Yugoslavism

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The blue-white-red horizontal tricolour flag is a symbol of Yugoslavism and is the pan-Slavic movement's flag that was adopted in 1848.
Flag of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. After the collapse of Yugoslavia in the 1990s, this flag remains a popular Yugoslavist symbol.
Monument to the Unknown Hero at the Avala mountain near Belgrade, a monument for the fallen Yugoslavs in the Balkan Wars and World War I, designed by Yugoslav sculptor Ivan Meštrović.

Yugoslavism refers to nationalism or patriotism centred upon the Yugoslavs - an identity referring to a united singular South Slav people and the South Slav populated territories of southeastern Europe. Yugoslavism has historically advocated the union of all South Slav populated territories now composing Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia (and the disputed region of Kosovo), Slovenia, and Macedonia.[1] Yugoslavism was a potent political force during World War I with the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by the Yugoslavist militant Gavrilo Princip and the subsequent invasion of Serbia by Austria-Hungary, which sought to rally the South Slav peoples against Austro-Hungarian imperial domination and in support of an independent Yugoslavia that was achieved in 1918.[2]

Background[edit]

There were sectional South Slavic ethnic nationalists who endorsed Yugoslavism as a means to achieve their ethnicity's unification. After 1878, Serbian nationalists merged their goals with those of Yugoslavists, and emulated the Piedmont's leading role in the Risorgimento of Italy, by claiming that Serbia sought not only to unite all Serbs in one state, but that Serbia intended to be a South Slavic Piedmont that would unite all South Slavs in one state known as Yugoslavia.[3] Croatian nationalists became interested Yugoslavism as a means to achieve the unification of Croatian lands in opposition to their division under Austria-Hungary, particularly with Yugoslavist leader Strossmayer advocating this as being achievable within a federalized Yugoslav monarchy.[4] Slovenian nationalists such as Anton Korošec endorsed Yugoslav unification during World War I as a means to free Slovenia from Austro-Hungarian rule.[5]

Efforts were made to incorporate Bulgaria into Yugoslavia.[6] However Bulgarian nationalists resented Serbia's annexation of Vardar Macedonia in 1913, that they had sought to incorporate into Bulgaria, and the Bulgarian government thus rejected pan-South Slavic unification led by Serbia in World War I and waged war on Serbia on the side of the Central Powers who had promised Bulgaria the right to annex Vardar Macedonia in exchange for waging war on Serbia.[4] However the Bulgarian coup d'état of 1934 resulted in the coup supporters rising to power who declared their intention to immediately form an alliance with France and to seek the unification of Bulgaria into an integral Yugoslavia, however this was not achieved.[7]

Yugoslavists claim that the factional divide, differences, and conflict between the Yugoslav peoples are the result of foreign imperialism in the history of the Balkans.[2] As a result of religious division, Yugoslavism has typically avoided religious overtones.[2]

Yugoslavism had two major internal divisions that typically splintered the movement. One faction promotes a centralised state and assimilation of all ethnicities into a single Yugoslav nationality.[2] The other faction supports a decentralised and multicultural federation that would preserve existing identities while promoting unity, while being opposed to the idea of centralisation and assimilation that they deemed as effectively favouring Serb hegemony rather than Yugoslav unity.[2]

Rise of Yugoslavism[edit]

The concept of Yugoslavism first arose in the 1830s with the creation of the Illyrian movement that based its views of South Slavic national identity upon the ideal of national awakening of the French Revolution.[1] The Illyrian movement was formed by Croatian writers who emphasized the common ethnic and linguistic ties between the South Slavic peoples as a basis for their cooperation and eventual political unification.[1] The Illyrian movement was centred in Croatia and Croatian politics, believing that a Croatian renaissance was necessary to be achieved prior to the movement's long-term goal of ethnic and political unification of South Slavs.[1] Ljudevit Gaj, a key figure of the Illyrian movement declared Croats and Serbs to be the two major subgroups of the South Slav or "Illyrian" nationality, which also included Slovenes, and South Slavic inhabitants of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, and Montenegro.[1] In spite of its pan-South Slavic ideals, the Illyrian movement was dominated by upper-class Croats, originally with little support amongst Serbs, Slovenes, or other South Slavic peoples.[1]

During the Revolutions of 1848, the Illyrian movement became a strong political force in the Hapsburg Austrian Empire, and advocated cooperation between Croats and Serbs to oppose Hungarian rule of its South Slavic populated territories.[1]

