
- "Cilla Black Discography: You'll Never Walk Alone (duet with Barry Manilow) – Single". Retrieved May 21, 2009.
- "Richard Rogers: You'll Never Walk Alone - Last Night of the BBC Proms 2012". BBC YouTube channel. September 8, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- "Stages — Josh Groban". iTunes Store. Apple Inc. Retrieved March 10, 2015.
- "Joyce contributes to highly anticipated new recording: Rogers & Hammerstein at the Movies". .joycedidonato.com. August 22, 2012. Retrieved October 5, 2012.
- Recorded for Capitol Records Judy Garland with Orchestra conducted, by Norrie Paramor, August 3, 1960.
- It's Raining In My Heart (LP/MC) (Goud & Platina) 1976
- "You'll Never Walk Alone". Thelettermen.com. Retrieved April 20, 2011.
- Columbia Catalog Number DB4816"
- "You'll Never Walk Alone". Youtube.com (Liverpool FC's Channel). Retrieved December 27, 2011.
"The Things That I Used to Do" by Guitar Slim and His Band
|Billboard R&B Best Sellers in Stores number-one single (Roy Hamilton version)
March 27, 1954 – May 15, 1954
"Work With Me Annie" by The Midnighters
"Do You Love Me" by Brian Poole and The Tremeloes
|UK number-one single
(Gerry & The Pacemakers version)
October 31, 1963 (four weeks)
"She Loves You" by The Beatles
"19" by Paul Hardcastle
|UK number-one single (The Crowd version)
June 9, 1985 (two weeks)
"Frankie" by Sister Sledge
"Say You'll Be There" by Spice Girls
|UK number-one single (Robson & Jerome version)
("What Becomes of the Brokenhearted" / "Saturday Night at the Movies" / "You'll Never Walk Alone")
November 3, 1996 (two weeks)
"Breathe" by The Prodigy