Yugoslav order of battle prior to the invasion of Yugoslavia

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graphic map overlay showing the German thrusts into Yugoslavia
The German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia as shown in the United States Government Why We Fight documentary series

The Yugoslav order of battle prior to the invasion of Yugoslavia includes a listing (or order of battle) of all operational formations of the Royal Yugoslav Army (Serbo-Croatian: Vojska Kraljevine Jugoslavije, VKJ), Royal Yugoslav Air Force (Serbo-Croatian: Vazduhoplovstvo Vojske Kraljevine Jugoslavije, VVKJ) and Royal Yugoslav Navy (Serbo-Croatian: Kraljevska Jugoslovenska Ratna Mornarica, KJRM) immediately prior to the World War II invasion of that country in April 1941.

The VKJ consisted of 33 divisions and a significant number of smaller formations, but due to tentative and incomplete mobilisation, only 7 divisions and 4 smaller formations are known to have been at close to fighting strength and in their planned deployment locations when the German-led Axis assault commenced on 6 April 1941. The Yugoslav defence plan involved placing the bulk of its land forces close to its borders, with very limited strategic reserves in depth. Almost all of the divisions that had been effectively mobilised were concentrated in the 3rd Army Group deployed in the east of the country along the Romanian and Bulgarian borders between the Iron Gates and the Greek border. Most of the heavy weapons and armoured vehicles available to the VKJ were obsolete, most formations were heavily reliant on animal-powered transport, and the VKJ possessed only 50 tanks that could engage front line German tanks on an equal basis.

On 6 April 1941, the VVKJ had been almost completely mobilised, and consisted of 4 air brigades with more than 423 aircraft of Yugoslav, German, Italian, French, Czech and British design, including 107 modern fighter aircraft, and 100 modern medium bombers. Other than a small number of locally made Rogožarski IK-3 fighters, almost all the modern aircraft available to the VVKJ were of German, Italian or British design for which limited spares and munitions were available. The KJRM consisted of a flotilla of river monitors based on the Danube and a small fleet based in several ports along the Adriatic coast. The blue-water navy centred around a destroyer leader, three smaller destroyers, four obsolescent submarines and a gunboat, supplemented by minelayers and torpedo boats. Most of the smaller vessels in the Yugoslav fleet had been inherited from the defeated Austro-Hungarian Empire following World War I and were obsolete.

Royal Yugoslav Army[edit]

a blue, white and red tricolour flag (top to bottom)
The war flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia

At the time of the invasion, the Royal Yugoslav Army (Serbo-Croatian: Vojska Kraljevine Jugoslavije, VKJ) consisted of 29 infantry divisions, three horse cavalry divisions, and a divisional-sized mountain detachment. There were also a significant number of independent infantry, cavalry, mountain, and combined arms brigades, infantry and cavalry regiments and fortress troops, as well as 17 border guard battalions. The Commander-in-chief of the VKJ was the 17-year-old King Peter II, and the Chief of the General Staff was the Prime Minister, Armijski đeneral[a] Dušan Simović.[2] The Yugoslav defence plan positioned almost all land forces close to its borders, with very limited strategic reserves in depth.[3] The VKJ was heavily reliant on animal-powered transport, mainly oxen, and had only 50 relatively modern Renault R35 tanks that could fight German tanks on an equal footing,[4][5] although these were only just being formed into a unit at the time of the invasion.[6] The VKJ was organised into the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Army Groups, the independent 5th and 6th Armies and the Coastal Defence Command.[2] The General Headquarters of the VKJ maintained command over five infantry divisions and a large number of smaller infantry, engineer and artillery units, as well as the only operational tank battalion. Each Army Group and independent Army was supported by an air reconnaissance group attached from the VVKJ.[2] As mobilisation had been tentative and partial, many divisions were still in the process of mobilisation on 6 April 1941.[7] The VKJ order of battle on 6 April 1941 is detailed below as provided by Niehorster.[2][b]

 mobilised  Mobilised less staff and rear units.
 in part  Partly mobilised and moving to concentration area or assigned frontier.
 commenced  In process of mobilisation.
 unknown  Mobilisation status unknown.

1st Army Group[edit]

The 1st Army Group was commanded by Armijski đeneral Milorad Petrović.[8] It consisted of the 4th Army of Armijski đeneral Petar Nedeljković,[9] responsible for the Yugoslav-Hungarian border and deployed behind the Drava between Varaždin and Slatina,[10] and the 7th Army of Divizijski đeneral (Major General) Dušan Trifunović,[11][12] which was responsible for the defence of the northwestern border with Italy and the Third Reich.[13][c]

