|Prime Minister of Ukraine|
18 December 2007 – 4 March 2010
|Preceded by||Viktor Yanukovych|
|Succeeded by||Oleksandr Turchynov (Acting)|
24 January 2005 – 8 September 2005
Acting until 4 February 2005
|Preceded by||Mykola Azarov (Acting)|
|Succeeded by||Yuriy Yekhanurov|
|Minister of Fuel and Energy|
30 December 1999 – 19 January 2001
|Prime Minister||Viktor Yushchenko|
|Preceded by||Aleksey Sheberstov (Energy)|
|Succeeded by||Viktor Yushchenko (Acting)|
|Born||Yulia Volodymyrivna Grigyan
27 November 1960
Dnipropetrovsk, Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union
|Political party||All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" (1999–present)|
Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc (2001–2012)
Dictatorship Resistance Committee (2011–present)
|Spouse(s)||Oleksandr Tymoshenko (1979–present)|
|Alma mater||National Mining University of Ukraine
Dnipropetrovsk National University
Kiev National Economic University
Yulia Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko (Ukrainian: Ю́лія Володи́мирівна Тимоше́нко, pronounced [ˈjulijɑ ʋɔlɔˈdɪmɪriʋnɑ tɪmɔˈʃɛnkɔ]), née Grigyan (Ukrainian: Григян), born 27 November 1960, is a Ukrainian politician. She was the Prime Minister of Ukraine from 24 January to 8 September 2005, and again from 18 December 2007 to 4 March 2010. Tymoshenko is the leader of the All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland"; which is the largest opposition political party in Ukraine.
Tymoshenko has been a practicing economist and academic. Prior to her political career, Yulia Tymoshenko was a successful but controversial businesswoman in the gas industry, becoming by some estimates one of the richest people in the country. Before becoming Ukraine's first female Prime Minister in 2005, Tymoshenko co-led the Orange Revolution. She placed third in Forbes Magazine's List of The World's 100 Most Powerful Women 2005. Tymoshenko was a candidate in the Ukrainian presidential elections of 2010, but lost this election to Viktor Yanukovych (Tymoshenko received 45.47% of the votes in the second and final round of this election, 3% less than her rival). In December 2012 the united opposition nominated her and later in June 2013 confirmed her as its candidate in the 2015 Ukrainian presidential election. Tymoshenko strives for Ukraine’s integration to the European Union, strongly opposes membership of Ukraine in the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, supports eradication of post-Soviet corrupt clans in Ukraine and fights for justice for ordinary citizens of Ukraine.
Since May 2010 a number of criminal cases have been brought against Tymoshenko. On June 24, 2011 a trial started in the “gas case,” concerning a contract with Russian gas company Gazprom to supply natural gas to Ukraine, which had been signed in 2009. Tymoshenko was charged of abuse of power and embezzlement, as allegedly biased court found the deal anti-economic for the country and abusive. On 11 October 2011, a Ukrainian court sentenced Tymoshenko to seven years in prison after she was found guilty of all charges. The sentence caused public protests in front of the court house.
The trial was viewed by many international organizations, such as the Danish Helsinki Committee as a politically-charged persecution that violates the law. Tymoshenko is currently being held in the Kharkiv-based Central Clinical Hospital No. 5 under police surveillance, where since May 2012 she has been receiving treatment after being diagnosed with a spinal disc herniation. Tymoshenko has been on three hunger strikes since her imprisonment. The European Union and other international organizations sees the conviction as "justice being applied selectively under political motivation." The European Union has shelved the European Union Association Agreement and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with Ukraine over the issue. The EU has repeatedly called for release of Yulia Tymoshenko as main condition for signing the EU Association Agreement. [nb 1]  The European Court on Human Rights said in its April 30, 2013 judgment that Tymoshenko’s arrest in the case concerning the 2009 gas supply contract had been politically motivated and her rights had been violated. On September 5, 2013 the Council of Europe's Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT) published a report criticising the investigation into allegations that physical force has been used against Yulia Tymoshenko.
- 1 Early life and career
- 2 Political career
- 2.1 Early career
- 2.2 Campaigns against Kuchma and 2002 election
- 2.3 Tymoshenko's Role in Orange Revolution
- 2.4 After the Orange Revolution. First Term as Prime Minister
- 2.5 Opposition (2005-2007) and 2006 parliamentary election
- 2.6 2007 parliamentary election
- 2.7 Prime Minister 2007–2010, and 2008 political crisis
- 2.8 Gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine (2009)
- 2.9 2010 Presidential election
- 2.10 In opposition after 2010 presidential election
- 2.11 2011 trial and imprisonment and other criminal cases against Tymoshenko
- 3 Political views
- 4 Genealogy, family and personal life
- 5 Cultural and political image
- 6 Multimedia
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Early life and career
Yulia Tymoshenko (born Grigyan) was born 27 November 1960, in Dnipropetrovsk, Soviet Ukraine (then part of the Soviet Union). Her mother, Ludmila Telegina (née Nelepova), was born 11 August 1937, in Dnipropetrovsk. Her father, Vladimir Grigyan, was born 3 December 1937 in Dnipropetrovsk and was, according to his Soviet passport, Latvian. Vladimir left the family when Yulia was one year old and Yulia was brought up by her mother alone. Tymoshenko took the surname of her mother, "Telegina", before graduating from high school in 1977. In 1979, Yulia married Oleksandr Tymoshenko, son of a mid-level Soviet official. In 1980 their daughter Yevhenia (Eugenia) was born.
In 1978 Tymoshenko was enrolled at Automatization and Telemechanics department of the Dnipropetrovsk Mining Institute. In 1979 she transferred to the Economic Department of the Dnipropetrovsk State University and majored in cybernetic engineering. In 1984 Tymoshenko graduated from the Dnipropetrovsk State University with first degree honors as an engineer-economist.
After graduating from the Dnipropetrovsk State University in 1984 Tymoshenko worked as an engineer-economist in a "Dnipro Machine-Building Plant" in Dnipropetrovsk (the factory produced missiles) until 1988.
In 1988, as part of the perestroika initiatives, Yulia and Oleksandr Tymoshenko borrowed 5000 Soviet rubles and opened a video rental cooperative, perhaps with the help of Oleksander's father Gennadi Tymoshenko, who presided over a regional film distribution network in the provincial council.
In 1991 Tymoshenko established (jointly with her husband Oleksandr, Gennadi Tymoshenko and Olexandr Gravets) "The Ukrainian Petrol Corporation", a company that provided the agriculture industry of Dnipropetrovsk with fuel from 1991 to 1995. Tymoshenko worked as a General Director. In 1995 this company was reorganized into United Energy Systems of Ukraine. Tymoshenko was the president of United Energy Systems of Ukraine, from 1995 to January 1, 1997, a privately owned middleman company that became the main importer of Russian natural gas to Ukraine. During that time she was nicknamed "gas princess". She was also accused of "having given Pavlo Lazarenko kickbacks in exchange for her company's stranglehold on the country's gas supplies", although Judge Martin Jenkins of the US District Court for the Northern District of California on May 7, 2004 dismissed the allegations of money laundering and conspiracy regarding UESU, Somoli Ent. et al. (companies affiliated with Yulia Tymoshenko) in connection with Lazarenko’s activities. During this period Tymoshenko was involved in business relations (either co-operative or hostile) with many important figures of Ukraine. Tymoshenko also had to deal with the management of the Russian corporation, Gazprom. Yulia Tymoshenko claims that UESU under her management successfully solved significant economic problems: in 1995-1997 Ukraine’s multi billion debts for Russian natural gas were paid; Ukraine resumed international cooperation in machine building, pipe industry and construction; Ukraine’s export of goods to Russia doubled. In the period 1995-1997 Tymoshenko was considered one of the richest business people in Ukraine. When Tymoshenko made her first steps in the national politics, her company became an instrument of political pressure on her and her family. As she said in one of her interviews, she refused to cooperate with Ukraine’s corrupt officials, thus her company was destroyed upon request from president Leonid Kuchma. UESU top management faced prosecution. Since 1998, Tymoshenko was one of the most important politicians in Ukraine. Since 2006, she has no longer been ranked even as one of the "100 richest Ukrainians".
Yulia Tymoshenko entered politics in 1996, being elected to the Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian parliament) in constituency #229, Bobrynets, Kirovohrad Oblast, winning a record 92.3% of the vote. In Parliament Tymoshenko joined Constitutional Centre faction. In February 1997 this centrists faction was 56 lawmakers strong and according to Ukrayinska Pravda it supported the policies of Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma. Late in November 1997 the General Prosecutor of Ukraine asked the Verkhovna Rada to lift Tymoshenko's parliamentary immunity but the deputies voted against it. Late 1997 Tymoshenko called for the next Ukrainian Presidential elections to be held not in 1999 but in the fall of 1998.
Tymoshenko was re-elected in 1998 winning a constituency in the Kirovohrad Oblast and was also number 6 on the party list of Hromada. She became an influential person in the parliament and was appointed the Chair of the Budget Committee of the Verkhovna Rada. After Hromada's party leader Pavlo Lazarenko fled to the United States in February 1999 to avoid investigations for embezzlement, various faction members left Hromada to join other parliamentary factions, among them Tymoshenko who set up the All-Ukrainian Union "Fatherland" faction in March 1999 in protest against the methods of Lazarenko. "Fatherland" was officially registered as a political party in September 1999. And it started to attract the voters who had voted for Yevhen Marchuk in the October 1999 presidential election. In 2000 "Fatherland" went in opposition to President Kuchma.
Deputy Prime Minister for fuel and energy
From late December 1999 to January 2001, Tymoshenko was the Deputy Prime Minister for the fuel and energy sector in the cabinet of Viktor Yushchenko. She officially left parliament on 2 March 2000. Under her guidance, Ukraine's revenue collections from the electricity industry grew by several thousand percent. She scrapped the practice of barter in the electricity market, requiring industrial customers to pay for their electricity in cash. She also terminated exemptions for many organizations which excluded them from having their power disconnected. Her reforms meant that the government had sufficient funds to pay civil servants and increase salaries. In 2000 Tymoshenko’s government provided additional 18 billion Hryvna for social payments. Half of this amount was collected due to withdrawal of funds from shadow schemes, ban on barter payments and introduction of competition rules on energy market.
On August 18, 2000 YuliaTymoshenko’s husband and CEO of United Energy Systems of Ukraine (UESU) Oleksandr Tymoshenko was detained and arrested. Tymoshenko herself stated that her husband’s arrest is the result of political pressure on her. On January 19, 2001 president Leonid Kuchma ordered Yulia Tymoshenko to be dismissed. Then prime minister Viktor Yushchenko silently accepted her dismissal despite her achievements in the energy sector. Ukrainian media called it "the first betrayal of Viktor Yushchenko". Soon after her dismissal, Tymoshenko took leadership of the National Salvation Committee and became active in the Ukraine without Kuchma protests. The movement embraced a number of opposition parties, such as Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc, “Fatherland”, Ukrainian Republican Party, Ukrainian Conservative Republican Party, “Sobor”, Ukrainian Social-Democratic Party, Ukrainian Christian-democratic Party and Patriotic Party.
Campaigns against Kuchma and 2002 election
9 February 2001, Tymoshenko founded the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc (the National Salvation Committee merged into it), a political bloc that received 7.2% of the vote in the 2002 parliamentary election. She is the head of the Batkivshchina (Fatherland) political party since the party was organised in 1999.
