Yucca

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This article is about the genus comprising species of perennials, shrubs, and trees. For the root vegetable, see Cassava. For other uses, see Yucca (disambiguation).
Yucca
Yukka filamentosa.jpg
Yucca filamentosa naturalized in New Zealand
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Asparagaceae
Subfamily: Agavoideae
Genus: Yucca
L.
Species

See text.

Synonyms

Clistoyucca (Engelm.) Trel.
Samuela Trel.
Sarcoyucca (Engelm.) Linding.[1]

Yucca is a genus of perennial shrubs and trees in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Agavoideae.[2] Its 40-50 species are notable for their rosettes of evergreen, tough, sword-shaped leaves and large terminal panicles of white or whitish flowers. They are native to the hot and dry (arid) parts of North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. Early reports of the species were confused with the cassava (Manihot esculenta).[3] Consequently, Linnaeus mistakenly derived the generic name from the Taíno word for the latter, yuca (spelt with a single "c").[4] It is also colloquially known in the lower Midwest United States as "ghosts in the graveyard", as it is commonly found growing in rural graveyards and when in bloom the cluster of (usually pale) flowers on a thin stalk appear as floating apparitions.

Distribution[edit]

Distribution of the capsular fruited species in southwest, midwest USA, Mexico's Baja California and Canada, overview

The natural distribution range of the genus Yucca (49 species and 24 subspecies) covers a vast area of North and Central America. From Baja California in the west, northwards into the southwestern United States, through the drier central states as far north as Alberta in Canada (Yucca glauca ssp. albertana). Yucca is also native to the lowlands and dry beach scrub of the Gulf and South Atlantic states from coastal Texas to easternmost Virginia. To the south, the genus is represented throughout Mexico and extends into Guatemala (Yucca guatemalensis). Yuccas have adapted to an equally vast range of climatic and ecological conditions. They are to be found in rocky deserts and badlands, in prairies and grassland, in mountainous regions, in light woodland, in coastal sands (Yucca filamentosa), and even in subtropical and semitemperate zones, although these are generally arid to semiarid.

Ecology[edit]

Yuccas have a very specialized, mutualistic pollination system, being pollinated by yucca moths (family Prodoxidae); the insect purposefully transfers the pollen from the stamens of one plant to the stigma of another, and at the same time lays an egg in the flower; the moth larva then feeds on some of the developing seeds, always leaving enough seed to perpetuate the species. Yucca species are the host plants for the caterpillars of the yucca giant-skipper (Megathymus yuccae),[5] ursine giant-skipper (Megathymus ursus),[6] and Strecker's giant-skipper (Megathymus streckeri).[7]

Large Joshua tree with thick trunk at Grapevine Springs Ranch, AZ

Uses[edit]

Yuccas are widely grown as ornamental plants in gardens. Many species also bear edible parts, including fruits, seeds, flowers, flowering stems,[8] and more rarely roots. References to yucca root as food often stem from confusion with the similarly pronounced, but botanically unrelated, yuca, also called cassava (Manihot esculenta). Roots of soaptree yucca (Yucca elata) are high in saponins and are used as a shampoo in Native American rituals. Dried yucca leaves and trunk fibers have a low ignition temperature, making the plant desirable for use in starting fires via friction.[9] In rural Appalachian areas, species such as Yucca filamentosa are referred to as "meat hangers". The tough, fibrous leaves with their sharp-spined tips were used to puncture meat and knotted to form a loop with which to hang meat for salt curing or in smoke houses.

Cultivation[edit]

Yuccas are widely grown as architectural plants providing a dramatic accent to landscape design. They tolerate a range of conditions, but are best grown in full sun in subtropical or mild temperate areas. In gardening centres and horticultural catalogues they are usually grouped with other architectural plants such as cordylines and phormiums.[10]

Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia) are protected by law in some states. A permit is needed for wild collection. As a landscape plant, they can be killed by excessive water during their summer dormant phase, so are avoided by landscape contractors.

Several species of yucca can be grown outdoors in mild temperate climates where they are protected from frost. These include:-[10]

Symbolism[edit]

The "yucca flower" is the state flower of New Mexico. No species name is given in the citation.