Composition of 1st Army Group
Army Formation Mobilisation status[15] Notes
4th[9]
27th Infantry Division Savska
commenced
40th Infantry Division Slavonska
in part
42nd Infantry Division Murska
commenced
Detachment Ormozki
unknown
brigade strength
127th Infantry Regiment
unknown
81st Cavalry Regiment
unknown
horse cavalry
7th[12]
32nd Infantry Division Triglavski
commenced
38th Infantry Division Dravska
commenced
Mountain Detachment Triglavski
mobilised
divisional strength[d]
Mountain Detachment Rišnajaski
mobilised
brigade strength[e]
Infantry Detachment Lika
mobilised
brigade strength
1st Army Group[2]
1st Cavalry Division
commenced

4th Army support units included one motorised heavy artillery regiment, one artillery regiment, a motorised anti-aircraft battalion, six border guard battalions, and the 4th Air Reconnaissance Group comprising eighteen Breguet 19s was attached from the VVKJ and was based at Velika Gorica just south of Zagreb.[9] The 7th Army was supported by one artillery regiment and the 6th Air Reconnaissance Group consisting of sixteen Breguet 19s based at Brežice, northwest of Zagreb.[12]

2nd Army Group[edit]

The 2nd Army Group was commanded by Armijski đeneral Milutin Nedić,[2] and consisted of Armijski đeneral Milan Rađenković's 1st Army,[16] responsible for the area between the Danube and the Tisza,[10] and the 2nd Army of Armijski đeneral Dragoslav Miljković,[17] responsible for the border from Slatina to the Danube. There was no Army Group reserve, but the 2nd Army was to constitute a reserve consisting of the 10th Infantry Division Bosanska deployed south of Brod.[10]

Composition of 2nd Army Group
Army Formation Mobilisation status[14] Notes
1st[16]
7th Infantry Division Potiska
commenced
3rd Cavalry Division
commenced
horse cavalry
Infantry Detachment Senta
commenced
brigade strength
Infantry Detachment Sombor
commenced
brigade strength
2nd[17]
10th Infantry Division Bosanska
in part
in reserve
17th Infantry Division Vrbaska
in part
30th Infantry Division Osiječka
commenced
76th Cavalry Regiment
unknown
horse cavalry

The 1st Army was supported by one artillery regiment, one anti-aircraft battalion, and the 1st Air Reconnaissance Group consisting of fifteen Breguet 19s based at Ruma, just west of Sremska Mitrovica.[16] 2nd Army support units comprised one artillery regiment, one anti-aircraft battalion, one border guard battalion, and the 3rd Air Reconnaissance Group consisting of sixteen Breguet 19s based at Staro Topolje just east of Brod.[17]

3rd Army Group[edit]

The 3rd Army Group was commanded by Armijski đeneral Milan Nedić.[2] It consisted of Armijski đeneral Ilija Brašić's 3rd Army,[18] responsible for the border with Albania between Lake Ohrid to Lake Skadar,[10] and the 3rd Territorial Army of Armijski đeneral Jovan Naumović,[19] which was responsible for the eastern sector of the Greek border and a sector along the Bulgarian border. [20] The Army Group reserve consisted of the 22nd Infantry Division Ibarska,[21] deployed around Skopje.[10]

Composition of 3rd Army Group
Army Formation Mobilisation status[22] Notes
3rd[18]
13th Infantry Division Hercegovačka
in part
15th Infantry Division Zetska
commenced
25th Infantry Division Vardarska
commenced
reinforced
31st Infantry Division Kosovska
mobilised
reinforced
Cavalry Detachment Komski
mobilised
brigade strength
horse cavalry
3rd Territorial[19]
5th Infantry Division Šumadijska
mobilised
20th Infantry Division Bregalnička
mobilised
reinforced
46th Infantry Division Moravska
mobilised
Infantry Detachment Strumiki
unknown
brigade strength
21st Infantry Regiment
unknown
3rd Army Group[2]
22nd Infantry Division Ibarska
in part

3rd Army support units included one artillery regiment, one anti-aircraft battalion, eight border guard battalions, and the 5th Air Reconnaissance Group consisting of fourteen Breguet 19s based at Tetovo west of Skopje.[18] The 3rd Territorial Army was supported by one motorised heavy artillery regiment.[19]

5th Independent Army[edit]

The 5th Independent Army was commanded by Armijski đeneral Vladimir Čukavac,[23] and had responsibility for the Romanian and Bulgarian borders between the Iron Gates and the Greek border.[10]

Composition of 5th Independent Army
Army Formation Mobilisation status[22] Notes
5th Independent[23]
8th Infantry Division Krajinska
in part
in reserve
9th Infantry Division Timočka
commenced
34th Infantry Division Toplička
mobilised
50th Infantry Division Drinska
mobilised
2nd Cavalry Division
in part
horse cavalry

The support units of the 5th Independent Army were two motorised heavy artillery regiments, an anti-aircraft battalion, two border guard battalions, and the 2nd Air Reconnaissance Group consisting of sixteen Breguet 19s based at Šarlince south of Niš.[23]

6th Independent Army[edit]

The 6th Independent Army was commanded by Armijski đeneral Dimitrije Živković,[24] and was originally intended to form the strategic reserve for the VKJ. It was deployed around Belgrade and in the Banat region east of the Tisza. It held two infantry divisions in reserve in the lower Morava valley.[10]