On February 13, 2001 Tymoshenko was arrested on charges of forging customs documents and smuggling gas in 1997 (while president of United Energy Systems of Ukraine). Her political supporters organized numerous protest rallies near the Lukyanivska Prison where she was held in custody. In March 2001 Pechersk District Court (Kiev) found the charges groundless and cancelled the arrest sanction. According to Tymoshenko, the charges were fabricated by Kuchma's regime at the behest of oligarchs threatened by her efforts to eradicate corruption and institute market-based reforms. On April 9, 2003 the Kiev Court of Appeal issued a ruling that invalidated and cancelled proceeding on the criminal cases against Yulia and Oleksandr Tymoshenko. In spite of being cleared of the charges, Moscow maintained an arrest warrant for Tymoshenko should she enter Russia but in 2005 lifted all the charges as groundless.
This criminal case was closed : in Ukraine in January 2005 due to lack of evidence; in Russia in December 2005 years by reason of lapse of time. This case was reopened in Ukraine on 24 October 2011, after Yanukovych came to power.
Tymoshenko's husband, Oleksandr, spent two years (2002-2004) in hiding in order to avoid incarceration on charges the couple said were unfounded and politically motivated by the former Kuchma administration.
Once the charges were dropped, Tymoshenko reassumed her place among the leaders of the grassroots campaign against President Kuchma for his alleged role in the murder of the journalist Georgiy Gongadze. In this campaign, Tymoshenko first became known as a passionate, revolutionist leader, an example of this being a TV broadcast of her smashing prison windows during one of the rallies. At the time Tymoshenko wanted to organise a national referendum to impeach President Kuchma.
11 August 2001 civilian and military prosecutors in Russia opened a new criminal case against Tymoshenko accusing her of bribery. On 27 December 2005 Russian prosecutors dropped these charges. Russian prosecutors had suspended an arrest warrant when she was appointed Prime Minister in but reinstated it after she was fired in September 2005. The prosecutors suspended it again when she came to Moscow for questioning on 25 September 2005. Tymoshenko never traveled to Russia during her first seven months as Prime Minister (the first Tymoshenko Government).
In January 2002 Tymoshenko was involved in a mysterious car accident that she survived with minor injuries – an episode some believe may have been a government assassination attempt. Her Mercedes, part of a four-vehicle convoy, collided with a Lada in Kiev. The driver of the other car suffered head injuries and police said initial investigations suggested that Tymoshenko's chauffeur had been at fault.
Tymoshenko's Role in Orange Revolution
In the Autumn of 2001, both Tymoshenko and Viktor Yushchenko attempted to create a broad opposition bloc against the incumbent President, Leonid Kuchma, in order to win the Ukrainian presidential election 2004.
In late 2002, Tymoshenko, Oleksandr Moroz (Socialist Party of Ukraine), Petro Symonenko (Communist Party of Ukraine) and Viktor Yushchenko (Our Ukraine) issued a joint statement concerning "the beginning of a state revolution in Ukraine". In the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election, the communist party stepped out of the alliance, but the other parties remained allies and Symonenko was against a single candidate from the alliance (until July 2006).
In March 2004 Yulia Tymoshenko announced that leaders of “Our Ukraine”, BYuT and Socialist Party of Ukraine were working on a coalition agreement concerning joint participation in the presidential campaign. Tymoshenko decided not to run for president and give a way to Viktor Yushchenko. On 2 July 2004, Our Ukraine and the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc established the Force of the people, a coalition which aimed to stop "the destructive process that has, as a result of the incumbent authorities, become a characteristic for Ukraine", the pact included a promise by Viktor Yushchenko to nominate Tymoshenko as Prime Minister if Yushchenko should win the October 2004 presidential election. Tymoshenko was actively campaigning for Yushchenko, touring and taking part in rallies all over Ukraine. After Viktor Yushchenko had dropped out of campaign due to his mysterious poisoning, Tymoshenko continued campaigning on his behalf.
After October 31 first vote two candidates – Viktor Yanukovych and Viktor Yushchenko proceeded to the runoff. As Tymoshenko earlier envisaged, Yushchenko received endorsement from former competitors who didn’t make it to the runoff, such as Oleksandr Moroz (Socialist Party), Anatoliy Kinakh (Party of Industrials and Entrepreneurs) former Kyiv city mayor Oleksanrd Omelchenko and others.
On November 6, 2004 Tymoshenko asked people to spread the orange symbols (orange was the color of Yushchenko’s campaign). “Grab a piece of the cheapest orange cloth, make ribbons and put them everywhere” she said. “Don’t wait till the campaign managers give those to you”.
When allegation of fraud began to spread the “orange team” decided to carry on parallel vote tabulation during the November 21, 2004 runoff and announce its results immediately to people on Independence Square (Maidan Nezalezhnosti) in Kyiv. Tymoshenko called Kyiv residents to gather on the Independence Square and asked people from other cities and towns to come and stand for their choice. “Bring warm clothes, lard and bread, garlic and onions and come to Kyiv” she said. On 22 November 2004 massive protests broke out in cities across Ukraine: the largest, in Kiev's Maidan Nezalezhnosti attracted an estimated 500,000 participants. These protests became known as the Orange Revolution. On November 23, 2004 Tymoshenko led the participants of the protest to the President’s Administration. On Bankova Street special riot police didn’t let the procession go farther, so people lifted Tymoshenko up and she walked on the police’ shields to the Administration building.
On December 3, 2004 the Supreme Court of Ukraine invalidated the results of the runoff and scheduled the re-run for December 26, 2004. After the cancellation of Viktor Yanukovych's official victory and a re-run of the second round of the election Viktor Yushchenko was elected President with 51.99% of votes (Yanukovych received 44.2% support).
During the protests, Tymoshenko speeches on Maidan kept the momentum of the street protests going. Her popularity ratings grew significantly. She was unofficially called “Ukrainian Joan of Arc” and “orange princess”.
After the Orange Revolution. First Term as Prime Minister
On 24 January 2005, Tymoshenko was appointed acting Prime Minister of Ukraine under Yushchenko's presidency. On 4 February, Tymoshenko's premiership appointment was ratified by the parliament with an overwhelming majority of 373 votes (226 were required for approval). The Tymoshenko cabinet did not have any other members of Tymoshenko’s party, except for Tymoshenko herself and Oleksandr Turchynov, who was appointed the chief of Security Service of Ukraine. The ministers who were working with her took her side in her future contradiction with Viktor Yushchenko.[clarification needed]
On 28 July, Forbes named her the third most powerful woman in the world, behind only Condoleezza Rice and Wu Yi. However, in the magazine's list published on 1 September 2006, Tymoshenko was not included in the top 100.
Several months into her government [nb 2] , internal conflicts within the post‐Revolution coalition began to damage Tymoshenko's administration. On August 24, 2005 Viktor Yushchenko was giving an Independence Day speech, during which he called Tymoshenko’s government “the best”.
Yet on 8 September, after the resignation of several senior officials, including the Head of the Security and Defense Council Petro Poroshenko and Deputy Prime Minister Mykola Tomenko, Yulia Tymoshenko's government was dismissed by President Viktor Yushchenko during a live television address to the nation. Yushchenko went on to criticize her work as head of the Cabinet, suggesting it had led to an economic slowdown and political conflicts within the ruling coalition. He said that Tymoshenko was serving interests of some businesses, and the government’s decision to re-privatize Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant (previously owned by Leonid Kuchma’s son in law Viktor Pinchuk) “was the last drop” that made him dismiss the government. On September 13, 2005 Yushchenko accused Tymoshenko of betrayal of “Orange Revolution” ideas. In his interview for Associated Press he said that back at time of her presidency at UESU Tymoshenko accumulated 8 million Hryvna debt and used her prime minister authorities to write off her debt. Tymoshenko has repeatedly stated that the mentioned amount was not a debt, but fines imposed by the Tax Inspection in 1997-1998 and all the cases regarding UESU had been closed before she became prime minister.
On the other hand, Tymoshenko blamed Yushchenko’s closest circle for scheming against her and undermining the activities of her Cabinet. She also criticised Yushchenko, saying he had “practically ruined our unity, our future, the future of the country," she told BBC and said that the president’s step was absolutely illogical.
At the time Tymoshenko saw a rapid growth of approval ratings, while president Yushchenko’s approval ratings went down. This tendency was later proved by the results of parliamentary elections 2006, when for the first time ever BYuT outran “Our Ukraine” party having won 129 seats vs. 81 correspondingly. During the previous parliamentary elections 2002 BYuT had only 22 members of parliament, while “Our Ukraine” had 112.
The work of Yulia Tymoshenko as prime minister in 2005 was complicated due to internal conflicts in the “orange” team. According to Tymoshenko President Yushchenko and Petro Poroshenko were trying to turn the National Security and Defense Council into the “second Cabinet of Ministers”.
Opposition (2005-2007) and 2006 parliamentary election
Soon after Tymoshenko’s discharge in September 2005, the General Prosecutor Office of Russian Federation dismissed all charges against her. On November 18, 2005 the Supreme Court of Ukraine issued a ruling which invalidated all criminal cases against Yulia Tymoshenko and her family.
After her dismissal Tymoshenko started to tour the country in a bid to win the 2006 Ukrainian parliamentary election as the leader of her Bloc.[nb 3] She soon announced that she wanted to return to the post of Prime Minister. She managed to form a strong team that started a political fight on two fronts - with Viktor Yanukovych’s and Viktor Yushchenko’s camps.
With the Bloc coming second in the election, and winning 129 seats, many speculated that she might form a coalition with Yushchenko's Our Ukraine party and the Socialist Party of Ukraine (SPU) to prevent the Party of Regions from gaining power. Tymoshenko again reiterated her stance in regard to becoming Prime Minister. However, negotiations with Our Ukraine and SPU faced many difficulties as the various blocs scrapped over posts and engaged in counter-negotiations with other groupings.
On Wednesday 21 June 2006, the Ukrainian media reported that the parties had finally reached a coalition agreement, which appeared to have ended nearly three months of political uncertainty.
Tymoshenko's nomination and confirmation as new Prime Minister was expected to be straightforward. However, the political intrigue that took place broke the plan. BYuT partners – Bloc “Our Ukraine” and Socialist Party of Ukraine (SPU) could not come to agreement regarding distribution of powers, thus creation of the Coalition of Democratic Force was put on hold. Yushchenko and oligarchs from his narrow circle were trying to impede Tymoshenko from returning to prime minister office. Her nomination was preconditioned on an election of her long-term rival Petro Poroshenko from Our Ukraine as the speaker of the parliament. Oleksandr Moroz, the chairman of the Socialist Party of Ukraine, also expressed aspiration to become a speaker. Tymoshenko stated that she would vote for any speaker from the coalition. Within a few days after the coalition agreement had been signed, it became clear that the coalition members mistrusted each other, since they considered it to be a deviation from parliamentary procedures in order to hold a simultaneous vote on Poroshenko as the speaker and Tymoshenko as Prime Minister.
The Party of Regions announced an ultimatum to the coalition, demanding that the parliamentary procedures be observed, asking membership in parliamentary committees to be allocated in proportion to seats held by each fraction, chairmanship in certain Parliamentary committees as well as Governorships in the administrative subdivisions won by the Party of Regions. The Party of Regions complained the coalition agreement deprived the Party of Regions and the communists of any representation in the executive and leadership in parliamentary committees while in the local regional councils won by the Party of Regions, the coalition parties were locked out of all committees as well.
After lengthy negotiations SPU suddenly pulled out of the Coalition and joined the alliance with the Party of Regions and the Communist Party of Ukraine. Oleksandr Moroz assured that the team of Viktor Yushchenko was conducting secret negotiations with the Party of Regions. According to that deal Viktor Yanukovych was supposed to become the speaker, while Yuriy Yekhanurov kept the prime minister portfolio. These negotiations were conducted by Yekhanurov himself upon Yushchenko’s request. Later Yekhanurov admitted this fact in his interview to “Ukrainska Pravda” website.
