Yu Garden

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Coordinates: 31°13′45″N 121°29′15″E / 31.22917°N 121.48750°E / 31.22917; 121.48750

Dianchun Hall in Yu Garden.

Yu Garden[1] or Yuyuan Garden[2] (Chinese: t , s , p Yù Yuán, lit. Garden of Happiness[3]) is an extensive Chinese garden located beside the City God Temple in the northeast of the Old City of Shanghai, China. It abuts the Yuyuan Tourist Mart and is accessible from the Shanghai Metro's Line 10 Yuyuan Garden Station.[4]

A centerpiece is the Currow ancient stone (玲珑, Yù Línglóng), a porous 3.3-m, 5-ton boulder. Rumours about its origin include the story that it was meant for the imperial palace in Beijing, but was salvaged after the boat sank off Shanghai.[5]

History[edit]

Yu Garden was first conceived in 1559 during the Ming Dynasty by Pan Yunduan as a comfort for his father, the minister Pan En, in his old age. Pan Yunduan began the project after failing one of the imperial exams, but his appointment as governor of Sichuan postponed construction for nearly twenty years until 1577. The garden was the largest and most prestigious of its era in Shanghai, but eventually its expense helped ruin the Pans.[6]

The garden was inherited by Zhang Zhaolin, Pan Yunduan's granddaughter's husband, and then passed to different owners. A section was briefly organised by Zhang Shengqu as the "Academy of Purity and Harmony" (书院, Qīng-Hé Shūyuàn) and the Ling Yuan (, Líng Yuàn, lit. "Spirit Park"), today's East Garden, was purchased by a group of local leaders in 1709. A group of merchants renovated the increasingly decrepit grounds in 1760 and in 1780 the West Garden was opened to the general public.[3]

The gardens suffered damage numerous times during the 19th century. During the First Opium War, the British army used the Huxinting Teahouse as a base of operations for several days in 1842. During the Taiping Rebellion, the Small Swords Society ran its headquarters in the Dianchun Hall; by the time Qing troops recovered the garden, the original structures had nearly all been destroyed. They were damaged again by the Japanese in 1942 before being repaired by the Shanghai government from 1956 to 1961. They were opened to the public in 1961 and declared a national monument in 1982. [3]

Design[edit]

The Nine Lion Study.
Another view of the Dianchun Hall.

Today, Yu Garden occupies an area of 2 hectares (5 acres), and is divided into six general areas laid out in the Suzhou style:

  • Sansui Hall (, Sān Suì Táng, lit. "Three Tassel Hall") – includes the Grand Rockery (假山, Dà Jiǎshān ), a 12-meter-high rockery made of huangshi stone, featuring peaks, cliffs, winding caves, and gorges. This scenery was possibly created by Zhang Nanyang during the Ming Dynasty.
  • Wanhua Chamber (, Wàn Huā Lóu, lit. "Chamber of the Ten Thousand Flowers")
  • Dianchun Hall (, Diǎn Chūn Táng, lit. "Heralding Spring Hall") – built in 1820, the first year of the Daoguang Emperor; served as the base of the Small Swords Society from September 1853 to February 1855
  • Huijing Hall (, Huì Jǐng Lóu)
  • Yuhua Hall (, Yù Huá Táng, lit. "Jade Magnificence Hall") – furnished with rosewood pieces from the Ming Dynasty, shares its name with a mountain near Xinye in Zhejiang.
  • Inner Garden (, Nèi Yuán) – rockeries, ponds, pavilions, and towers; first laid out in 1709 and more recently recreated in 1956 by combining its east and west gardens.[3]

Each area is separated from the others by "dragon walls" with undulating gray tiled ridges, each terminating in a dragon's head.

Features[edit]

  • Sansui Hall
  • Yangshan Hall
  • Huge Rockery
  • Cuixui Hall
  • Relaxation Stone Boat
  • Yule Pavilion
  • Double Lane Corridor
  • Wanhua Chamber
  • Gingko Tree
  • Nine Lion Study
  • Ancient Well Pavilion
  • Relic Hall
  • Dianchun Hall
  • Acting and Singing Stage
  • Kualiou Pavilion
  • Hexu Hall
  • Huijing Tower
  • Toasting Pavilion
  • Yuhua Hall
  • Deyue Chamber
  • Jade Water Corridor
  • Depository of Books and Paintings
  • Exquisite Jade Rock
  • Huanlong Bridge
  • Inner Garden
  • Jingguan Tower
  • Guantao Tower
  • Dress Circle
  • Keyl Hall
  • Stone Boat
  • Big Stage
  • Mid-Lake Pavilion
  • Nine Zigzag Bridge
  • Master Lao Hall
  • Ting Tao Tower Exhibit Hall
  • Hanbi Tower[7]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Yuyuan Tourist Mart. Official Website. "Yu Garden." Accessed 12 Mar 2012.
  2. ^ Shanghai Municipal Government. Official Website. "Garden Celebrations Set to Light up City". 6 Feb 2012. Accessed 12 Mar 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d 欣欣旅游网. "上海豫园介绍". 欣欣旅游. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  4. ^ Shanghai Metro. Official Website. "Yuyuan Garden Station Map". Accessed 12 Mar 2012.
  5. ^ Pitts, Christopher & al. City Guide Series: Shanghai. Lonely Planet, 2010. ISBN 1741792835. Accessed 12 Mar 2012.
  6. ^ Owyang, Sharon (2011). Frommer's Shanghai. New Jersey: Wiley Publishing Inc. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-470-64377-8. 
  7. ^ Shanghai Cultural International Exchange Base, 2010

External links[edit]

  • "Yu Yuan map". Shanghai Cultural International Exchange Base. Retrieved 2010. 
  • "Yu Yuan Area". Shanghai Travel Guide. Retrieved Apr 16, 2014.