Yun Chi-ho

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This is a Korean name; the family name is Yun.
Yun Chi-ho
윤치호
尹致昊
Yun Ung-ryeol.jpg
Yun Chi-ho is standing at the rear. His father, Yun Ung-nyeol is seated, wearing the western uniform of the Korean Empire. This photograph captures the General with his family c. 1910.
Born (1864-12-26)26 December 1864
Died 9 December 1945(1945-12-09) (aged 80)
Yun Chi-ho
Hangul 윤치호
Hanja
Revised Romanization Yun Chi-ho
McCune–Reischauer Yun Ch'iho
Pen name
Hangul 좌옹
Hanja
Revised Romanization Jwaong
McCune–Reischauer Chwaong
Japanese name:
Itō Chikō (?)

Yun Chi-ho (hangul: 윤치호, hanja: 尹致昊, 1864 – 1945) was an important political activist and thinker during the late 1800s and early 1900s in Joseon Korea. a penname was Jwa-ong(좌옹, 佐翁[1]). a member of Korean early NGO's Independence Club(독립협회;獨立協會) and People's joint association(만민공동회;萬民共同會), Shinminhwae(신민회;新民會). He was a strong nationalist especially in his early years; pushing for reform and modernization in the Joseon government.[2] He was involved in important organizations such as the Independence Club led by Seo Jae-pil. He also served in various government positions and was a strong supporter of Christianity in Korea[3]

Although Yun’s early years were filled with strong support of patriotic and nationalist movements, there seemed to have been a change in Yun’s approach to Korean independence in the wake of the Japanese dominance in Korea, starting with Korea becoming a protectorate of Japan in 1904, and then fully annexed into the Japanese Empire in 1910. Because of Yun’s apparent change in attitude toward Korean independence and his lack of support of nationalist movements, like the 1919 Samil Movement, many Koreans today see him as a collaborator with the Japanese.[4]

Yun Chi-ho was a member of one of the prominent yangban families of Korea.[5] Son of General Yun Ung-nyeol, who served as a minister in the Joseon government.[6] he attended Vanderbilt University in Tennessee[5] before transferring to Emory University in Georgia.[7] He was also an early leader of the Korean YMCA and a South Korean Methodist.

Early life[edit]

Yun Chi-ho was born on December 26, 1864 in a small village in Chungcheong Province. His father, Yun Ung-yeol, was an official in the Joseon government and as a member of the yangban aristocracy saw that Chi-ho received a proper education. Yun Chi-ho excelled in his studies of the Confucian classics at the local seodang and even tried to apply to take the civil-service exams at age twelve.[2]

Yun's family was Korean Joseon dynastys Illustrious noble families, his 9G-Great grandfather Yun Doo-su(윤두수;尹斗壽) was prime minister and that times famous politicians. but father Yun Ung-ryeol was an illegitimate son of his grandfather Yun Chwe-dong(윤취동;尹取東).

early years, he was improper discrimination to more towns childs, that his from reason of illegitimate line. In 1871 to 1878 Yun was studied to Confucianism Chang's private village school.

Trip to Japan[edit]

Because of Yun Ung-yeol’s position in the government, he was able to arrange for Yun Chi-ho’s participation in a delegation of representatives from Korea to observe the process of modernization in Japan in 1881.[8] Yun was only sixteen years old at the time, but this experience greatly influenced his thoughts on modernization and opened his eyes to world beyond the isolated “Hermit Kingdom” that Korea had become. He frequently compared the lack of progress in Joseon Korea to the rapid modernization of Japan and often lamented in his diaries that he wanted nothing more than for Korea to become the kind of advanced, modern nation that Japan had become.[9]

Studying in China[edit]

Yun would later travel to Shanghai, China in 1885 where he would attend the Anglo-Chinese College studying English and mathematics, among other things. While in Shanghai he also converted to Christianity, something that would play a major role throughout the rest of his life. Yun Chi-ho viewed Christianity as a strong progressive philosophy that could help Korea catch up with the advancements of Japan and the West.[9]

Time in America[edit]

He eventually even studied in America, starting in 1888 at Vanderbilt and then Emory University. He strongly admired many aspects of American culture, but was also frustrated with the racial prejudices he experienced while living in the South. While in America he studied English, theology and speech and he gained a great deal of proficiency in the English language; writing most of his diaries in English.[9]

Yun Chi-ho as a student at Emory University (1892).