Following a surprise nomination of Oleksandr Moroz from the Socialist Party of Ukraine as the Rada speaker and his subsequent election late on 6 July with the support of the Party of Regions, the "Orange coalition" collapsed (Poroshenko had withdrawn his candidacy and had urged Moroz to do the same on 7 July). After the creation of a large coalition of majority, led by the former prime minister Viktor Yanukovych and composed of the Party of Regions, the Socialist Party of Ukraine, and the Communist Party of Ukraine, Yanukovych became Prime Minister, and the other two parties were left in the wilderness. On August 3, 2006 Tymoshenko refused to sign “Universal of National Unity” initiated by president Yushchenko. The document, signed by Yushchenko, Yanukovych and leaders of Socialist and Communist parties, sealed Yanukovych’s appointment for prime minister. Tymoshenko called it “the act of betrayal”. In September 2006 Tymoshenko announced that her political force would be in opposition to the new government, Our Ukraine stalled until 4 October 2006, when it too joined the opposition. On January 12, 2007 BYuT vote in the parliament overrode the president’s veto on the Law “On the Cabinet of Ministers” that was advantageous for the president (in exchange BYuT voted for the Law “On Imperative Mandate” and the Law “On Opposition”). This vote was one of many steps undertaken by BYuT to ruin a fragile alliance between president Yushchenko and prime minister Yanukovych.[nb 4]
In March 2007 Yulia Tymoshenko paid a visit to the United States, where she held high level meetings with Vice President Dick Chaney, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice and National Security Advisor under President George Bush Stephen Hadley. [nb 5]. On March 31, 2007 Tymoshenko initiated a "100 thousand people Maidan" aimed to urge the president to call early parliamentary election. [nb 6]
On April 4, 2007 president Yushchenko issued an edict “On early termination of duties of the Verkhovna Rada” as a reaction to violation of the Constitution by the Party of Regions, who started dragging individual deputies into the “ruling coalition” [that was illegal, as coalition should be formed with factions, not individual deputies]. Thus Party of Regions was trying to achieve the constitutional majority of 300 votes, that would enable prime minister Yanukovych to override the president’s veto, and control the legislative process. Party of Regions didn’t obey this edict. In order to dismiss the Verkhovna Rada, Yulia Tymoshenko and her supporters in the parliament (168 deputies from BYuT and “Our Ukraine” factions) quit their parliamentary factions on June 2, 2007. That step invalidated the convocation of the Verkhovna Rada and cleared the path to early election.
Early parliamentary election was conducted on September 30, 2007.
2007 parliamentary election
Following balloting in the 2007 parliamentary elections held on 30 September 2007, Orange Revolution parties said they had won enough votes to form a governing coalition. On 3 October 2007, an almost final tally gave the alliance of Tymoshenko and President Yushchenko a slim lead over the rival party of Prime Minister Yanukovych. Although Yanukovych, whose party won the single biggest share of the vote, also claimed victory, one of his coalition allies, the Socialist Party of Ukraine, failed to gain enough votes to retain seats in Parliament.
On 15 October 2007, the Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc and the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc agreed to form a majority coalition in the new parliament of the 6th convocation. On 29 November, a coalition was signed between the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc and Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc, which was associated with President Yushchenko. Both parties are affiliated with the Orange Revolution. On December 11, 2007 the Coalition failed to appoint Tymoshenko prime minister. They were 1 vote short – 225 members of parliament supported her nomination. On December 12, 2007 media report about possible assassination attempt at Yulia Tymoshenko. BYuT and Tymoshenko herself said it was an intimidation. On 18 December, Tymoshenko was once again elected as Prime Minister, supported by 226 deputies (the minimal amount needed for passage), heading the second Tymoshenko Government.
Prime Minister 2007–2010, and 2008 political crisis
On July 11, 2008 Party of Regions tried to vote no-confidence to Tymoshenko’s government in the parliament but could not collect enough votes.
The coalition of Tymoshenko's Bloc (BYuT) and Yushchenko's Our Ukraine–People's Self-Defense Bloc (OU-PSD) was put at risk due to differing opinions concerning the ongoing 2008 South Ossetia War between Georgia and Russia. Yulia Tymoshenko disagreed with Yushchenko's condemnation of Russia and preferred to stay neutral on the issue. Yushchenko's office accused her of taking a softer position in order to gain support from Russia in the upcoming 2010 election. Andriy Kyslynskyi, the president's deputy chief of staff, went as far as to accuse her of 'high treason'. The accusations of the president’s camp were highly inflated and distorted. Tymoshenko has publicly announced her support for Georgia.
According to BYuT, Viktor Baloha (Chief of Staff of the Presidential Secretariat) criticized the premier at every turn, accusing her of everything from not being religious enough to damaging the economy and that she was plotting to kill him, and that the accusation of 'betrayal' over Georgia was simply one of the latest and most pernicious attacks directed at the premier.
After Tymoshenko's BYuT voted alongside the Communist Party of Ukraine and the Party of Regions to pass legislation that would facilitate the procedure of impeachment for future Presidents and limit the President's power while increasing the Prime Minister's powers, President Yushchenko's OU-PSD bloc pulled out of the coalition and Yushchenko promised to veto the legislation and threatened to hold an election if a new coalition was not formed soon. This resulted in the 2008 Ukrainian political crisis, which culminated in Yushchenko announcing/calling an early parliamentary election on 8 October 2008.
Tymoshenko was fiercely opposed to the snap election, stating: "No politician would throw Ukraine into snap elections at this important time. But, if Yushchenko and Yanukovych – who are ideologists of snap elections – throw the country into snap elections, then they will bear responsibility for all the consequences of the global financial crisis on Ukraine". The election was initially to be held 7 December 2008, but later postponed to an unknown date. Tymoshenko had no intention of resigning until a new coalition was formed.
Early December 2008 there were negotiations between BYuT and Party of Regions to form a coalition but after Volodymyr Lytvyn was elected Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament of Ukraine) 9 December 2008 he announced the creation of a coalition between his Lytvyn Bloc, BYuT and OU-PSD. After negotiations the three parties officially signed the coalition agreement on 16 December. It was unsure if this coalition would stop the snap election although Speaker Volodymyr Lytvyn predicted the Verkhovna Rada will work until 2012.
On February 5, 2009 Tymoshenko’s opponents in the parliament were trying to dismiss her government again, but again the vote failed. Next day president Yushchenko strongly criticized Tymoshenko and economic policies of her government. Tymoshenko accused him of spreading "a mix of untruths, panic and hysteria.".
A bigger part of Tymoshenko’s second term as a prime minister coincided in time with the global financial crisis of 2008, which made her government to respond to numerous challenges that could have led the country’s economy to collapse.[nb 7]
Tymoshenko’s government launched an anti corruption campaign and called it one of its priorities. [nb 8]
Gas dispute between Russia and Ukraine (2009)
The preconditions for 2009 gas dispute were created back in 2006, under Viktor Yanukovych government, when Ukraine started buying Russian gas through an intermediary – a Swiss-registered RosUkrEnergo (50% of its shares owned by the Russian “Gazprom”, 45% and 5% to Ukrainian businessmen Dmytro Firtash and Ivan Fursin correspondingly). Some sources indicate that notoriously famous criminal boss Sergiy Shnaider (nick Semen Mogylevych, associated with Dmytro Firtash) also had his share in the company.
When Tymoshenko resumed her prime minister duties in 2007 she initiated direct relations between Ukraine and Russia in gas trading area. The October 2, 2008 Memorandum signed by Tymoshenko and Vladimir Putin stipulated liquidation of intermediaries in gas deals between the two countries and outlined detailed conditions for future gas contracts. The gas conflict 2009 broke out because of two factors: no gas contract for 2009 and $2.4 billion debt that Ukraine had to pay for the gas received in 2008. Prime minister Tymoshenko stated that it was “RosUkrEnergo” company who should be responsible for the debt, but not the state of Ukraine. She demanded to liquidate corruption in the gas trade area and get back to direct contracts with the Russian Federation.
“RosUkrEnergo” with a help of its ties at Yushchenko’s administration managed to disrupt signing of the gas contract scheduled for Dec. 31, 2008. Oleksiy Miller, head of “Gazprom”, stated that trader “RosUkrEnergo” broke down talks between “Gazprom” and “Naftogaz Ukrainy”: “Yes indeed, in late December 2008 the prime ministers of Russia and Ukraine came to agreement and our companies were ready to seal the deal for $235 per 1000 cubic meters of natural gas with the condition that all the export operations from Ukraine will be done bilaterally. RosUkrEnergo then suggested to buy gas at $285 price”. On December 31, 2008 president Viktor Yushchenko gave Oleg Dubyna, head of “Naftogaz Ukrainy” a direct order to stop talks, not to sign the agreement and called the delegation off from Moscow. The decision made by the president of Ukraine brought on the crisis.
On January 14, 2009 prime minister Tymoshenko said: “The negotiations on $235 gas price and $1.7-1.8 transit price, that started on October 2 and successfully have been moving forward since, have been broken up because, unfortunately, Ukrainian politicians were trying to keep “RosUkrEnergo” in business as a shadow intermediary…The negotiations between the two prime ministers and later between “Gazprom” and “Naftogaz Ukrainy” were ruined by those Ukrainian political groups, who have gotten and are planning get corrupt benefits from “RosUkrEnergo”. On January 17, 2009 president of Russia Dmitriy Medvedev said: “I think that our Ukrainian partners and us can trade gas without any intermediaries, especially without intermediaries with questionable reputation. The problem is that some participants of negotiations insisted on keeping the intermediary referring to the instructions from the top”.
On January 1, 2009 at 10 AM “Gazprom” completely stopped pumping gas to Ukraine. On January 4, the Russian monopolist offered to sell Ukraine gas for $450 per 1000 cubic meter (minus fee for gas transit through Ukraine), which was defined as a standard price for Eastern European countries. On January 8, 2009 the prime minister of Russia Vladimir Putin said that Ukraine would have to pay $470 price for 1000 cubic meters of natural gas.
Between January 1 and 18 Central and Eastern European countries received significantly less gas. Ukrainian heat-and-power stations were working on the verge of their capacities. Due to sub-zero temperatures the entire housing and public utilities were about to collapse. On January 14 the European Commission and the Czech presidency in the European Union demanded to immediately renew gas deliveries in full capacity otherwise Russia’s and Ukraine’s reputation as reliable EU partners will be seriously damaged. On January 18, 2009 after five day long talks prime ministers Putin and Tymoshenko came to agreement to renew gas delivery to Ukraine and EU countries. The parties agreed upon the following: return to direct contract deals between “Gazprom” and “Naftogaz Ukrainy”; removal of non-transparent intermediaries; introduction of formula-based price for Ukraine, which works for other Eastern European countries; switch to $2.7 transit fee which is close to average price in Europe; according to the new gas contract in 2009 Ukraine had to pay $232.98 per 1000 cubic meters as average price  while European consumers were paying above $500 per 1000 cubic meters in 2008-2009.
2010 Presidential election
In 2009 the relations between Tymoshenko and President Yushchenko, the Secretariat of the President of Ukraine and the oppositional Party of Regions remained hostile. According to Tymoshenko her conflict with the President was a political competition and not ideological antagonism, and she emphasized early in February 2009 that the "election struggle for the next presidential elections has virtually begun".
“This is a competition during economic crisis; [some people] prefer to collect political benefits from these problems instead of solving them together”, Tymoshenko said in an interview to German Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung in February 2009. Later on in an interview to the French Le Monde prime minister said that “the president treats her as a rival striving for president’s office”. She also added that the above mentioned political instability fuels economic crisis. Thus, Tymoshenko called for early presidential election.