Composition of 6th Independent Army
Army Formation Mobilisation status[14] Notes
6th Independent[24]
3rd Infantry Division Dunavska
commenced
49th Infantry Division Sremska
in part
understrength
Infantry Detachment Pozaveracki
unknown
brigade strength
Infantry Detachment Smederevski
unknown
brigade strength
Detachment Savski
unknown
brigade strength[f]
Detachment Banatiski
mobilised
brigade strength[g]
Infantry Detachment Branicevski
unknown
regimental strength
5th Cavalry Regiment
unknown
horse cavalry
71st Cavalry Regiment
unknown
horse cavalry

The 6th Independent Army was supported by an anti-aircraft battalion and the 7th Air Reconnaissance Group consisting of eighteen Breguet 19s based at Smederevska Palanka.[24]

Coastal Defence Command[edit]

Coastal Defence Command was commanded by Armijski đeneral Živko Stanisaviljević,[25] and was responsible for the defence of the Adriatic coast from the Bay of Kotor to Gospić.[10]

Composition of Coastal Defence Command
Army Formation Mobilisation status[21] Notes
Coastal Defence Command
12th Infantry Division Jadranska
commenced
Boka Kotorska Command
commenced
Šibenik Command
commenced
Čapljinski Command
unknown
infantry brigade strength
Trebinjski Command
unknown
infantry regiment strength

Coastal Defence Command was supported by a heavy artillery regiment and an anti-aircraft battalion, and a coastal reconnaissance squadron of four aircraft based near Mostar.[25]

General Headquarters Direct Command[edit]

General Headquarters of the VKJ maintained direct command of five infantry divisions, four independent infantry regiments, two motorised engineer regiments and one tank battalion.[j] A further tank battalion was being formed at the time of the invasion.[k] It also had at its disposal two motorised heavy artillery regiments, fifteen artillery battalions, two anti-aircraft battalions and five independent anti-aircraft companies.[6]

General Headquarters Direct Command
Formation Mobilisation status[21] Notes
Guards Infantry Division
unknown
understrength
1st Infantry Division Cerska
in part
33rd Infantry Division Lička
commenced
44th Infantry Division Unska
in part
47th Infantry Division Dinarska
commenced
22nd Infantry Regiment
unknown
37th Infantry Regiment
unknown
47th Infantry Regiment
unknown
48th Infantry Regiment
unknown

Major equipment[edit]

In April 1941, a significant amount of obsolete equipment was in service with the VKJ, much of which was of World War I vintage. For example, of the 7,000 artillery pieces, less than 60 per cent were relatively modern, and only 50 of the tanks on hand were of comparable quality to front line German tanks.[26] The army inventory included the following major items of equipment:[4]

Major equipment
Equipment Number
Mortars
1,900
Light anti-tank guns
800
75mm field guns
823
105mm field howitzers
180
WWI-vintage howitzers
3,000
Anti-aircraft guns
250
Renault R35 light tanks
50
Škoda S-1d light tanks
50
Renault NC27 light tanks
50
Renault FT and M26/27 light tanks
50
Major items of equipment in service with the Royal Yugoslav Army
tracked green-painted tank with turret mounted on a concrete slab
The French made FT tank was designed during World War I, and by 1941 was no match for German front line tanks. 
a small green-painted wheeled artillery piece with a split trail mounted on a concrete plinth
Škoda 37 mm Model 1937 anti-tank gun 
a pale green-painted wheeled artillery piece on a concrete plinth

Royal Yugoslav Air Force[edit]

a stylised white four-blade propeller overlaid on a blue disc and concentric rings of white (inner) and red (outer)
The roundel of the Royal Yugoslav Air Force

By April 1941, due to the difficulties Yugoslavia had faced in sourcing aircraft, the Royal Yugoslav Air Force (Serbo-Croatian: Vazduhoplovstvo Vojske Kraljevine Jugoslavije, VVKJ) was equipped with 11 different types of operational aircraft, 14 types of training aircraft, and five types of auxiliary aircraft. These aircraft used 22 different engines, four different machine guns and two models of aircraft cannon. This made the training, supply and maintenance of the VVKJ quite problematic.[27] The VVKJ was organised into a headquarters, four air brigades and one naval brigade. Its order of battle on 6 April 1941 is detailed below as provided by Shores, Cull and Malizia, the most detailed work available on the subject.[28][l]

Air Force Headquarters[edit]

The VVKJ was commanded by Brigadni General (Brigadier) Borivoje Mirković, from his headquarters at Ljesnica, and had two air groups and one independent squadron under its direct command.[29] Niehorster includes the VVKJ transport group and the air training school as under the direct command of Air Force Headquarters, and they have been shown here for completeness.[30]

