Young Bosnia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Young Bosnia
Mlada Bosna
Gavrilloprincip.jpg
Gavrilo Princip, Young Bosnia member and the assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
Founder Unknown
Headquarters Belgrade and various other places in Serbia and Bosnia.
Key people Gavrilo Princip
Main organ Black Hand

Young Bosnia (Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian: Mlada Bosna; Cyrillic: Млада Босна) was a revolutionary movement active before World War I. The members were predominantly school students.[1] It included primarily Serbs but also Bosniaks and Croats[2] There were several motivations promoted amongst different members of the group. There were members who promoted Yugoslavist aims of pan-South Slav unification of territories including Bosnia into a Yugoslavia.[3][page needed][4][5] There were members who promoted Serbian nationalist aims of pan-Serb unification into Serbia.[6] Young Bosnia was inspired from a variety of ideas, movements, and events; such as German romanticism, anarchism, Russian revolutionary socialism, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Friedrich Nietzsche, and the Battle of Kosovo.[7]

The ideologue of Young Bosnia[8] and tyrannicide as its method of the political struggle, was Vladimir Gaćinović.[9] In one letter to Dedijer, one of revolutionaries from Herzegovina (Božidar Zečević) stated that the name of Young Bosnia was first mentioned by Petar Kočić in journal "Homeland" (Serbian: Отаџбина) in 1907. In 1911 Gaćinović published an article titled "Young Bosnia" in Almanac (Serbian: Алманах) published by Prosvjeta.[10]

The rise to power of the popular Karađorđević dynasty in Serbia in the 1900s after the May Overthrow of the Obrenovic dynasty by the Serbian Army in 1903, stimulated support by both Serbs and South Slavs for their unification into a state led by Belgrade.[11] Support for revolutionary Yugoslavism in Bosnia grew with the rise of the Serbo-Croatian Progressive Organization in 1911, and drew in support for the cause from Serbs as well as Croats and some Muslims.[7] Young Bosnia sought the assistance of the Serbian government and received assistance by the Black Hand - a covert organization founded by the Serbian Army.[7]

It was formed during the 1900s in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina (an annexed condominium of Austria-Hungary), with significant influence from neighbouring Serbia.[4][dead link][5]

Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria[edit]

Two notable organizations are referred to in connection with Young Bosnia: Narodna Odbrana and Black Hand. During a Serbian kangaroo court in French-occupied Salonika in 1916–17, Chief of Serbian Military Intelligence Dragutin Dimitrijević Apis testified that he had organized the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914, (the assassin was Gavrilo Princip). In the process, he used not only his power over elements of the Serbian military, but also the Black Hand. Leaders of the Black Hand in turn had penetrated Narodna Obrana and used the Narodna organization to infiltrate the arms and assassins into Sarajevo.

The Serbian National Organization of Petar Kočić had ties with the Young Bosnia.[6] They participated in the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand which ultimately, led to World War I.

"The political union of the Yugoslavs [..] was my basic idea [..] I am a Yugoslav nationalist, aiming for the unification of all Yugoslavs, and I do not care what form of state, but it must be free from Austria"
-Gavrilo Princip during his trial[6]

Vidovdan Heroes' Memorial in Sarajevo

Claimed members of Young Bosnia who participated in the assassination were:

An evening before the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, Princip, Čabrinović and Ilić visited the grave of Bogdan Žerajić for the last time.[12] Žerajić's proclamation "He who wants to live, let him die. He who wants to die, let him live", was quoted by Gavrilo Princip in one of the songs he wrote (Serbian: Ал право је рекао пре Жерајић, соко сиви: Ко хоће да живи, нек мре, Ко хоће да мре, нек живи).[13]

Museum of Young Bosnia[edit]

The Museum of Young Bosnia was built in the period of SFR Yugoslavia in 1953, at the place where the assassination took place. It commemorates the assassins, popularly known in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia as the "Vidovdan heroes". At the front of the museum was a plaque, inscribed: "From this place, on 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, expressed with his shot the people's revolt against tyranny and their centuries-old struggle for freedom. (Са овога мјеста 28. јуна 1914. године Гаврило Принцип својим пуцњем изрази народни протест против тираније и вјековну тежњу наших народа за слободом.)" In 1992, soldiers of the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina destroyed both the plaque and Princip's footprints. German forces had removed the 1930 plaque in 1941.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stevenson, David (2004). 1914 - 1918:The History of the First World War. Penguin Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-14-026817-1. 
  2. ^ Dejan Djokić. Yugoslavism: histories of a failed idea, 1918-1992. London, England, UK: C. Hurst & Co. Ltd, 2003. Pp. 24.
  3. ^ Neven Andjelic (2003). Bosnia-Herzegovina: The End of a Legacy. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7146-5485-0. 
  4. ^ a b http://books.google.com/books?id=bAaqxRJiXiEC&pg=PA24
  5. ^ a b John R. Lampe (28 March 2000). Yugoslavia as History: Twice There Was a Country. Cambridge University Press. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-0-521-77401-7. 
  6. ^ a b c The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics Ivo Banac
  7. ^ a b c Stevan K. Pavlowitch (2002). Serbia: The History of an Idea. New York University Press. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-0-8147-6708-5. 
  8. ^ Belgrade (Serbia). Vojni muzej Jugoslovenske narodne armije (1968). Fourteen centuries of struggle for freedom. The Military Museum. p. li. 
  9. ^ Лесковац, Младен; Форишковић, Александар; Попов, Чедомир (2004). Српски биографски речник. Будућност. p. 634. 
  10. ^ Dedijer, Vladimir (1966). Sarajevo hiljadu devetstso četraneste. Prosveta. p. 831. 
  11. ^ Dejan Djokić. Yugoslavism: histories of a failed idea, 1918-1992. London, England, UK: C. Hurst & Co. Ltd, 2003. Pp. 59.
  12. ^ Stand To!: The Journal of the Western Front Association. The Association. 2003. p. 44. "On the evening before 28 June 1914 Princip, Cabrinovic and Ilic paid a last visit to the grave of Bogdan Zerajic in Sarajevo. Zerajic had planned an assault ..." 
  13. ^ Marković, Marko (1961). Članci i ogledi. p. 193.