After long being considered a possible candidate for President of Ukraine in the 2010 election, Tymoshenko announced that she would indeed compete in the upcoming presidential election in a statement broadcast live on national TV on 7 June 2009, Tymoshenko did state that if she lost the presidential election she would not challenge the results. On 12 September 2009 a tour called "With Ukraine in Heart" in support of Tymoshenko's candidacy began on Kiev's Maidan Nezalezhnosti. Popular Ukrainian singers and bands took part in the tour.
On October 24, 2009 the delegates of all-Ukrainian union “Batkivshchyna” formally and unanimously endorsed Yulia Tymoshenko as their candidate for the next Presidential election 2010. The 200 thousand congress took place on Kyiv’s Independence Square. On October 31, 2009 the Central Election Commission registered Tymoshenko as candidate for presidential election 2010.
The Tymoshenko candidacy was also endorsed by prominent Ukrainian politicians such as Borys Tarasyuk, Yuriy Lutsenko, former President Leonid Kravchuk, the Christian Democratic Union, the European Party of Ukraine and others. Analysts suggested that she was the Russian Government's preferred candidate in the election; on 3 December 2009 Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin denied this. Putin stated he was cooperating with Tymoshenko as Prime Minister of Ukraine, but that he was not supporting her in the election.
Tymoshenko's campaign was expected to have cost $100 to $150 million.
On 1 December 2009 Tymoshenko urged "national democratic forces" to unite, after the first round of the presidential elections, around the candidate who garnered the largest number of votes. "If we are not able to strengthen our efforts and unite the whole national-patriotic and democratic camp of Ukraine... we will be much weaker than those who want revenge". On 5 December 2009 she declared she would go into opposition if she would lose the presidential elections, Tymoshenko also complained of flaws in the election legislation and expressed confidence of attempts to be made by her opponents to carry out vote rigging.
In the first round of the presidential election on 17 January 2010, Tymoshenko took second place with 25.05% of the vote and Yanukovych took first place with 35.32%. The two proceeded to the runoff.
On February 3, 2010 two days before the run-off, the deputies from Party of Regions, Communist Party of Ukraine, “Our Ukraine – People’s Self-Defense” bloc and independent MPs amended the Law on Election of President, which changed the mode of composition and functioning of election commissions. BYuT warned that these amendments would give a ground for massive rigging of election. Yulia Tymoshenko called president Yushchenko to veto the law. Hanne Severinsen, former rapporteur of PACE Monitoring Committee on Ukraine also called the president to veto the law. Severinsen’s statement read: “"Unfortunately, the Party of Regions, as in 2004, is trying to create conditions for vote fraud”.
Despite that president Yushchenko signed the amended Law. This action generated vast international criticism from the Council of Europe and members of the Commission on Security and Cooperation of the US Congress in particular. The Committee of Voters of Ukraine stated that the amendments to the Law on Election of President “contained the biggest threats for democratic mode of the run-off”.
Tymoshenko did not receive endorsement from other candidates who had not survived the first round. In the run-off held on 7 February 2010, in which Yanukovych was elected President of Ukraine. According to the Central Election Commission, he received 48.95% of the votes; Tymoshenko received 45.47% of the votes. Yulia Tymoshenko won 17 (out of 27) constituencies: in western, central, north regions of Ukraine and in Kyiv.
Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc members immediately claimed that there was systematic and large-scale vote rigging in this run-off. However Tymoshenko herself did not issue a statement about the election until a live televised broadcast on 13 February 2010 in which she said that she would challenge the election result in court. Tymoshenko alleged widespread fraud (according to Tymoshenko, a million votes were invalid) and said Yanukovych was not legitimately elected "Whatever happens in future, he will never become the legitimately elected President of Ukraine". Tymoshenko did not call people into the streets to protest and stated she "won't tolerate civil confrontation".
On 10 February 2010 Yanukovych called on Tymoshenko to abandon her protests and resign as Prime Minister. Yanukovych stated he wanted to form a new coalition, and may try to call snap parliamentary elections. On 12 February Yanukovych stated he did not rule out talks with Tymoshenko if she would publicly apologize to him for the accusations she made during her election campaign. Tymoshenko's government did not want to resign voluntarily.
On 17 February 2010 the Higher Administrative Court of Ukraine, suspended the results of the election on Tymoshenko's appeal. The court suspended the Central Election Commission of Ukraine ruling that announced that Viktor Yanukovych won the election. Tymoshenko withdrew her appeal on 20 February 2010 after the Higher Administrative Court in Kiev rejected her petition to scrutinize documents from election districts in Crimea and also to question election and law-enforcement officials. According to Tymoshenko "It became clear that the court is not out to establish the truth, and, unfortunately, the court is as biased as the Central Election Commission, which includes a political majority from Yanukovych". Tymoshenko also stated "At the very least there was rigging of votes using the main methods of falsification, and I think that for history this lawsuit with all the documentation will remain in the Higher Administrative Court of Ukraine, and sooner or later, an honest prosecutor's office and an honest court will assess that Yanukovych wasn't elected President of Ukraine, and that the will of the people had been rigged".
On February 22, 2010 Tymoshenko announced in a televised speech that she considered presidential election as rigged and did not recognize its results. “As well as millions of Ukrainians I state: Yanukovych is not our president”, she said. She called the democratic parliamentary factions not to seek “political employment” at the Party of Regions (meaning to avoid negotiations with the Party of Regions regarding the new coalition), “quit arguing and create a united team that would not let an anti-Ukrainian dictatorship usurp the power”.
In opposition after 2010 presidential election
During a nationally televised address on 22 February Tymoshenko said of President-elect of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych and "Yanukovych's team" (she referred to them in the speech as "The oligarchy"): "They need cheap labour, poor and disenfranchised people who can be forced to work at their factories for peanuts, they also need Ukraine's riches, which they have been stealing for the last 18 years." During the speech she also accused outgoing President Viktor Yushchenko of "opening the door to massive and flagrant election rigging" days before the 7 February runoff of the January 2010 presidential election by amending the election law. During a Cabinet of Ministers meeting on 24 February Tymoshenko stated "The moment of truth has arrived: The decision whether or not to side with Yanukovych will show who values the preservation of Ukraine's independence and self-identity and who does not". Tymoshenko and her party, Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko, boycotted the inauguration ceremony of President Yanukovych (on 25 February 2010).
If the Second Tymoshenko Government could not be preserved Tymoshenko stated on 22 February 2010 she would go into Parliamentary opposition. On 3 March 2010 the Ukrainian Parliament passed a motion of no confidence in the second Tymoshenko Government in which the cabinet was dismissed with 243 lawmakers voting in favour out of the 450 (including seven lawmakers of Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko). On 1 March 2010 Prime Minister Tymoshenko had demanded this vote herself. On 2 March 2010 the coalition had already lost the parliamentary majority. Before the vote on 3 March Prime Minister Tymoshenko again stated "If the dismissal of the government is passed today, at that very same moment our government will leave the cabinet. Our political force will cross into the opposition". Tymoshenko blamed the Lytvyn Bloc and "Our Ukraine, including the leader of Our Ukraine who announced the position of the faction" for the fall of the cabinet. Tymoshenko resigned from the Prime Minister post on 4 March 2010. Fellow BYuT member Oleksandr Turchynov was empowered to fulfill the Prime Minister's duties until a new government was formed on 4 March 2010. On 9 and 15 March 2010 Tymoshenko called on "all of the national patriotic forces" to unite against Yanukovych. On 10 March 2010 Viktor Yushchenko warned that her leadership of that opposition would end in disaster "Every political force that united with Tymoshenko ended badly". On 16 March a shadow government including BYuT was established. On 10 May 2010 the People's Committee to Protect Ukraine was established of which Tymoshenko is one of the representatives. Tymoshenko was against the 2010 Ukrainian-Russian Naval Base for Natural Gas treaty, she believes the agreements harm Ukraine's national interests.
Ukraine's prosecutor's office re-opened on 12 May 2010 a 2004 criminal case against Tymoshenko on accusations she had tried to bribe Supreme Court judges. The prosecutor's main investigation section said Tymoshenko had been called in on 12 May 2010 and formally told that the case, which had been prematurely closed by the Supreme Court of Ukraine in January 2005 without a proper investigation, had been re-opened. As she left the prosecutor's office on 12 May, Tymoshenko told journalists she had been summoned to see investigators again on 17 May and she linked the move to Russian President Medvedev's visit to Ukraine on 17–18 May 2010. Tymoshenko also claimed that she was told by "all the offices of the Prosecutor General's Office" that President Yanukovych had personally instructed the Prosecutor General's Office to find any grounds to prosecute her. In a press conference 12 May, President Yanukovych's representative in the Verkhovna Rada Yury Miroshnychenko dismissed Tymoshenko's statement about Yanukovych's personal interest in prosecuting her, Yanukovych is against political repression for criticism of the regime, Miroshnychenko stated.
On 15 December 2010 the General Prosecutor's Office instituted a criminal case against Tymoshenko, alleging that she misused funds received by Ukraine within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. She was officially charged on 20 December 2010. Tymoshenko denied the money had been spent on pensions and insisted it was still at the disposal of the environment ministry and called the investigation against her a witch-hunt. Tymoshenko was not arrested, but ordered not to leave Kiev while the inquiry was under way. In the same case the environment minister in the second Tymoshenko Government, Georgiy Filipchuk, was detained. Filipchuk was the third minister from this government to face criminal charges since its fall in March 2010 (prosecutors charged former Interior Minister Yuriy Lutsenko with abuse of office early December 2010 and former economy minister Bohdan Danylyshyn was detained in the Czech Republic in October 2010 on similar charges). Lawmakers of BYuT blocked the rostrum and presidium of the Verkhovna Rada the next day in protest against this. The same day the European People's Party issued a statement in which it "condemns the growth of aggressive, politically motivated pressure by the Ukrainian authorities on the opposition and its leader Yulia Tymoshenko". Tymoshenko dismissed the probe as "terror against the opposition by President Yanukovych". Earlier that month Ukraine's Prosecutor General Viktor Pshonka had stated that there were no political reasons for the interrogations of the opposition leaders Tymoshenko, Lutsenko and Oleksandr Turchynov. According to government officials the criminal case against Tymoshenko was a legitimate attempt to uncover corruption by the previous administration. New corruption charges against Tymoshenko where filed in on 27 January 2011. She was accused of using 1,000 medical vehicles for campaigning in the presidential elections of 2010. According to Tymoshenko the charges were false and part of "Yanukovych's campaign to silence the opposition". A third criminal case against Tymoshenko in connection with alleged abuse of power during the 2009 Russia–Ukraine gas dispute was opened on 10 April 2011. This case was labelled "absurd" by Tymoshenko. On 24 May 2011 prosecutors charged her in connection with this (third criminal) case. She was not arrested.
On 26 April 2011 Tymoshenko sued businessman Dmytro Firtash and Swiss-based RosUkrEnergo in a US District Court in Manhattan accusing them of "defrauding Ukraine's citizenry by manipulating an arbitration court ruling, "undermining the rule of law in Ukraine" in connection with an 2010 international arbitration court ruling in Stockholm that ordered Ukraine's state energy company Naftogaz to pay RosUkrEnergo 11 billion cubic meters (bcm) of natural gas to compensate for fuel it had "expropriated" plus 1.1 billion bcm as a penalty.
Throughout Yanukovych's presidency Tymoshenko stayed very critical about his and the Azarov Government performance and intentions which, among others, she accused of selling out to Russia and of being a "funeral of democracy". Tymoshenko has accused "many of Ukraine's neighbours" of turning a blind eye to "Yanukovych's strangulation of Ukraine's democracy, some openly celebrate the supposed "stability" that his regime has imposed". She believes "Ukraine can return to a democratic path of development only with an active civil society and support from the international community".