Air Force Headquarters units
Unit Location Aircraft
11th Independent (Long Range Reconnaissance) Group 9 × Bristol Blenheim Mk I light bombers
2 × Hawker Hind Mk I light bombers
81st Bomber Group
Mostar
14 × Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 medium bombers
3 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3a fighters
3 × Hawker Hurricane Mk I fighters
3 × Avia BH-33E biplane fighters[m]
710th Liaison Squadron[n]
Ljesnica
2 × Messerschmitt Bf 108 liaison aircraft
1 × Fieseler Fi 156 Storch liaison aircraft
Transport Group[o]
Zemun
10 × Lockheed Model 10 Electra airliners
2 × Spartan Cruiser transports
2 × Avia-Fokker F.39 airliners
1 × de Havilland Dragon Rapide airliner
2 × Caudron C.440 Goéland utility aircraft
1 × Aeroput MMS-3 light passenger aircraft
1 × de Havilland DH.60 Moth touring and training aircraft
1 × de Havilland Fox Moth passenger aircraft
Air Training School[p]
Mostar
3 × Hawker Hurricane Mk I fighters
3 × Messerschmitt Bf 108 liaison aircraft
2 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3a fighters
3 × Avia BH-33E biplane fighters

1st Fighter Brigade[edit]

The 1st Fighter Brigade was commanded by Pukovnik (Colonel) Dragutin Rupčić, whose headquarters was at Zemun. It consisted of the 2nd and 6th Fighter Regiments and a liaison squadron.[32]

Composition of the 1st Fighter Brigade
Formation Unit Location Aircraft
2nd Fighter Regiment
HQ: Kraljevo
31st Fighter Group
19 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3a fighters
52nd Fighter Group
Knić
15 × Hawker Hurricane I fighters
6th Fighter Regiment
HQ: Zemun
32nd Fighter Group
27 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3a fighters
51st Fighter Group
Zemun
10 × Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3a fighters
6 × Rogozarski IK-3 fighters
702nd Liaison Squadron[q]
Zemun
Messerschmitt Bf 108 liaison aircraft
Fieseler Fi 156 liaison aircraft

2nd Mixed Air Brigade[edit]

The 2nd Mixed Air Brigade was commanded by Pukovnik Jakov Đorđević, whose headquarters was at Nova Topola. It consisted of the 4th Fighter Regiment, the 8th Bomber Regiment, and a liaison squadron.[35]

Composition of the 2nd Mixed Air Brigade
Formation Unit Location Aircraft
4th Fighter Regiment
HQ: Zagreb
33rd Fighter Group
13 × Hawker Hurricane Mk I fighters
34th Fighter Group
Bosanski Aleksandrovac
7 × Hawker Hurricane Mk I fighters
8 × Ikarus IK-2 fighters
8th Bomber Regiment
HQ: Zagreb
68th Bomber Group
12 × Bristol Blenheim Mk I light bombers
69th Bomber Group
Rovine
12 × Bristol Blenheim Mk I light bombers
703rd Liaison Squadron[r]
Nova Topola
Messerschmitt Bf 108 liaison aircraft
Fieseler Fi 156 liaison aircraft

3rd Mixed Air Brigade[edit]

The 3rd Mixed Air Brigade was commanded by Pukovnik Nikola Obuljen, whose headquarters was at Stubol. It consisted of the 3rd Bomber Regiment, 5th Fighter Regiment, and a liaison squadron.[37]

Composition of the 3rd Mixed Air Brigade
Formation Unit Location Aircraft
3rd Bomber Regiment
HQ: Skopje
63rd Bomber Group
30 × Dornier Do 17K light bombers
64th Bomber Group
Petrovec
30 × Dornier Do 17K light bombers
5th Fighter Regiment
HQ: Niš
35th Fighter Group
15 × Hawker Fury Mk II biplane fighters
36th Fighter Group
15 × Hawker Fury Mk II biplane fighters
704th Liaison Squadron[s]
Stubol
Messerschmitt Bf 108 liaison aircraft
Fieseler Fi 156 liaison aircraft

4th Bomber Brigade[edit]

The 4th Bomber Brigade was commanded by Pukovnik Petar Vukčević, whose headquarters was at Ljubić. It consisted of the 1st and 7th Bomber Regiments and a liaison squadron.[39]

Composition of the 1st Fighter Brigade
Formation Unit Location Aircraft
1st Bomber Regiment
HQ: Novi Sad
61st Bomber Group[t]
11 × Bristol Blenheim Mk I light bombers
62nd Bomber Group[u]
Bijeljina
12 × Bristol Blenheim Mk I light bombers
7th Bomber Regiment
HQ: Mostar
66th Bomber Group
13 × Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 medium bombers
67th Bomber Group
13 × Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 medium bombers
705th Liaison Squadron[v]
Ljubić
Messerschmitt Bf 108 liaison aircraft
Fieseler Fi 156 liaison aircraft

Aircraft types[edit]

The Royal Yugoslav Air Force inventory in April 1941 included more than 423 aircraft of Yugoslav, German, Italian, French, Czech and British design, in addition to 20 largely civilian transport aircraft which had been pressed into military service. Of these, 107 of the fighter aircraft were of modern design, the remainder were not capable of meeting front line Axis aircraft on close to equal terms, and were therefore considered obsolete. Some bomber and reconnaissance aircraft were also considered obsolete for the same reason.[27]