Species[edit]

As of February 2012, the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families recognizes 49 species of Yucca and a number of hybrids:[11]

Yucca aloifolia 4.jpg Yucca-aloifolia-20071002-2.jpg Yucca aloifolia L. (Type species) (syn. Yucca yucatana) Aloe yucca, Spanish bayonet
Yucca angustissima fh 1179.14 AZ B.jpg Yucca angustissima Engelm. ex Trel. (including Yucca kanabensis) Narrowleaf yucca, Spanish bayonet
Yucca arkansana fh 1185.30 TX B.jpg Yucca arkansana Trel.
Yucca baccata whole.jpg Yucca baccata close.jpg Yucca baccata Torr. (including Yucca thornberi) Banana yucca, datil
Yucca baileyi.jpg Yucca baileyi Wooton & Standl. (syn. Yucca standleyi McKelvey)
Joshua Tree in Joshua Tree National Park.jpg Yucca brevifolia flower.jpg Yucca brevifolia Engelm. Joshua tree
Yucca campestris fh 1179.82 BB.jpg Yucca campestris McKelvey
Yucca capensis fh 0619 Baja California Sur B.jpg Yucca capensis L.W.Lenz
Yucca carnerosana fh 1179.26 TX B.jpg Yucca carnerosana (Trel.) McKelvey
Yucca cernua fh 1185.31 TX BB.JPG Yucca cernua E.L.Keith
Yucca coahuilensis fh 1184.45 TX BB.jpg Yucca coahuilensis Matuda & I.L.Pina
Yucca constricta fh 1180.67 TX B.jpg Yucca constricta Buckley Buckley's yucca
Yucca decipiens.jpg Yucca decipiens 2.jpg Yucca decipiens Trel. Palma China
Yucca declinata Laferr.
Yucca desmetiana.JPG Yucca desmetiana Baker
Yucca elata blooming.jpg Yucca elata flowers.jpg Yucca elata (Engelm.) Engelm. Soaptree yucca
Yucca endlichiana fh 0334 MEX B.jpg Yucca endlichiana Trel.
Yucca torreyi fh 1180.18 TX B.jpg Yucca faxoniana Sarg. (syn. Yucca torreyi) Torrey yucca
Yukka filamentosa.jpg Yucca filamentosa1.jpg Yucca filamentosa L. Spoonleaf yucca, Filament yucca, or Adam's Needle
Yucca filifera Monaco.jpg Yucca filifera Chabaud Palma Chuna yucca
Yucca flaccida.jpg Yucca flaccida Haw. Flaccid leaf yucca
Barcelona 354.JPG Yucca gigantea Lem. (syn. Yucca guatemalensis) Spineless yucca
Yucca glauca soapweed MN 2007.JPG Yucca glauca Sinijukka VII08 H6193.jpg Yucca glauca Nutt. Great Plains yucca
Yucca gloriosa 10.JPG Yucca gloriosa L. (including Yucca recurvifolia) Moundlily yucca, Adam's needle, Spanish dagger
Yucca grandiflora fh 0401 MEX B.jpg Yucca grandiflora Gentry Sahuiliqui yucca
Yucca harrimaniae fh 1179.13 UT B.jpg Yucca harrimaniae Trel. (syn. Yucca nana) Harriman's yucca
Yucca baileyi subsp. intermedia fh 1179.25 NM B.jpg Yucca intermedia McKelvey Intermediate yucca
Yucca jaliscensis.jpg Yucca jaliscensis (Trel.) Trel. Izote
Yucca lacandonica fh 0376 MEX B.jpg | Yucca lacandonica Gómez Pompa & J.Valdés Tropical yucca
Yucca linearifolia MEX BB.jpg Yucca linearifolia Clary
Mexican Blue Yucca, Rio Grande Botanic Garden, Albuquerque NM.jpg Yucca luminosa (syn. Yucca rigida) Blue yucca
Yucca madrensis Gentry Soco yucca
Yucca mixtecana fh 0380 MEX B.jpg Yucca mixtecana García-Mend.
Yucca necopina Shinners
Yucca harrimaniae subsp. neomexicana fh 1180.76 COL B.jpg Yucca neomexicana Wooton & Standl.
Yucca pallida.jpg Yucca pallida McKelvey Pale yucca
Yucca periculosa 1.jpg Yucca periculosa Baker Izote
Yucca potosina fh 0388 MEX B.jpg Yucca potosina Rzed.
Yucca queretaroensis fh 0335 MEX B.jpg Yucca queretaroensis Piña Luján
Yucca reverchonii - Botanischer Garten der Universität Würzburg.JPG Yucca reverchonii Trel.
Yucca rostrata.jpg Yucca rostrata Engelm. ex Trel. Beaked yucca, Big Bend yucca
Yucca rupicola.jpg Yucca rupicola Scheele Texas yucca, or twist-leaf yucca
Yucca schidigera blooming.jpg Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies Mojave yucca
Monaco.Jardin exotique014.jpg Yucca × schottii Hoary yucca or mountain yucca
Yucca harrimanniae subsp. sterilis fh 1179. 78 UT B.jpg Yucca sterilis (Neese & S.L.Welsh) S.L.Welsh & L.C.Higgins
Yucca tenuistyla Trel.
Yucca brooklyn.jpg Yucca thompsoniana Trel. Thompson's yucca
Yucca treculeana (as Yucca canaliculata) Bot. Mag. 86. t. 5201. 1860..jpg Yucca treculeana Carrière Texas bayonet, Trecul's yucca
Yucca utahensis 4.jpg Yucca utahensis 1.jpg Yucca utahensis McKelvey
Yucca valida fh 0602 BC B.jpg Yucca valida Brandegee Datilillo