2011 trial and imprisonment and other criminal cases against Tymoshenko
Tymoshenko's trial (she was charged in May 2011) over abuse of office over a natural gas imports contract signed with Russia in January 2009 started on 24 June 2011 in Kiev. Also a number of criminal cases were opened against former officials from the second Tymoshenko Government.[nb 9] According to Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych those cases were indiscriminately made to fight corruption in Ukraine. Former President Viktor Yushchenko testified against Tymoshenko during the trial; a trial he called "a normal judicial process". On the other hand the trial against Tymoshenko has been rated as "selective justice" and "political persecution" in statements by the U.S.A, Russia, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Spain and other European countries; and in statements of the European Union, NATO, the European People's Party; as well as by human rights organizations: Transparency International, Freedom House, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch. Currently Tymoshenko is under criminal investigation for ten criminal acts; Ukrainian prosecutors have claimed she had committed more criminal acts.
Early in July 2011, the Ukrainian security service (USB) opened a new criminal investigation into alleged non-delivery by United Energy Systems of Ukraine (in 1996) of goods to Russia for $405.5 million, the USB maintains that Russia may claim this sum to the State budget of Ukraine (this criminal case was closed in Russia in December 2005 years by reason of lapse of time).
On 11 October 2011, the court found Tymoshenko guilty of abuse of power, sentenced her to seven years in jail, banned her from seeking elected office for her period of imprisonment, and ordered her to pay the state $188 million. She was convicted for exceeding her powers as Prime Minister, by ordering Naftogaz to sign the gas deal with Russia in 2009. Tymoshenko did appeal against the sentence on 24 October 2011; which she compared to Stalin's Great Terror.
A 2001 criminal case on state funds embezzlement and tax evasion charges against Tymoshenko was reopened in Ukraine on 24 October 2011.
Tymoshenko was re-arrested (while in prison) on 8 December 2011, after a Ukrainian court ordered her indefinite arrest, as part of the investigation of alleged tax evasion and theft of government funds (between 1996 and 2000) by United Energy Systems of Ukraine; again the European Union showed concern over this.
Tymoshenko lost her appeal against her sentence of abuse of power of 11 October 2011 on 23 December 2011. She and her lawyers had boycotted the appeal proceedings claiming "Judicial system and justice are totally non-existent in Ukraine today". Tymoshenko has lodged a complaint against the verdict at the European Court of Human Rights, which was given priority treatment by the court.
Since early April 2012 the General Prosecutor's Office is examining the possible involvement of Tymoshenko and former Prime Minister Pavlo Lazarenko in the murder of Donetsk businessman Olexandr Momot in 1996.
The trial for the in July 2011 opened criminal investigation into alleged misappropriating public funds of United Energy Systems of Ukraine started on 19 April 2012 in Kharkiv. Tymoshenko refused to attend the trial, citing problems with her health. Tymoshenko was then moved against her will from Kachanivska prison to a hospital where she entered a hunger strike on 20 April to protest – according to her lawyer Serhiy Vlasenko – "what is happening in the country and what is happening to her in prison". She ended the hunger strike on 9 May 2012. Since 9 May 2012 she is receiving treatment at the hospital after being diagnosed with a spinal disc herniation
Fatherland United Opposition nominated Tymoshenko as its candidate for the Ukrainian presidential elections of 2015 on 7 December 2012. On 14 June 2013 the congress of her party approved the decision to nominate her as its candidate in the 2015 Ukrainian presidential election.[nb 10]
On 18 January 2013, Tymoshenko was notified that she is a suspect in the murder of businessman and lawmaker Yevhen Shcherban, his wife and two other people in 1996. In May 2013 the Shcherban murder case was suspended.
From 25 November till 6 December 2013 (during the Euromaidan protests) Tymoshenko was again on hunger strike in protest of "President Yanukovych's reluctance to sign the DCFTA" on 6 December.
On October 24, 2011 Yulia Tymoshenko filed an appeal on the decision of Pechersk district court of Kyiv on the “gas case”. On December 1 the Kyiv Court of Appeal started hearing the case. Tymoshenko herself was not present in the courtroom because of her health condition. After the hearing the judge Olena Sitaylo had to call an ambulence and was hospitalized. On December 13, 2011 the Kyiv Court of Appeal resumed the hearing, all the following court sessions took place without Tymoshenko. Right before the hearing of the appeal the board of judges was changed: Sitaylo, the chief justice, was appointed the day before the first hearing; other justices were appointed several days prior to the court session. Thus the judges did not have time to study the 84-pages long case. The manner of the process proved that the decision was made beforehand. At the very end Tymoshenko’s defense boycotted the court session.
On December 23, 2011 the Kyiv Court of Appeal issued a ruling which fully supported the verdict of Pechersk court. The judges didn’t find any violations during pre-trial investigation and trial on the “gas case”, overruled the claims of Tymoshenko’s defense.
On January 26, 2012 Yulia Tymoshenko’s defense submitted a cassation appeal to the High Specialized Court for Civil and Criminal Cases regarding the “gas case” verdict. On August 16, 2012, after 7 months long procrastination which impeded filing the case to the European Court of Human Rights, the panel of judges of the abovementioned court started hearing the case and as soon as on August 21 finished hearing the case and went to the jury room to make decision. The ruling of the Court issued on August 29, 2012 read that the appeal of ex prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko’s defense on the “gas case” should not be satisfied.
Media, diplomats, members of parliament and members of EU special monitoring mission Pet Cox and Aleksander Kwasniewski attended the court sessions. The ruling was announced on the next day after public hearing of “Tymoshenko vs Ukraine” (regarding unlawful arrest of ex-prime minister and holding her in custody) case at the European Court of Human Rights.
The European Union, PACE, governments of the United States, Great Britain and Canada expressed frustration with the cassation ruling. “We are deeply disappointed with the consequences of the current situation, when two important opposition leaders cannot stand in the upcoming parliamentary elections, [and] when the court disrespects international standards for fair and transparent processes,” a representative of the European Commission, Michael Mann, said in Brussels on August 29, 2012.
The conviction was viewed by many international organizations, such as Danish Helsinki Committee, as politically charged persecution. The European Union and other international organizations sees the conviction as "justice being applied selectively under political motivation". Many world leaders, such as former Czech president Vaclav Havel, the Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama and Czech foreign minister, Karel Schwarzenberg published an open letter, condemning violation of democratic principles by Ukraine’s authorities and expressing support for Yulia Tymoshenko.
United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon also has expressed his concern over Tymoshenko's conviction. In his press statement he expressed hope that all the judicial proceedings in this case will be "conducted in a fair and impartial manner and to follow due process".
German chancellor Angela Merkel repeatedly urged Ukrainian authorities to release Tymoshenko. In 2012 Merkel was campaigning for mass boycott of Euro 2012 football tournament in Ukraine unless Tymoshenko is freed. She also assured that Germany is ready to provide ex prime minister with relevant medical treatment and called on her immediate release. Former US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton also called on Tymoshenko’s release following the reports that she had been severely beaten by the prison guards.
In June 2012 European Parliament established a special monitoring mission to Ukraine, conducted by former European Parliament President Pat Cox and former Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski. Both politicians have observed trials, repeatedly visited Tymoshenko in custody and conducted meetings with Ukraine's authorities regarding her release.
The European Union has shelved the European Union Association Agreement and Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with Ukraine over the issue. In March 2012 the foreign ministers of Sweden, Britain, the Czech Republic, Poland and Germany (Carl Bildt, William Hague, Karel Schwarzenberg, Radoslaw Sikorski and Guido Westerwelle) condemned Ukraine’s government for selective justice and politically motivated prosecution of opposition leaders, in particular, Yulia Tymoshenko and Yuriy Lutsenko.
President Yanukovych recognized that the Tymoshenko case impedes Ukraine's integration into European structures.
On April 30, 2013 the European Court of Human Rights issued a judgment saying “Ms. Tymoshenko’s pre-trial detention had been arbitrary; that the lawfulness of her detention had not been properly reviewed; and, that she had no possibility to seek compensation for her unlawful deprivation of liberty”.
On May 28, 2013 the Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe issued a report elaborated by rapporteur Pieter Omtzigt. The report said that the Committee is deeply troubled by the manner in which the country’s criminal justice system is abused for the persecution of political opponents” by Ukrainian authorities. Omtzigt also suggested to address the status of former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko as ‘political prisoner’ within the meaning of the definition adopted by the Parliamentary Assembly.
US Senate has passed two resolutions calling for a release from prison of former prime minister Tymoshenko. The one represented in Senate in June 2013 called for Tymoshenko’s release in light of the recent European Court of Human Rights ruling was adopted on November 18, 2013. Earlier resolution, passed in 2012 condemned the politically motivated prosecution and imprisonment of former Prime Minister of Ukraine Yulia Tymoshenko was adopted.
On September 5, 2013 the Committee for the Prevention of Torture (CPT) published the report upon their December 2012 visit to Ukraine. The report claims that physical force has been used against Yulia Tymoshenko during her transportation from Kachanivka penal colony to Kharkiv hospital on April 20, 2012. The CPT investigation concluded that Tymoshenko’s rights had been violated on several Articles of the European Convention of Human Rights, in particular, Articles 3 (Prohibition of torture) and 8 (Right to respect for private and family life).
On October 2, 2013 the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) adopted a resolution calling for immediate release of Yulia Tymoshenko and two days later Pat Cox and Aleksander Kwasniewski, representatives of the European Parliament mission, handed president Yanukovych a petition to pardon Tymoshenko.
Tymoshenko wants her country to become a member of the EU, while also expressing concern about antagonizing Russia. "I try to defend our interests so that we can find a balance in our relations both with the EU and Russia".
Tymoshenko supports Ukraine joining NATO, stating it would be "uncomfortable" for Ukraine to remain "in a void, outside all existing security systems". But, according to Tymoshenko, the question of Ukraine's joining any system of collective security would "be resolved only by referendum". Tymoshenko favours close relations with the EU, including the creation of a free-trade area between Ukraine and the EU and later a full membership. According to Tymoshenko: "The European project has not been completed as yet. It has not been completed because there is no full-fledged participation of Ukraine." She opposes foreign intervention in internal Ukrainian affairs: "Ukraine's realization of its sovereign rights, forming a modern political nation, cannot be considered as a policy aimed against anyone". Tymoshenko does not want to expand the lease contract of the Russian Black Sea fleet in Ukraine because "The Constitution of Ukraine quite clearly stipulates that foreign military bases cannot be deployed in Ukraine, and this constitutional clause is the fundamental basis of the state's security". She also believes in "building a genuine civil society" as the best way to help democracy.
Tymoshenko regards Ukraine as a "unitary and indivisible state". Tymoshenko considers separatist attitudes in Ukraine unacceptable; "Love one another, from Donetsk, Crimea, Luhansk, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv, Lviv, Ternopil, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kyiv and all the other corners of our native land". According to Tymoshenko, citizens in Russian-speaking Dnipropetrovsk already understood Ukrainian in Soviet times and that problems surrounding the Russian language in Ukraine were being[by whom?] "exaggerated and don't exist".
Tymoshenko opposes the introduction of Russian as a second official state language, About her own attitude towards Ukrainian, Tymoshenko has stated "that today I am thinking in Ukrainian... and the fact that I know Russian very well, I think it is not a secret for you... you all know that I was brought up in the Russian speaking region in Dnipropetrovsk, to my mind, I spared no effort to speak Ukrainian as soon as possible as I came in the Government".