The concept and term "Yugoslavism" was founded in the later-half of the nineteenth century by two Croatian Catholic Bishops: Josip Juraj Strossmayer, an ethnically mixed Croat-German liberal politician; and Franjo Rački who both emphasized Yugoslavism as a supranational cultural patriotism to unite South Slavs on the basis of common origins, cultural ties, and spiritual bonds of South Slavs.[8] However like the Illyian movement, Strossmeyer's and Rački's Yugoslavism found little support outside of Croatia.[9] Yugoslavism faced strong competition from other nationalist movements seeking to rally the various South Slav peoples, such as Serbian nationalism.[9] Initially Serbian nationalists who were focused on fighting the Turks, did not cooperate with Yugoslavists, seeing little benefit in a joint movement or unification with Croats of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[9] However this period of noncooperation was briefly broken in the mid-1860s when Strossmeyer and Serbian foreign minister Ilija Garašanin agreed to work together to create "a Yugoslav state free from Austria or Turkey."[10]

The concept of Yugoslavism did not become strong until the beginning of the twentieth century due to the lack of belief that South Slavs could realistically unify and the lack of popular government in Yugoslav populated territories.[2] Yugoslavism began to arise with the overthrow of the Obrenović dynasty in Serbia in 1903 and the creation of a popular government within a constitutional monarchy.[2] After the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in 1908 Yugoslavism soared as the multiple South Slav denominations saw themselves as victims of foreign imperialism.[2]

Famous Croat sculptor Ivan Meštrović became a supporter of Yugoslavism and Yugoslav identity after he traveled to Serbia and became impressed with Serb culture.[11] Meštrović created a sculpture of Serbian folk-legend hero Prince Marko at the International Exhibition in Rome in 1911, when asked about the statue, Meštrović replied "This Marko is our Yugoslav people with its gigantic and noble heart".[11] Meštrović wrote poetry speaking of a "Yugoslav race".[11] Those who knew Meštrović's views referred to him as "The Prophet of Yugoslavism".[11]

In 1912, the eruption of the Balkan wars saw various South Slavs unite against the Ottoman Empire.[2] In 1913, Slovene intellectuals published a manifesto recognising the existence of a Yugoslav nation and calling for its independence, declaring:

As it is a fact that we Slovenes, Croats and Serbs constitute a compact linguistic and ethnic group with similar economic conditions, and so indissolubly linked by a common fate on a common territory that no one of the three can aspire to a separate future, and in consideration of the fact that among the Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs, the Jugoslav thought is even today strongly developed, we have extended our national sentiments beyond our frontier to the Croats and Serbs…By this we all become members of one united Jugo-slav nation.[12]

World War I and the creation of Yugoslavia[edit]

Depiction of the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serb Yugoslavist militant Gavrilo Princip.
Ante Trumbić, the Croat Yugoslavist who led the Yugoslav Committee that advocated for the creation independent Yugoslavia during World War I.
Aleksandar Stamboliyski, the Bulgarian Yugoslavist who opposed Bulgaria's alliance with the Central Powers. In 1914 during the war, Stamboliyski's patriotism was questioned when members of the Bulgarian parliament questioned whether he was Bulgarian or not, to which he shouted in response "I am Yugoslav!".[13]

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria by Yugoslavist revolutionary Gavrilo Princip, a Serb associated with Young Bosnia, a group composed of Croats, Serbs, and Bosniaks, marked the beginning of a militant nationalist activity by South Slavs against Austro-Hungarian rule.[12] At his trial in 1914, Princip stated: "I am a Yugoslav nationalist, aiming for the unification of all Yugoslavs, and I do not care what form of state, but it must be free from Austria."[14]

In response to the outbreak of the war a number of Croats and diaspora Serbs supported Croat-Serb cooperation against Austria-Hungary with the desire of creating a federation based on cooperation between them.[12] Serbs in Serbia on the other hand preferred either a Greater Serbia or a centralized Yugoslavia that would in effect create a Greater Serbia within it.[12] The leadership of the Croatian Peasant and social democratic parties in Croatia and Slovenia generally supported a federal Yugoslav state that would recognize the equality of the Serb, Croat and Slovene nations as distinct and separate tribal sub-nations of the Yugoslav nation.[12]