A number of other species previously classified in Yucca are now classified in the genera Dasylirion, Furcraea, Hesperaloe, Hesperoyucca, and Nolina.

Taxonomic arrangement[edit]

  • Section Yucca formerly Sarcocarpa Engelm.
    • Series Faxonianae Hochstätter
    • Series Baccatae Hochstätter
      • Yucca baccata Torr.
        • Yucca baccata Torr. ssp. baccata
        • Yucca baccata Torr. ssp. vespertina (McKelvey) Hochstätter
        • Yucca baccata Torr. ssp. thornberi (McKelvey) Hochstätter
      • Yucca confinis McKelvey
      • Yucca endlichiana Trel.
      • Yucca arizonica McKelvey
    • Series Treculianae Hochstätter
    • Series Gloriosae Hochstätter
      • Yucca gloriosa L.
      • Yucca recurvifolia Salisb.
    • Series Yucca
      • Yucca madrensis Gentry
      • Yucca linearifolia Clary
      • Yucca elephantipes Regel
      • Yucca lacandonica Gomez-Pompa & Valdes
      • Yucca aloifolia L.
      • Yucca yucatana Engelm.
  • Section Clistocarpa Engelm.
      • Yucca brevifolia Engelm.)
        • Yucca brevifolia Engelm. ssp. brevifolia
        • Yucca brevifolia Engelm. ssp. jaegeriana (McKelvey) Hochstätter
        • Yucca brevifolia Engelm. ssp. herbertii (Webber) Hochstätter
  • Section Chaenocarpa Engelm.
    • Series Filamentosae Hochstätter
      • Yucca filamentosa L.
        • Yucca filamentosa L. ssp. filamentosa
        • Yucca filamentosa L. ssp. smalliana (Fernald) Hochstätter
        • Yucca filamentosa L. ssp. concava (Haw.) Hochstätter
      • Yucca flaccida Haw.
    • Series Rupicolae Hochstätter
      • Yucca cernua Keith
      • Yucca pallida McKelvey
      • Yucca queretaroensis Pina Lujan
      • Yucca reverchonii Trel.
      • Yucca rigida (Engelm.) Trel.
      • Yucca rostrata Engelm. ex Trel.
      • Yucca rupicola Scheele
      • Yucca thompsoniana Trel.
    • Series Harrimaniae Hochstätter
      • Yucca harrimaniae Trel.
        • Yucca harrimaniae Trel. ssp. harrimaniae
        • Yucca harrimaniae Trel. ssp. neomexicana (Wooton & Standl.) Hochstätter
        • Yucca harrimaniae Trel. ssp. sterilis (Neese & Welsh) Hochstätter
        • Yucca harrimaniae Trel. ssp. gilbertiana (Trel.) Hochstätter
      • Yucca nana Hochstätter
    • Series Glaucae (McKelvey) Hochstätter
      • Yucca angustissima Engelm. ex Trel.
        • Yucca angustissima Engelm. ex Trel. ssp. angustissima
        • Yucca angustissima Engelm. ex Trel. ssp. toftiae (Welsh) Hochstätter
        • Yucca angustissima Engelm. ex Trel. ssp. kanabensis (McKelvey) Hochstätter
        • Yucca angustissima Engelm. ex Trel. ssp. avia (Reveal) Hochstätter
      • Yucca baileyi Wooton & Standl.
        • Yucca baileyi Wooton & Standl. ssp. baileyi
        • Yucca baileyi Wooton & Standl. ssp. intermedia (McKelvey) Hochstätter
      • Yucca coahuilensis Matuda & Pinja Lujan
      • Yucca elata Engelm.
        • Yucca elata Engelm. ssp. elata
        • Yucca elata Engelm. ssp. utahensis (McKelvey) Hochstätter
        • Yucca elata Engelm. ssp. verdiensis (McKelvey) Hochstätter
      • Yucca glauca Nutt.
        • Yucca glauca Nutt. ssp. glauca
        • Yucca glauca Nutt. ssp. stricta (Sims) Hochstätter
        • Yucca glauca Nutt. ssp. albertana Hochstätter
      • Yucca campestris McKelvey
      • Yucca constricta Buckley
      • Yucca arkansana Trel.
        • Yucca arkansana Trel. ssp. arkansana
        • Yucca arkansana Trel. ssp. louisianensis (Trel.) Hochstätter
        • Yucca arkansana Trel. ssp. freemanni (Shinners) Hochstätter
  • Section Hesperoyucca Engelm.
    • (Treated as a separate genus Hesperoyucca by some sources.)
      • Yucca whipplei Torr.
        • Yucca whipplei Torr. ssp. whipplei
        • Yucca whipplei Torr. ssp. caespitosa (Jones) Haines
        • Yucca whipplei Torr. ssp. intermedia Haines
        • Yucca whipplei Torr. ssp. percursa Haines
        • Yucca whipplei Torr. ssp. newberryi (McKelvey) Hochstätter
        • Yucca whipplei Torr. ssp. eremica Epling & Haines