Tymoshenko wrote an article called "Containing Russia" in the May–June 2007 edition of the journal Foreign Affairs. In the article she criticized Russian expansionism. Consequently, the article irked Russia and more than a week after the article was published, Russia responded to the article, calling it an "anti-Russian manifesto" and "an attempt to once again draw dividing lines in Europe."[nb 11]
The first Tymoshenko Government was up for transparent and honest re-privatization of 3,000 enterprises as in case with Kyvorizhstal steel mill. Tymoshenko believes that Ukraine's economy is excessively monopolized. Tymoshenko is against privatization of the gas transportation system in Ukraine. Tymoshenko lists salvation of the economy of Ukraine during the 2008–09 Ukrainian financial crisis as one of her achievements. The second Tymoshenko Government has spent 1.6 billion hryvnya on modernizing coal mine industry.
Tymoshenko wants to increase a rise in the general level of social standards by equalizing salaries in the industrial and social spheres and pledged in November 2009 to revamp Ukraine's hospitals and health system within two years and tax breaks for farmers. Other economic policies included compensation for depositors who lost Soviet-era savings, price controls on food and medicines to bring inflation down, calls for a review of murky privatisations and high social spending. Tymoshenko wants to cut the number of taxes by a third, simplifying the system, and wants to cut Value Added Tax (VAT) and offer tax breaks to importers of new technologies as well as poor regions to boost investment. In December 2009, the second Tymoshenko Government proposed creating independent anti-corruption bureaus in Ukraine.
Tymoshenko believes Ukraine could gain energy security and independence and she wants to speed up exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas on the Black Sea shelf. Considering Nuclear power provides almost 50% of the electricity supply in Ukraine, Tymoshenko’s government agreed on cooperation with the company Westin to establish factory production of nuclear fuel in Ukraine independently from Russia. She also suggested a 10-year tax break for enterprises that would develop alternative energy sources in Ukraine.
Tymoshenko is for the cancellation of Verkhovna Rada deputies' immunity from prosecution. For Ukraine Tymoshenko prefers the proportional representation voting system with open lists. Tymoshenko wants to reform the forming of state executive bodies and favours giving parliamentary opposition "real instruments of influence on the authorities", wants Ukrainian court system reforms and wants devolution of executive power to local authorities. Together with representatives of regional governments elaborated a Law that aimed to empower local authorities. In the summer of 2009, Tymoshenko claimed she tried to bring together different political parties in order to amend the constitution and switch to a parliamentary form of government. In February 2011, Tymoshenko stated "Viktor Yanukovych’s naked attempt to hijack the election that precipitated the Orange Revolution should have resulted in him being banned from running in future elections".
In November 2009, Tymoshenko called Ukraine "an absolutely ungovernable country" due to the changes to the Constitution of Ukraine as a part of a political compromise between the acting authorities (former-President Kuchma) and opposition during the Orange Revolution (Tymoshenko has characterised those reforms as "incomplete" and the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc voted against them in December 2004). In January 2010, Tymoshenko called for urgent amendments to the Constitution via the majority of the Verkhovna Rada after a survey or plebiscite is conducted. In April 2011 she still believed the constitution "didn't work".
Genealogy, family and personal life
Yulia Tymoshenko (born Grigyan; was born 27 November 1960, in Dnipropetrovsk, (Soviet) Ukraine. Her mother's name is Ludmila Nikolaevna Telegina. Her father is Vladimir Abramovich Grigyan.
Ludmila Nikolaevna Telegina (born Nelepova), was born 11 August 1937, in Dnipropetrovsk.
In the Ukrainian media there has been a lot of speculation regarding the genealogy of Tymoshenko. Some of the hypotheses have no scientific evidence (for example, the hypothesis of the Armenian origin of the surname "Grigyan");  some of the hypotheses (concerning her Jewish roots) have been labelled as provocative, or could be designed to create negative PR.
About her ethnicity, Yulia Tymoshenko herself has said: "On my father’s side – everyone is Latvian for ten generations, and on my mother's side – everyone is Ukrainian for ten generations." Tymoshenko's parents were both born in Ukraine and are, therefore, Ukrainian as defined by the Law on Citizenship of Ukraine and by the Ukrainian Constitution.
- Mother – Lyudmila Telegina (born 11 August 1937, in Dnipropetrovsk).
- Father – Vladimir Grigyan (born 3 December 1937, in Dnipropetrovsk)
- Husband – Oleksandr Tymoshenko (born 11 June 1960), businessman, married Yulia Telegina in 1979. Father of Olexander – Gennadi Tymoshenko.
- Daughter – Yevhenia (Eugenia) Tymoshenko (born 20 February 1980) – a graduate of the London School of Economics (in politics and philosophy).
Tymoshenko and her husband rent a house in Kiev (the house belongs to relatives) and own a house in Dnipropetrovsk. Tymoshenko has declared she never used and will never use or move into a state-owned summer house, in contrast with all former-Presidents of Ukraine, who are all living in state-owned dachas in Koncha-Zaspa. According to Ukrainian media Tymoshenko lives in an estate in Koncha-Zaspa (estimated worth: $5 million), "rented from a friend for free".
Tymoshenko has publicly stated that, like most Soviet citizens, she spoke only Russian in her childhood (although Tymoshenko had been studying the Ukrainian language and Ukrainian literature at the school for 10 years, as all schoolchildren in Soviet Ukraine). In January 2010 Tymoshenko stated that in Dnipropetrovsk she did not have to speak Ukrainian until she was 36 (i.e. before 1996). According to Tymoshenko her braids are a family tradition.
In her spare time, before she was imprisoned, Tymoshenko ran on a treadmill for exercise and listened to the music of Andrea Bocelli, Sarah Brightman, Anna Netrebko and Alessandro Safina. Ukrayinska Pravda is her favourite news source. Tymoshenko has stated she has watched the Tunisian Revolution and Egyptian Revolution of 2011 "with joy and admiration".
Cultural and political image
Tymoshenko's critics have suggested that, as an oligarch, she gained her fortune improperly. Some have speculated that her familiarity with the illegal conduct of business common in Ukraine uniquely qualifies her to combat corruption—if she is willing to do so. Her former business partner, former Ukrainian Prime Minister Pavlo Lazarenko, was convicted in the United States on charges of money laundering, corruption and fraud, the magnitude of which was in the billions of dollars. Although Judge Martin Jenkins of the US District Court for the Northern District of California on May 7, 2004 dismissed the allegations Tymoshenko's involvement in Lazarenko's murky business.
Her transition from oligarch to reformer was believed by many voters to be both genuine and effective. Discrepancies between her declared income and her seemingly luxurious lifestyle (mostly because of her designer outfits) have been pointed out in the Ukrainian tabloids.
When Tymoshenko joined the Yushchenko Government she did not speak Ukrainian. According to fellow Ukrainian politician Borys Tarasyuk in 2002 Tymoshenko "only spoke Russian even when I spoke to her in Ukrainian", but since then she has made the transition to speaking only Ukrainian.
During her second stint as Prime-Minister her ratings in opinion polls fell. In early 2008 in opinion polls for the Ukrainian presidential election, 2009 she stood at 30% but by late-April 2009 that had shrunk to 15% According to a poll carried out between 29 January and 5 February 2009 by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology just over 43% of the Ukrainian voters believed Tymoshenko should leave her post, whereas just over 45% believed she should stay. According to an opinion poll carried out between 3 and 12 February 2009 by the "Sofia" Center for Social Studies some 59.1% of those polled believed that the activities of (then) Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko where aimed at the defense of her own interests and that of her entourage, some 4.2% said her activities where aimed at the defense of interests of foreign states and some 23.9% believed that Tymoshenko worked for the sake of national interests. 77.7% of the respondents where unsatisfied with the economic policy of the second Tymoshenko Government. Some 71.8% believed that this government was not able to lead the Ukrainian economy out of the 2008–09 Ukrainian financial crisis or even change the situation in Ukraine to better; 18.1% of respondents did think that the government could do that. 1. Despite the neck-to-neck 2010 presidential race, many experts believed that Tymoshenko would win the vote due to her ability to “hike her popularity just before the voting day”. JP Morgan Securities Inc. experts said that Yulia Tymoshenko’s victory in presidential election would “bring stability in 2010, with budget consolidation, better terms of crediting and higher influx of capital. As a result, the economy will have better prospects of growing in the second half of 2010 and 2011”.
Tymoshenko has been ranked three times by Forbes magazine among the most powerful women in the world. During her first term, in 2005 she was ranked third (behind Condoleezza Rice and Wu Yi), in 2008 she was number 17 and in 2009 at number 47. According to the Ukrainian magazine Focus Lady Yu was placed first in annual ranking of the most influential women in Ukraine in 2006–2010 (five years). During the Orange Revolution some Western media publications dubbed her the "Joan of Arc of the Revolution". Tymoshenko was also dubbed one of the most beautiful women ever to enter politics by the Daily Mail and 20 Minutos in 2009. In December 2011 Tymoshenko's party BYuT-Batkivschyna nominated her for the Nobel Peace Prize.
Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin has stated (in November 2009) he found it comfortable to work with his (then) Ukrainian counterpart Yulia Tymoshenko and also praised her for strengthening Ukrainian sovereignty and building stable ties with Moscow and called the second Tymoshenko Government "efficient and a force for stability". It has been suggested by Reuters that the Russian government, after seeing her opposition to Viktor Yushchenko, supported her since late 2008, although Putin denied it.
Former ally and President of Ukraine Victor Yushchenko stated in November 2009 "I am sure that every week, spent by Yulia Tymoshenko at the post of Prime Minister, leads the country to a catastrophe. Because of Yulia Tymoshenko – it is a crisis, crisis in everything". Yushchenko has repeatedly accused his former ally turned rival Tymoshenko of acting in the interests of Russia, she firmly denied the allegations. On 31 May 2010 Yushchenko stated that Tymoshenko was his "worst mistake", "The most serious mistake was to give the power to her twice". Expert in Ukrainian politics Dr. Taras Kuzio believes that he has always prioritized personal revenge against Tymoshenko over Ukraine’s national interests. In her turn, Tymoshenko has blamed President Viktor Yuschenko for obstructing the government-proposed anti-crisis measures and efforts to form a broad coalition to battle the crisis. "The president is using flashy words today to deprive the nation, first of all its government, of the opportunity to counter the crisis, and to leave the nation without a government it logically needs” she said. "Viktor Yushchenko has no right to any criticism. He is the incumbent president. He only has the right to work and to serve Ukraine. He will have the right to criticize when he joins the opposition. Now he must work and answer for his moves”.
Former Ukrainian Minister of Finance of Ukraine Viktor Pynzenyk has called Tymoshenko's decisions "normally guided by ‘adventurous populism,’" which she saw as a tool to "consolidate power in her own hands" and believed Tymoshenko should have "taken advantage of the opportunity presented by the 2008–2009 Ukrainian financial crisis to reform".
Party of Regions Deputy Head Borys Kolesnykov stated on 11 February 2010 "Tymoshenko was the most effective politician during the entire period of Ukraine's recent history". Former European High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana has called Tymoshenko "a patriot regardless of the position in which you have found yourself". President Viktor Yanukovych stated about Tymoshenko on 13 May 2010 "She likes to create a sensation. We have grown used to this extravagant woman".
In some press-media Tymoshenko is sometimes referred to as Lady Yu (Ледi Ю, Леди Ю).
Opinion polls since early 2011 show that the percentage of votes that Tymoshenko would gain in a future presidential election stands about 15%. Yet recent opinion polls show increase of Tymoshenko’s rating. Thus, according to the survey conducted by “Rating” sociology think tank in September 2013, 21% of respondents would vote for Tymoshenko.