As the Serbian military made advances against Austria-Hungary in the early months of the war, Serbian Prime Minister Nikola Pašić requested support from the Serbian parliament to support the Serbian government's official war aims that declared that Serbia would support the liberation of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes under Austro-Hungarian rule.[2] Pašić supported the creation of the Yugoslav Committee to be composed of South Slav émigrés from Austria-Hungary.[2] The Yugoslav Committee was led by Yugoslavist Ante Trumbić and initially composed of twelve Croats (including eight from Dalmatia and two from Croatia proper), three Serbs, and one Slovene.[2] The Yugoslav Committee lobbied the Allies to support the liberation of the South Slav peoples of Austria-Hungary.[2] Pašić was dismayed with the discovery that the Allies had promised to give Italy a substantial portion of Dalmatia and believed that the Committee should attempt to convince the Allies that this was unacceptable and an injustice.[2]

In 1917, Pašić, representing the Serbian government, and Trumbić, representing the Yugoslav Committee signed the Corfu Declaration on the Greek island of Corfu that declared the intention to create a Yugoslav state to be known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes that was to be headed by a "constitutional, democratic, and parliamentary monarchy" headed by the Serbian ruling dynasty, the House of Karađorđević.[2]

Proclamation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs on Congress Square in Ljubljana, October 29, 1918

At the end of World War I, the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs was formed in Zagreb. Shortly thereafter, on 1 December 1918, King Alexander of Serbia proclaimed the existence of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes which was recognized by Belgrade and the National Council in Zagreb on the 28th and 29 December.[2]

Communist Yugoslavia to present-day[edit]

People gather near a statue of Josip Broz Tito in Sarajevo during a ceremony.

During the Titoist era, a Yugoslav socialist patriotism was advocated by the Yugoslav government.[15][16] It stressed that this socialist patriotism was not related to nationalism.[15] The League of Communists of Yugoslavia denounced nationalism, declaring that "every nationalism is dangerous".[17] Yugoslav leader Josip Broz Tito sought for form a communist community of "new people" of socialist Yugoslavia, based on the concept of Brotherhood and Unity - the "brotherhood" referring to the community of nations living in the socialist Yugoslavia while the "unity" referred to the unity of the working class.[18]

The basis of this socialist patriotism, was the armed struggle by the Yugoslav Partisans against the Axis Powers that occupied and partitioned Yugoslavia during World War II.[19] The League of Communists claimed that the different nations of Yugoslavia had united in a common struggle against the Axis in the war and thus legitimized the of multi-ethnic Yugoslavia.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Cohen 1995, pp. 4.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Dragnich, Alex N. (1983). The First Yugoslavia: Search for a Viable Political System. Hoover Institution Press. pp. 3–11. ISBN 0-8179-7841-0. 
  3. ^ Motyl 2001, pp. 470.
  4. ^ a b Motyl 2001, p. 105.
  5. ^ Motyl 2001, p. 276.
  6. ^ Ahmet Ersoy, Maciej Górny, Vangelis Kechriotis. Modernism: The Creation of Nation-States. Central European University Press, 2010. Pp. 363.
  7. ^ Khristo Angelov Khristov. Bulgaria, 1300 years. Sofia, Bulgaria: Sofia Press, 1980. Pp. 192.
  8. ^ Cohen 1995, pp. 4-5.
  9. ^ a b c Cohen 1995, pp. 5.
  10. ^ Cohen 1995, pp. 5-6.
  11. ^ a b c d Ivo Banac. The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics. Cornell University Press, 1984. Pp. 204-205.
  12. ^ a b c d e Djokić, Dejan (2003). Yugoslavism Histories of a Failed Idea, 1918–1992. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 1-85065-663-0. 
  13. ^ Frederick B. Chary. The history of Bulgaria. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2011. Pp. 53.
  14. ^ Malcolm, Noel (1996). Bosnia: A Short History. New York University Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-8147-5561-5. 
  15. ^ a b Sabrina P. Ramet. Social currents in Eastern Europe: the sources and consequences of the great transformation. Duke University Press, 1995. Pp. 207.
  16. ^ Teresa Rakowska-Harmstone. Communism in Eastern Europe. Indiana University Press, 1984. Manchester, England, UK: Manchester University Press ND, 1984. Pp. 267.
  17. ^ Sabrina P. Ramet. The three Yugoslavias: state-building and legitimation, 1918-2005. Bloomington, Indiana, USA: Indiana University Press, 2006. Pp. 603.
  18. ^ Dejan Djokić. Yugoslavism: histories of a failed idea, 1918-1992. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin Press, 2003. Pp. 252.
  19. ^ a b William Joseph Buckley. Kosovo: contending voices on Balkan interventions. William B. Eerdmans Pub., 2000. Pp. 144.

Bibliography[edit]