Aircraft types
Aircraft type Model Class Number Origin/notes
Fighter aircraft
Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3
61
 Germany
Hawker Hurricane Mk I
41
 United Kingdom
Hawker Fury Mk II biplane
30
 United Kingdom (obsolete)
Ikarus IK-2
8
 Yugoslavia (obsolete)
Rogožarski IK-3
6
 Yugoslavia
Avia BH-33E
6
 Czechoslovakia (obsolete)
Bomber aircraft
Dornier Do 17Ka
medium
60
 Germany
Savoia-Marchetti SM 79-I
medium
40
 Italy
Bristol Blenheim Mk I
light
56
 United Kingdom
Hawker Hind Mk I biplane
light
2
 United Kingdom (obsolete)
Reconnaissance aircraft
Caproni Ca.310
unknown
 Italy
Breguet 19
113
 France (obsolete)
Liaison aircraft
Messerschmitt Bf 108
unknown
 Germany
Fieseler Fi 156
unknown
 Germany

Between 6 and 17 April 1941, the VVKJ took receipt of additional aircraft, including eight Hawker Hurricane Mk Is, six Dornier Do 17Ks, four Bristol Blenheim Mk Is, two Icarus IK-2s, one Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3 and one Rogožarski IK-3.[41]

Aircraft types in service with the Royal Yugoslav Air Force
side view of a single-engined propeller monoplane with green fuselage and light blue underbelly
A Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3 with Royal Yugoslav Air Force markings 
side view of a single-engined propeller monoplane with grey fuselage and tricolour on its tail
A Rogožarski IK-3 with Royal Yugoslav Air Force markings 
side view of a twin-engined propeller monoplane with camouflage fuselage and light blue underbelly
A Dornier Do 17Ka with Royal Yugoslav Air Force markings 
side view of a triple-engined propeller monoplane with camouflage fuselage
A Savoia-Marchetti SM 79-I with Royal Yugoslav Air Force markings 

Royal Yugoslav Navy[edit]

a blue, white and red tricolour flag (top to bottom) with a two-headed eagle crest surmounted by a crown
The naval ensign of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia

The Royal Yugoslav Navy (Serbo-Croatian: Kraljevska Jugoslovenska Ratna Mornarica, KJRM) was small, with its largest ships being an obsolete former German light cruiser (used as a gunnery training ship),[42] one destroyer leader, and three smaller Beograd-class destroyers.[43] The Chief of the Naval Staff was Captain Ivan Kern, and the personnel of the KJRM comprised 625 officers and 5,700 men in full-time service, with another 400 officers and 720 men in the reserve.[44] The KJRM was organised into Riverine and Lake Forces, the Maritime Air Force, Coastal Defence Command, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Torpedo Divisions, the Submarine Division, and a grouping of miscellaneous and training vessels.[45]

Riverine and Lake Forces[edit]

The Riverine and Lake Forces of the KJRM were headquartered on the Danube river in Novi Sad, and were organised into the River Flotilla and three Lake Detachments.[46] Each division of the River Flotilla except the Monitor Division included one or more mobilised customs motorboats.[47]

River Flotilla[47]
Division Ship/vessel name Type Origin/notes
Monitor Division
HQ: Dubovac
river monitor
 Austria-Hungary
former Austro-Hungarian Navy river monitor Bosna[48][49]
river monitor
 Austria-Hungary
former Austro-Hungarian Navy river monitor Bodrog[48][50]
1st Mine Barrage Division
HQ: Bezdan
 Austria-Hungary
former Austro-Hungarian Navy river monitor Enns[48][50]
Šabac
river mine-layer
river transport
2nd Mine Barrage Division
HQ: Stara Kanjiža
river monitor
 Austria-Hungary
former Austro-Hungarian Navy river monitor Körös[48][49]
R-XXI
river tugboat
Senta
river transport
3rd Mine Barrage Division
HQ: Sremski Karlovci
Sisak
river tugboat
river mine-layer
river mine-layer
river transport
4th Mine Barrage Division
HQ: Smederevo
Raška
river tugboat
river mine-layer
river mine-layer
river transport
5th Mine Barrage Division
HQ: Erdut
Tanasko Rajić
river tugboat
river mine-layer
river mine-layer
river transport
Iron Gates Division
HQ: Donji Milanovac
Kumanovo[w]
river tugboat
Vitez[x]
river tugboat
river transport
river transport
river transport
river transport

The Lake Ohrid Detachment was based at Ohrid and consisted of two river gunboats, the Graničar and Stražar and one or more mobilised customs motorboats. The Lake Prespa Detachment was based at Asamati, and it is unclear where the Lake Skadar Detachment was based. Both of the latter detachments consisted of one or more mobilised customs motorboats.[46]

Maritime Air Force[edit]