Famous people about Yulia Tymoshenko
Former EU High Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana called Tymoshenko “a patriot, regardless of which post she holds” (2010)[nb 12] 
Leonid Kravchuk, first President of Ukraine: “When she works, she shines. She is on fire, she is burning. And most of our politicians are barely smoldering, emitting smoke. That’s why her energy, strengths and beliefs attract people”. (2010)
Paolo Coelho, writer: “She is very charismatic. I was so impressed. She is a strong personality. I think there are not so many charismatic leaders like her in the world. I think there are efficient people who govern their countries pretty well, but charisma is a unique feature. If you ask me to name the brightest ones I would name Luiz Lula, President of Brazil, Yulia Tymoshenko, Barack Obama, Nicolas Sarkozy is also an extraordinary person”. (2010)
Jakov Sedlar, Croatian filmmaker: “To my mind, she is a very unusual politician as for these days. I think we live in time, when there are a lot of good governors, good people who want to serve their country. But there are only few who can be called leaders, heroes. I think that Yulia Tymoshenko is one of them. In this world that is lacking great people, she is an exception”. (2013)
Awards and International Recognition
- Order of Saint Varvara, Great Martyr from Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate (1998)
- Third most powerful woman in the world, rating by Forbes magazine (July 2005)
- “Person of the year in Central and Eastern Europe” award at International Economic Forum in Krynica-Zdrój, Poland (September 2005)
- “Prix de la fondation” award for efficient governance and anti corruption campaign at annual session of Crans Montana Forum (December 2005)[nb 13]
- “Yulia Tymoshenko” play by Adriana Altaras and Maksim Kurochkin in Hans Otto Theater in Potsdam, Germany. (September 2006)
- “For Political Courage” by reputable French magazine “Politique internationale”, it was the first award given to a Ukrainian nominee over the last 25 years of the magazine’s history. (March, 2007)
- Award by American NGO Conservative Political Action Conference for contribution into democracy development. (March 2007)
- “Shakhtarska Slava” award on the Coalminer Day in Luhansk. (2008)
- The Order of the Holy Sepulchre award from Jerusalem Orthodox Church, given to Tymoshenko by the Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem. (October 2008)
- The Saint Andrew the First-Called Order of II degree (the highest church award of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate) from Apostolic Patriarch of Ukraine Philaret. (2011)
- The Pope Boniface VIII International Award (October 2012). The first person to receive the award was the Pope John Paul II.
- Manuel Carrasco Formiguera medal for her contribution to the defense of democracy and freedom and the struggle for the restoration of the rule of law in Ukraine, awarded by Democratic Union of Catalonia party (July 2013).
- Play “Who Wants to Kill Yulia Tymoshenko?” was first performed at the opening night of Edinburgh Festival Fringe. The play is about political fight of Yulia Tymoshenko and her imprisonment. (August 2013)
Yulia Tymoshenko's positions in national ratings
2005 Korrespondent magazine, TOP 100 the most influential politics of Ukraine, 2nd place (Women with nimbus), Person of the year
2007 Yulia Tymoshenko, Focus magazine, the most influential women of Ukraine, 1st place. Yulia Tymoshenko, Korrespondent magazine, TOP 100 the most influential politics of Ukraine, 4th place (Woman-brand), Person of the year. Yulia Tymoshenko, Focus magazine, 200 the most influential Ukrainians, 2nd place.
2009 Yulia Tymoshenko, Korrespondent magazine, TOP 100 the most influential Ukrainians, 1st place (Dream women). Yulia Tymoshenko, Focus magazine, the most influential women of Ukraine, 1st place. Yulia Tymoshenko, Focus magazine, TOP 200 the most influential politicians of Ukraine, 1st place.
2012 The national rating (December 28, 2012) by the Razumkov Center and the "Foundation for Democratic Initiatives" : Yulia Tymoshenko is recognized as the best Prime Minister of Ukraine — 19.5%, Viktor Yanukovych — 11.4%, Mykola Azarov - 8.6%, Leonid Kuchma - 5.6%, Viktor Yushchenko - 3.9%, Pavel Lazarenko - 2.2%.
2007-2013 In Ukraine, Yulia Tymoshenko is the most popular politician on the Internet , in blogs and social networks. Yulia Tymoshenko is the most popular foreign politician in the Russian media.
- 2004 (29 November) — (Russian language) Tymoshenko's speech in Donetsk on Akhmetov's Channel "Ukraine" – during the Orange Revolution (Tymoshenko in the orange shirt of FC Shakhtar Donetsk).
- 2007 – (Ukrainian language) campaign videos about "Ivan, Galia, and the Vampire-Yanukovich" in support of BYuT; the parliamentary elections-2007.
- 2009 – concert at the "Independence Square"-Maydan (Kiev) in honor of Yulia Tymoshenko's nomination as a candidate for the presidency; the song "Yulia, Yulia, Ukraine" (Nastya Kamenskih and "Potap"); 29 October 2009.
- 2009 – "The Red Heart", a clip of Yulia Timoshenko's presidential election-2010; 2 December 2009.
- 2011 — Yulia Tymoshenko on Euronews (English Version). Tymoshenko in Brussels. March 31, 2011.
- 2011 – a documentary film (25 minutes), which was shown at the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, 8 October 2011 – "The trial of Yulia Tymoshenko. The true story".
- 2011 – Tymoshenko rendered a verdict. Kiev, 11 October 2011.
- 2011 — Eugenia Tymoshenko, the daughter of Ukrainian political prisoner and former PM Yulia Tymoshenko, gave an interview to MyEPP TV during the EPP Congress in Marseille. December 16, 2011.
- 2012 — BBC World News: Ukraine facing Europe boycott calls over Yulia Tymoshenko 1 May 2012.
- 2012 — Ukrainian opposition parties on Saturday held a rally in central Kiev in support of jailed former prime minister Yulia Tymoshenko. — (German language) Ukraine opposition rallies for Tymoshenko. Euronews. May 12, 2012.
- 2012 — "Witness : Ukraine, State of Chaos". Al Jazeera English. November 22, 2012 (film lasting 47 minutes). The film concludes that as of 2012 the leader of democracy in Ukraine is Tymoshenko.
- 2012 — Ruslana, "Euphoria", 2012 (English version, Ukrainian version). Ruslana was an active member of the Orange Revolution. Since the jail Tymoshenko, the theme of the prison became a daily in the Ukrainian media reports.
- 2013 — (WASHINGTON, DC) Assistant Senate Majority Leader and member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Dick Durbin, called for the release of Ukraine's former Prime Minister, Yulia Tymoshenko in light of the European Court of Human Rights recent decision on her case. Washington, July 18, 2013.
- European politicians deemed the court's decision to be politically motivated and a violation of democratic standards. The head of EU diplomacy, Catherine Ashton, said in a statement that the verdict would affect bilateral EU-Ukraine relations, including the Association Agreement. Commissioner for Enlargement Stefan Fule indicated that he was counting on Tymoshenko’s rapid release through changes to Ukraine’s Criminal Code. The head of the European People's Party, Wilfried Martens, has called for talks with Ukraine on the Association Agreement to be suspended. These responses correspond to the Union’s current position; for the Association Agreement to be signed, Tymoshenko must be released and permitted to participate in the next elections.
- Key economic achievements of Tymoshenko’s government Increased salaries, pensions, scholarships; Fulfilled one of the paragraphs of social program from Yushchenko’s election agenda on support for new families: in 2005 a social aid for a newborn child was increased 12 times; “Contraband stop” campaign was launched. The campaign was accompanied by eradication of shadow schemes in business; Call for nationalization and re-privatization of more than 3000 enterprises. Eventually the government nationalized and then re-privatized country’s biggest metallurgical plant “Kryvorizhstal”. In October 2005 it was sold for $4 billion to a new owner, which was an impressive amount compared to $8.5 billion received by the government from privatization between 1991 and 2004; On June 16, 2005 president Viktor Yushchenko, speaker of the Verkhovna Rada Volodymyr Lytvyn and Yulia Tymoshenko signed a memorandum on guarantees of ownership rights and ensuring lawfulness for their implementation. According to Yushchenko, “Ukrainian government brought murky privatization practice to the end”; Reaction to crises on internal market In April–May 2005 Ukraine faced so called “meat, sugar and petrol crises” when prices for the abovementioned products went up by 30-50% over a couple of weeks. These crises allegedly resulted from a cartel conspiracy and it took Tymoshenko’s government about 1,5 month to get the prices down to the initial level with the help of “goods intervention” mechanism; The meat crisis was caused by increased demand for meat as a result of increased salaries. Tymoshenko’s government lifted duties on imported meat, which dropped the speculative prices Tymoshenko’s political opponents (Yushchenko and Yanukovych) kept criticizing her for importing “low quality meet”. At that time Tymoshenko’s government made a decision to increase production of poultry, which eventually made Ukraine a poultry exporter. The sugar and petrol crises were caused by a “cartel conspiracy” which increased prices for the abovementioned goods by 30-50%. Tymoshenko’s government organized import of cane sugar and dropped duties on oil products import. In a couple of months the prices stabilized. In 2006 Anti Monopoly Committee, who investigated the “sugar crisis” issued a conclusion which said that it was a cartel monopoly with a participation of Petro Poroshenko, then-head of the National Council of Security and Defense. In May 2005, at the height of the petrol crisis, Viktor Yushchenko publicly sharply criticized Tymoshenko for “pressure on oil traders”.
- On December 7, 2005 Bloc of Yulia Tymoshenko held a convention in Kiev. At this convention Yulia Tymoshenko presented a new ideology of the Bloc (“solidarism”) and announced the first top 10 of the party list for the upcoming parliamentary election 2006. Unlike the other parties who ran for election, BYuT did not disclose the rest of the names on the list. On March 26, 2006 parliamentary election BYuT won 22.27% of votes (5 million 648 thousand 345 votes) and came first in 14 regions of Ukraine.
- See more at 2007 Ukrainian political crisis.
- The key purpose of her visit was to explain the US administration “the biggest problem of Ukrainian politics”: Yanukovych’s actions towards unconstitutional enlargement of the “ruling coalition” that could potentially remove Viktor Yushchenko from power. The only possible solution envisaged by Tymoshenko was dismissal of the Verkhovna Rada (according to the Constitution) and early parliamentary election. Beside the meetings with top officials of administration of George Bush, Tymoshenko gave a speech at Kennedy Center for Strategic and International Studies and the National Press Club. Also she received an award for contribution into democracy development from influential NGO Conservative Political Action Conference.
- On March 31, 2007 Tymoshenko and her political party initiated and conducted the “100 thousand people Maidan”. Other Orange Revolution leaders such as Viacheslav Kyrylenko and Yuriy Lutsenko attended the meeting. The participants urged president Yushchenko (who was not there) to dismiss the Verkhovna Rada and call early election. During this trip she received an award for contribution into democracy development from Conservative Political Action Conference.
- Tymoshenko herself outlines the biggest achievements of her government introducing anti crisis program for the key industries (mining and metallurgical sector, agrarian sector, chemical production, construction and development), strengthening Ukraine’s energy independence through direct gas deals with Russian Federation, restoring Ukraine’s fame as the world’s bread basket due to unprecedentedly rich crops of grain (53.3 million tons in 2008, and 46 million tons in 2009), preventing drop in the agricultural production, revitalization of high-tech industries such as space engineering and aircraft construction, resuming of series construction of Antonov aircraft, getting final UEFA’s confirmation for conduct Euro-2012 tournament in Ukraine, introducing independent high school graduate testing, obtaining WTO membership, and commencing negotiations on EU association.