Cultivars[edit]

In the years from 1897 to 1907, Carl Ludwig Sprenger created and named 122 Yucca hybrids.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Yucca L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2010-01-19. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  2. ^ Chase, M.W.; Reveal, J.L. & Fay, M.F. (2009), "A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 132–136, doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00999.x 
  3. ^ Irish, Gary (2000). Agaves, Yuccas, and Related Plants: a Gardener's Guide. Timber Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-88192-442-8. 
  4. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. 4 R-Z. Taylor & Francis US. p. 2862. ISBN 978-0-8493-2678-3. 
  5. ^ Daniels, Jaret C. "Yucca Giant-Skipper Butterfly, Megathymus yuccae (Boisduval & Leconte) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)". Electronic Data Information Source. University of Florida IFAS Extension. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  6. ^ "Ursine Giant-Skipper Megathymus ursus Poling, 1902". Butterflies and Moths of North America. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  7. ^ "Strecker's Giant-Skipper Megathymus streckeri (Skinner, 1895)". Butterflies and Moths of North America. Retrieved 2010-06-07. 
  8. ^ Couplan, François (1998). The Encyclopedia of Edible Plants of North America. McGraw Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-87983-821-8. 
  9. ^ Baugh, Dick (1999). "the Miracle of Fire by Friction". In David Wescott. Primitive Technology: A Book of Earth Skills (10 ed.). pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-0-87905-911-8. 
  10. ^ a b RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  11. ^ World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, retrieved 2012-02-23 , search for "Yucca"
General
  • Fritz Hochstätter (Hrsg.): Yucca (Agavaceae). Band 1 Dehiscent-fruited species in the Southwest and Midwest of the USA, Canada and Baja California , Selbst Verlag, 2000. ISBN 3-00-005946-6
  • Fritz Hochstätter (Hrsg.): Yucca (Agavaceae). Band 2 Indehiscent-fruited species in the Southwest, Midwest and East of the USA, Selbst Verlag. 2002. ISBN 3-00-009008-8
  • Fritz Hochstätter (Hrsg.): Yucca (Agavaceae). Band 3 Mexico , Selbst Verlag, 2004. ISBN 3-00-013124-8

External links[edit]