The Maritime Air Force was headquartered at Kaštel Lukšić near Split, and consisted of the 2nd and 3rd Hydroplane Commands each of regimental strength.[31][y]

Maritime Air Force
Command Group Squadron Location Aircraft
2nd Hydroplane Command
HQ: Divulje
3rd Hydroplane Group
5th Hydroplane Squadron
5 × Rogožarski SIM-XIV-H reconnaissance floatplanes
1 × Ikarus ŠM biplane floatplane
25th Hydroplane Squadron
6 × Dornier Do 22Kj reconnaissance floatplanes
1 × Rogožarski PVT floatplane
4th Hydroplane Group
26th Hydroplane Squadron
5 × Dornier Do J flying boats
1 × Ikarus ŠM biplane floatplane
1 × Rogožarski PVT floatplane
15th Hydroplane Squadron
2 × Rogožarski SIM-XIV-H reconnaissance floatplanes
6–7 × Ikarus IO biplane flying boats
1 × Rogožarski SIM-ХH trainer
3rd Hydroplane Command
HQ: Boka Kotorska
1st Hydroplane Group
1st Hydroplane Squadron
Krtole
5 × Rogožarski SIM-XIV-H reconnaissance floatplanes
1 × Ikarus ŠM biplane floatplane
11th Hydroplane Squadron[z]
2–3 × Rogožarski SIM-XIV-H reconnaissance floatplanes
1 × Heinkel HE 8 reconnaissance floatplane
2nd Hydroplane Group
20th Hydroplane Squadron
6 × Dornier Do 22Kj reconnaissance floatplanes
21st Hydroplane Squadron[aa]
5 × Dornier Do J flying boats
1 × Dornier D floatplane torpedo bomber
2 × Rogožarski PVT floatplanes
Training Squadron[ab]
1 × Rogožarski SIM-XIV-H reconnaissance floatplane
1 × Rogožarski PVT floatplanes
2 × Ikarus IO biplane flying boats
1–2 × Rogožarski SIM-XI trainers
1 × de Havilland DH.60 Moth trainer
several Ikarus ŠM biplane floatplanes
Maritime aircraft types
Model Number Origin/notes
Rogožarski SIM-XIV-H
15–16
 Yugoslavia
Ikarus ŠM
3
 Yugoslavia
Dornier Do 22Kj
12
 Germany
Rogožarski PVT
5
 Yugoslavia
Dornier Do J
10
 Germany
Ikarus IO
8–9
 Yugoslavia
Rogožarski SIM-ХH
1
 Yugoslavia
Heinkel HE 8
1
 Germany
Dornier D
1
 Germany
Rogožarski SIM-XI
1–2
 Yugoslavia
de Havilland DH.60 Moth
1
 United Kingdom

Coastal Defence Command[edit]

The Coastal Defence Command of the KJRM was organised into three sectors along the Adriatic coast of Yugoslavia.[52]

Coastal Defence Command
Sector Ship/vessel name Type Origin/notes
Northern
HQ: Selce
Malinska
mining tender
 Austria-Hungary[53][54]
Silni
patrol craft tender
unknown
Central
HQ: Šibenik
Spasilac
salvage ship
unknown
Lovćen
water tanker
unknown
Labud
minesweeper
unknown
Kobac
minelayer
 German Empire
former German M-class minesweeper M121[48][53]
Mosor
mining tender
 Austria-Hungary[53][54]
Marjan
mining tender
 Austria-Hungary[53][54]
Southern
HQ: Kotor
 Austria-Hungary
former Austro-Hungarian Navy 74-class T-group torpedo boat 76T[48][53]
torpedo boat
 Austria-Hungary
former Austro-Hungarian Navy 74-class T-group torpedo boat 78T[48][53]
Jastreb
minelayer
 German Empire
former German M-class minesweeper M112[48][53]
Galeb
minelayer
 German Empire
former German M-class minesweeper M100[48][53]
Mljet
mining tender
 Austria-Hungary[53][54]
Meljine
mining tender
 Austria-Hungary[53][54]
D2
training boat
unknown
sail training ship
 Weimar Republic
Jaki
miscellaneous auxiliary
unknown
Vila
small converted yacht
unknown

Torpedo Divisions[edit]

The 1st Torpedo Division consisted of the destroyer leader Dubronik and the three Beograd-class destroyers and was based at Kotor. The 2nd and 3rd Torpedo Division consisted of torpedo boats, and were both based at Šibenik.[45]