- Tymoshenko introduced an apparatus of the Cabinet of Ministers’ Commissioner for anti corruption issues and made sure that a number of anti corruption laws and government regulations (acts) were adopted. Tymoshenko herself was personally in charge of fight with “gas” and “land” mafia, which, in the first case, ended up with removal of corruption intermediary from gas trade between Russia and Ukraine; in the second case it ended up with introduction of free of charge registration and issuing land ownership documents for citizens. According to Tymoshenko, the efficient anti corruption campaign  and significant financial discipline armed the government with additional resources for dealing with burning social problems during the crisis period. Due to that the following goals were achieved: pensions, stipends and salaries to the state-run organizations’ employees were paid on time; gas and electricity prices for households were not raised; people received their deposits from the bankrupt banks; additional payments for teachers, healthcare workers and librarians were provided; financial aid to families with a newborn child was increased in several times; those who qualify, received more than 5500 state subsidized apartments; about 6 million of clients of former Soviet Oshchadbank received compensations for their lost savings; people could register their land plots free of charge.
- These criminal cases were opened against officials from the second Tymoshenko Government (prosecutors have not accused them of corruption, or assignment of funds, but rather have accused them of abuse of power):
- Prime Minister – Tymoshenko
- Minister of Police – Yuriy Lutsenko
- Minister of Defence – Ivashchenko
- Minister of Finance – Danylyshyn
- Minister of Natural Resources – Filipchuk
- Deputy Minister of Justice – Korneichuk
- Head of Customs of Ukraine – Makarenko
- Head of the regional customs – Shepitko
- Head of the State Treasury of Ukraine – Slyuz; Deputy head – Gritsoun
- Deputy head of "Naftogaz" (state monopoly on trade in gas and oil) – Didenko
- Governor of Dnipropetrovsk region (former Minister of Transport) – Bondar
- Minister and former mayor of Lviv – Kuybida. Source: Minister and former mayor of Lviv – Kuybida
- First Deputy Prime Minister Oleksandr Turchynov – repeatedly summoned for questioning
- In December 2010 Tymoshenko had stated she might run for President in 2015; but that this also depended on her family.
- It was subsequently revealed that significant portions of the article paraphrased from an article written by former U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. Tymoshenko's staff denied allegations of plagiarism on the grounds that the Foreign Affairs format does not usually include attributions. Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov wrote an article called "Containing Russia: Back To The Future?" for the same journal which was apparently meant to be a response to Tymoshenko. He withdrew the article before publication, accusing the editors of changing his text and said his article was subjected to "censorship".
- "You know what a sincerely friendly attitude I have to Ukraine. In Europe, you have not only many friends of Ukraine, but also a lot of your own friends. I see how wisely you treat the circumstances that you currently have, and you remain, of course, a patriot regardless of the position in which you have found yourself”
- Tymshenko's daughter Yevhenia Tymoshenko received a Medal for her contribution to the defense of democracy and human rights of the same organization in October 2012.
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German doctors arrive at Kharkiv-based clinic to see Tymoshenko, Kyiv Post (15 November 2012)
Rome mayor's office puts up Tymoshenko portrait on facade, Kyiv Post (26 November 2012)
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- Yulia Tymoshenko: we must realize that Ukraine is an indivisible state, Official website of Yulia Tymoshenko (Augustus 24, 2010)
- Tea with the Financial Times: Yulia Tymoshenko, UNIAN (18 August 2008)
- Yulia Tymoshenko: In Ukraine there will be "mova" (Ukrainian language), not "yazyk" (Russian language)!, Web portal of the Ukrainian Government (25 September 2008)
- Ukrainian premier against granting national status to Russian language, Kyiv Post (20 August 2009)
- Y. TYMOSHENKO, "Containing Russia" in Foreign Affairs, May–June 2007, pp. 69–83.
- I. KHRESTIN, "The Kremlin's Issue with Foreign Affairs" in The Weekly Standard, 17 April 2007.
- Russian Embassy to South Africa, Russian MFA Information and Press Department Commentary Regarding a Question from RIA Novosti Concerning Yulia Tymoshenko's Article 'Containing Russia' in the Journal Foreign Afffairs.[dead link]
- Editor's note, Foreign Affairs Vol 86 Issue 5 (September–October 2007) p. 195
- "The Article by Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sergey Lavrov "Containing Russia: Back to the Future?"" (in (Russian)). Mid.ru. 19 July 2007. Retrieved 18 February 2011.
- Ukraine revisits state sell-offs, BBC News (16 February 2005)
- Myers, Steven Lee (9 September 2005). "Ukraine Leader Fires Cabinet as Reform Coalition Splits". The New York Times International. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
- Tymoshenko: Ukraine's economy excessively monopolized, Kyiv Post (7 October 2009)
- Tymoshenko promises not to allow privatization of Ukraine's gas transportation system, Kyiv Post (16 November 2009)
- Achievements, Official website of Yulia Tymoshenko
- Yulia Tymoshenko: Effective development of coal industry is the future of Ukraine, Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine (25 August 2009)
- Government plans raise general level of social standards, says Tymoshenko, Interfax-Ukraine (1 October 2009)
- Tymoshenko pledges to revamp ailing hospitals by 2012, Kyiv Post (1 November 2009)
- Tymoshenko promises tax breaks for farmers, Interfax-Ukraine (25 November 2009)
- Ukraine's election: portraits of main players, Kyiv Post (1 January 2010)
- Economic policies of Ukraine's election front-runners[dead link], Kyiv Post (18 January 2010)
- Tymoshenko proposes creating independent anti-corruption bureaus in Ukraine, Kyiv Post (8 December 2009)
- Tymoshenko denies seeking deputy immunity from prosecution, Kyiv Post (8 May 2010)
- Tymoshenko: Proportional voting system is the best for Ukraine, Kyiv Post (26 May 2010)
- Tymoshenko proposes to change staff policy in country cardinally, UNIAN (22 October 2009)
- Tymoshenko promises to establish 'dictatorship of law' if she wins at presidential elections, Kyiv Post (5 October 2009)
- Tymoshenko speaks in support of decentralization of power, Kyiv Post (5 October 2009)
- Tymoshenko approves of Poroshenko as foreign minister, Kyiv Post (9 October 2009)
- Tymoshenko: idea of united opposition is great deception by Yanukovych, UNIAN (15 April 2010)
- Tymoshenko calls Ukraine 'absolutely ungovernable', Kyiv Post (26 November 2009)
- The Report: Emerging Ukraine 2007, Oxford Business Group, 2007, ISBN 978-1-902339-68-9, p. 20
- Ukraine's constitutional crisis drags on by Taras Kuzio, Kyiv Post (10 January 2007)
- Tymoshenko: Constitution must be amended after survey conducted on form of government, Kyiv Post (20 January 2010)
- (Russian) Between Ukraine, Armenia and Latvia: Yulia Tymoshenko hides its identity, REGNUM News Agency (20 April 2008)
- Ukraine 2007, Stephen Roth Institute (2007)
- (Ukrainian) Tymoshenko is Ukraine-Latvian nationality, but he loves the Jews, Ukrayinska Pravda (2 September 2005)
- Debate rages over whether Ukraine presidential hopeful is Jewish, Haaretz (10 November 2009)
- Campaign gets dirty: Leaflets smear Tymoshenko as ‘Jew’, Kyiv Post (5 February 2010)
- Michael Dubinyansky. "Information war, holy war", Ukrayinska Pravda Thursday 16 October 2008
- In Sniatyn install a plaque Abram Kapitelmanu – grandfather Tymoshenko. Site "http://ru.tsn.ua", 2 September 2009. – Provocative initiative "Party of Regions" (the author is a former member of "the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc" Zinovy Boychuk) – under the advocacy company of "Tymoshenko is Jewish woman".
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- Yulia Tymoshenko's daughter: 'My mother's trial was a trial of revenge', The Guardian (16 October 2011)
Eugenia Tymoshenko: the fight to save my mother Yulia, The Guardian (23 September 2012)
- (Ukrainian) Донька Тимошенко взяла мамине прізвище. Для політики?, Ukrayinska Pravda (16 December 2011)
- Tymoshenko declares her incomes, UNIAN (7 April 2008)
- As President, Yulia Tymoshenko will not use state dachas, Official website of Yulia Tymoshenko (4 January 2010)
- Yulia Tymoshenko has never used a government summer house, Official website of Yulia Tymoshenko (19 December 2009)
- Ukrayinska Pravda exposes president's Mezhygirya deal, Kyiv Post (6 May 2009)
- While leading lavish lifestyles, politicians declare almost pauper-like incomes, assets, Kyiv Post (17 June 2010)
- (Russian) Тимошенко сказала, что по-украински стала говорить с 36 лет, RIA Novosti (3 January 2010); Quote: "Я начала говорить на украинском, когда мне было где-то 36 лет, а до этого у меня мама и вся семья – мы все разговаривали на русском. У меня до сих пор мама обычно не разговаривает на украинском." ("I beginning to speak in Ukrainian when I was around 36. Before that, my mother and the rest of my family, we all conversed in Russian. My mother still usually doesn't talk in Ukrainian.")
- Тимошенко у домогосподарки не піде, а у Facebook – обіцяє, Tablo ID (3 February 2011)
- Ukraine's Yanukovich shuns TV face-off with rival, Kyiv Post (1 February 2010)
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- (Ukrainian) Юлія Тимошенко і Катерина Ющенко вдарили по Chanel, Tablo ID (19 November 2008)
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- See Ukrainian presidential election, 2010#Opinion polls for references and more information
- Poll says Ukraine's president should step down now, UNIAN (17 February 2009)
- Majority of Ukrainians believe Tymoshenko defends her own interests, UNIAN (17 February 2009)
- Ukrainians have lost confidence in government's handling of crisis, says poll, Interfax-Ukraine (17 February 2009)
- What’s in store for Ukraine if Tymoshenko wins presidential election, ZIK 31.10.2009
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- Tymoshenko's activity at post of Prime Minister is reason of crises in Ukraine – Yushchenko, UNIAN (24 November 2009)
- Yushchenko told about his 'worst mistake', Kyiv Post (31 May 2010)
- Yushchenko’s hand in the imprisonment of Yulia Tymoshenko, Kyiv Post (17 November 2011)
- Tymoshenko blames Yushchenko for obstructing government's fight against crisis, Kyiv Post 09.06.2009
- Pynzenyk, ex-finance minister, calls Tymoshenko ‘destructive force’, Kyiv Post (3 December 2010)
- Regions Party calls Tymoshenko most effective opposition figure in Ukraine, Kyiv Post (11 February 2010)
- Solana happy with Tymoshenko's constructive mood in opposition, Kyiv Post (1 April 2010)
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Survey: Yanukovych and Tymoshenko would compete for presidency in early presidential elections, Interfax-Ukraine (28 December 2012)
Poll: Yanukovych leads Tymoshenko in presidential rankings by small margin, Interfax-Ukraine (5 December 2011)
Tymoshenko leads presidential rating – poll, Interfax-Ukraine (27 December 2011)
Poll: Yanukovych has highest ‘presidential’ rating, Interfax-Ukraine (25 February 2011)
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- (Russian language) Yulia Tymoshenko is the most popular politician in the blogs of Ukraine. 2007.
- Yulia Tymoshenko is the most popular politician in the blogs of Ukraine. February 9, 2012.
- (Russian language) The most popular politician on the social networks of Ukraine (in 2013).
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- The Report: Emerging Ukraine 2007, Oxford Business Group, 2007, ISBN 978-1-902339-68-9
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yulia Tymoshenko.|
- Official website
- Audio & Video about Yulia Tymoshenko avi, mp3
- Tymoshenko photo archive 2000–2009
- Tymoshenko's opinion commentaries at Project Syndicate.
- Prime Minister at Government Portal
- Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc website (English)
- Korrespondent.net profile
- Time magazine profile
- Ukraine PM makes Elle front cover (19 April 2005, BBC News)
- BBC Audio & Video about Yulia Tymoshenko including an audio interview with Yulia Tymoshenko from 15 April 2005
- Yulia Tymoshenko approval rating (2001–2010, by Razumkov Centre think-tank)
|Prime Minister of Ukraine
|Prime Minister of Ukraine