Torpedo Divisions
Division Ship/vessel name Type Origin/notes
1st
HQ: Kotor
destroyer leader
 United Kingdom[43]
 France
Beograd-class destroyer[48][55]
destroyer
 Yugoslavia
Beograd-class destroyer[48][55]
destroyer
 Yugoslavia
Beograd-class destroyer[48][55]
2nd
HQ: Šibenik
Velebit
torpedo boat
unknown
Rudnik
torpedo boat
unknown
Kajmakčalan
torpedo boat
unknown
Durmitor
torpedo boat
unknown
Dinara
torpedo boat
unknown
Triglav
torpedo boat
unknown
Suvobor
torpedo boat
unknown
Orjen
torpedo boat
unknown
Četnik
torpedo boat
unknown
Uskok
torpedo boat
unknown
Southern
HQ: Šibenik
T7
torpedo boat
 Austria-Hungary
former Austro-Hungarian Navy 74-class F-group torpedo boat 96F[53][48]
T5
torpedo boat
 Austria-Hungary
former Austro-Hungarian Navy 74-class F-group torpedo boat 87F[53][48]
T6
torpedo boat
 Austria-Hungary
former Austro-Hungarian Navy 74-class F-group torpedo boat 93F[53][48]
T8
torpedo boat
 Austria-Hungary
former Austro-Hungarian Navy 74-class F-group torpedo boat 97F[53][48]

Submarine Division[edit]

The Submarine Division was based in Kotor, and consisted of the submarine tender Hvar and four ageing submarines of British or French manufacture.[45][53][54][56]

Submarine Division
Ship/vessel Type Origin/notes
Hvar
submarine tender
unknown
submarine
 United Kingdom
Hrabri-class submarine
submarine
 United Kingdom
Hrabri-class submarine
submarine
 France
Osvetnik-class submarine
submarine
 France
Osvetnik-class submarine

Miscellaneous vessels[edit]

The KJRM included several miscellaneous vessels that were not allocated to a particular division. They included the gunnery training ship Dalmacija, the gunboat Beli Orao and the converted seaplane tender/minelayer Zmaj.[45][ac]

Miscellaneous vessels
Ship/vessel Type Location Origin/notes
light cruiser
Kotor  German Empire
former SMS Niobe, Dalmacija was obsolete and being used as a gunnery training ship[53]
Kotor  Italy
Royal yacht/escort[53][54]
Šibenik  Weimar Republic
converted seaplane tender[53]
Perun
oil tanker
Kotor unknown
Gavran
minelayer
unknown  German Empire
former German M-class minesweeper M106[48][53]
Orao
minelayer
unknown  German Empire
former German M-class minesweeper M97[48][53]
Sokol
minelayer
unknown  German Empire
former German M-class minesweeper M114[48][53]
Vessels in service with the Royal Yugoslav Navy
one larger naval ship moored alongside two small ships with mountains in the background
The light cruiser and gunnery training ship Dalmacija and the mining tenders Mljet and Meljine docked at the Bay of Kotor 
two naval ships moored alongside each other with mountains in the background
The destroyers Dubrovnik (left) and Beograd after their capture by Italy 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Armijski đeneral was equivalent to a United States lieutenant general.[1]
  2. ^ There are significant differences between sources on the components of Royal Yugoslav Army formations, so Niehorster, being the most recent source, has been used to ensure consistency throughout.
  3. ^ According to Barefield, the majority of the 1st Cavalry Division constituted an Army Group reserve,[14] and was located in the Zagreb area.[10]
  4. ^ Mountain Detachment Triglavski consisted of two mountain infantry regiments and a mountain artillery battalion.[12]
  5. ^ Mountain Detachment Rišnajaski consisted of two mountain infantry regiments and a mountain artillery battalion.[12]
  6. ^ Detachment Savski consisted of the 1st Guards Infantry Regiment, the Guards Artillery Regiment and two motorised heavy artillery regiments.[24]
  7. ^ Detachment Banatiski consisted of the 4th Infantry Regiment, the 8th Cavalry Regiment (horse), 1st Guards Cavalry Regiment (horse), 2nd Guards Cavalry Regiment (horse), the horse-drawn Guards Artillery Battalion, and one artillery battalion.[24]
  8. ^ Boka Kotorska Command was commanded by Brigadni General (Brigadier) Vojislav Kuzmanović, and consisted of three fortress infantry regiments.[25]
  9. ^ Šibenik Command was a fortress infantry formation of brigade-strength.[25]
  10. ^ The 1st Tank Battalion was equipped with 48 Renault FT and Renault NC27 light tanks and 8 Škoda S-1d light tanks.[6]
  11. ^ The 2nd Tank Battalion was being formed with Renault R35 light tanks.[6]
  12. ^ Any differences with Niehorster, being a more recent but general source, have been identified in the text or through the use of notes.
  13. ^ Two Avia BH-33Es were detached to Podgorica.[29]
  14. ^ Aircraft types are consistent between Shores, Cull and Malizia,[29] and Niehorster.[30] Aircraft numbers are only provided by Niehorster.[30]
  15. ^ The aircraft types and numbers for the Transport Group are only provided by Niehorster.[30]
  16. ^ The aircraft types and numbers for the Air Training School are only provided by Niehorster.[30] Shores, Cull and Malizia spoecify that there were ten training units, some of which were incorporated into operational regiments, with some being independent units. They state that they were equipped with Breguet 19s, Potez 25s and Caproni Ca.310 aircraft, and a large number of basic training aircraft of Yugoslav origin, but including some German Bücker Bü 131s.[31]
  17. ^ Shores, Cull and Malizia,[33] specify Messerschmitt Bf 108 liaison aircraft and Fieseler Fi 156 liaison aircraft, Niehorster specifies Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3a fighters instead of Fieseler Fi 156 liaison aircraft.[34]
  18. ^ Neither Shores, Cull and Malizia,[33] or Niehorster.[36] specify aircraft numbers
  19. ^ Neither Shores, Cull and Malizia,[37] or Niehorster.[38] specify aircraft numbers
  20. ^ Niehorster specifies that the 61st Bomber Group included 2 × Breguet 19 reconnaissance aircraft and 1 × Bücker Bü 131 biplane trainer aircraft.[40]
  21. ^ Niehorster specifies that the 62nd Bomber Group included 2 × Breguet 19 reconnaissance aircraft and 1 × Bücker Bü 131 biplane trainer aircraft.[40]
  22. ^ Neither Shores, Cull and Malizia,[39] or Niehorster[40] specify aircraft numbers
  23. ^ The Kumanovo and two river transports formed the Juc Canal Group.[47]
  24. ^ The Vitez and two river transports formed the Sipski Canal Group.[47]
  25. ^ Shores, Cull and Malizia specify two Hydroplane Commands, while Niehorster states there were three. Niehorster includes the Vodice-based 1st Hydroplane Command consisting of the 12th Hydroplane Group (12 × Ikarus IO biplane flying boats).[51]
  26. ^ Shores, Cull and Malizia state that the 11th Hydroplane Squadron included 8–10 elderly training aircraft.[31]
  27. ^ Shores, Cull and Malizia state that the 21st Hydroplane Squadron included a "Fleet" aircraft, but it is unclear what type they are referring to.[31]
  28. ^ Shores, Cull and Malizia state that the Training Squadron included a "Fleet" aircraft, but it is unclear what type they are referring to.[31]
  29. ^ Niehorster does not list the minelayers Gavran, Orao and Sokol, but both Willmott and Chesneau list them as active in the KJRM at the time of the invasion, so they have been included here for completeness.[48][53]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Niehorster 2013v.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Niehorster 2013a.
  3. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 56.
  4. ^ a b Zajac 1993, p. 47.
  5. ^ Tomasevich 1975, pp. 58–59.
  6. ^ a b c d Niehorster 2013k.
  7. ^ Barefield 1993, pp. 49–54.
  8. ^ Anic 2002, p. 31.
  9. ^ a b c Niehorster 2013b.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i U.S. Army 1986, p. 37.
  11. ^ Loi 1978, p. 43.
  12. ^ a b c d e Niehorster 2013c.
  13. ^ U.S. Army 1986, pp. 36–37.
  14. ^ a b c Barefield 1993, p. 53.
  15. ^ Barefield 1993, pp. 52–53.
  16. ^ a b c Niehorster 2013d.
  17. ^ a b c Niehorster 2013e.
  18. ^ a b c Niehorster 2013f.
  19. ^ a b c Niehorster 2013g.
  20. ^ Geografski institut JNA 1952.
  21. ^ a b c Barefield 1993, p. 54.
  22. ^ a b Barefield 1993, pp. 53–54.
  23. ^ a b c Niehorster 2013h.
  24. ^ a b c d e Niehorster 2013i.
  25. ^ a b c d Niehorster 2013j.
  26. ^ Tomasevich 1975, p. 59.
  27. ^ a b Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 173.
  28. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, pp. 187–192.
  29. ^ a b c Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 187.
  30. ^ a b c d e Niehorster 2013l.
  31. ^ a b c d e Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 191.
  32. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, pp. 187–188.
  33. ^ a b Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 188.
  34. ^ Niehorster 2013m.
  35. ^ Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, pp. 188–189.
  36. ^ Niehorster 2013n.
  37. ^ a b Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 189.
  38. ^ Niehorster 2013o.
  39. ^ a b Shores, Cull & Malizia 1987, p. 190.
  40. ^ a b c Niehorster 2013p.
  41. ^ Savić & Ciglić 2002, p. 9.
  42. ^ Willmott 2010, pp. 310–311.
  43. ^ a b Zajac 1993, p. 48.
  44. ^ Jane's Information Group 1989, p. 313.
  45. ^ a b c d Niehorster 2013q.
  46. ^ a b Niehorster 2013r.
  47. ^ a b c d Niehorster 2013s.
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Chesneau 1980, p. 357.
  49. ^ a b Willmott 2010, p. 310.
  50. ^ a b Jane's Information Group 1989, p. 315.
  51. ^ Niehorster 2013t.
  52. ^ Niehorster 2013u.
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Willmott 2010, p. 311.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g Chesneau 1980, p. 358.
  55. ^ a b c Brescia 2012, p. 134.
  56. ^ Akermann 2002, p. 168.

References[edit]

Books[edit]

Papers[edit]

Web[edit]