Government Service[edit]

Interpreter[edit]

Yun served in several important government positions throughout his life. He served as an interpreter for the first American Foreign Minister in Korea, Lucius Foote. Upon arriving in Korea he had inquired of the Japanese Foreign Minister about finding someone to interpret for him while in Seoul, and Minister Inoue of Japan, who new Yun Chi-ho from his days in Japan, recommended Yun to help serve Minister Foote. It was also Foote who helped Yun go to school in Shanghai.[2]

Vice President of the Privy Council and Banishment[edit]

Yun also served as the Vice President of the Privy Council of the Joseon Court from 1898 until he was banished in 1899 due to pressure from opposing factions in the government. While banished to the countryside, Yun served as magistrate for a town called Wonsan in Northern Korea. His banishment was not long lived and in 1903 he was called to serve as the Vice Foreign Minister.[2]

Korean Independence Movements[edit]

The Independence Club[edit]

When Yun arrived back in Korea from his studies abroad, there were small groups of scholars who were beginning to call for social and political reform in Korea. One such group was the Independence club, which Yun began to participate in. Among other things, the club promoted educating the Korean people on their unique history, promoted the use of Hangeul, the Korean vernacular alphabet, and pushed for government reform. While in the Independence Club Yun called for the government to be more representative of its people and even supported the elevation of King Kojong to the title of Gwangmu Emperor.[10] Eventually the group was met with pressure from opposing factions in the government that believed the club was gaining too much influence and so in 1899, the club disbanded.[3]

The Enlightenment Movement[edit]

As Japanese influence on the Korean peninsula began to tighten, Yun also began to support groups that were part of the Enlightenment movement. These groups, such as the Korean Self-Strengthening Society and the New People’s Society, were picking up the pieces where the independence club had left off, and Yun Chi-ho helped them out by giving speeches and writing pamphlets for them. During his time of Banishment, these groups gave Yun something to work for in the hopes of creating a stronger Korean society.[3]

Japanese Annexation of Korea[edit]

Main article: 1905-Man Incident

he was disappointment, Korean peoples for always to emotional response from early years.

he was Korean societys to irrationality to Largely frustrated. In January 1910, he was participation of World Missionary Conference in America and that may, he attendance to Edinburgh World Missionary Conference in England. desember 1910, he was return to his country.

When the Korean Empire was overrun by Japanese military forces in 1910 (see Japan-Korea Treaty of 1910), Yun Chi-ho joined with others in resisting Japanese occupation. He became an anti-Imperialist speaker and independence activist.[6] In 1911, he was Judgment for alleged assassination of the Governor General of Korea. he Suffer of malicious punishment, torture.(105-Man Incident)

In 1913, along with 104 others, he was charged with conspiracy against the Japanese Governor-General at the time, Count Terauchi. He was one of six who were convicted and sentenced to long prison terms.[5] His experiences in prison tempered his willingness to express his nationalist ardor,[6] but he was still considered active in the independence movement.[12]

Conspiracy Trial and Imprisonment[edit]

In 1911 Yun was implicated in assisting with an assassination attempt on Japanese governor-general, Terauchi Masatake. Sources from within some of the Enlightenment Movement groups that Yun had taken part in had informed Japanese officials that he had a hand in planning this attempted assassination. He was put on trial and given the maximum sentence. However, after a series of retrials his sentence was shortened and he eventually gained amnesty after only six years in jail.[4] During this time, he didn’t write down anything in his diaries, but his experience in the Japanese prison system seemed to have a significant effect on his actions after his release. In fact, his release can be seen as a turning point for Yun Chi-ho where he began to make many pro-Japanese statements and gives much less support to Korean nationalistic movements.[2]

Samil Movement[edit]

Inspired by Woodrow Wilson’s idea of “self-determination” presented at the Paris Peace Conference the previous year, on March 1, 1919 many Koreans took to the streets in a peaceful protest to demonstrate that Korea was ready for independence from Japan. Yun knew that the European nations would not take this demonstration seriously. Yun said the following about the movement: “He who buys a field and keeps it from falling into unredeemable hands is a wiser patriot than he who sells his lands to finance the independent movement. He who sends a poor boy to school to become more intelligent than his fathers is doing a greater service than he who stirs up students for political agitations. He who leads an erring man into decent religious life is serving the Korean race better than he who sends ignorant folks to jail for yelling ‘mansei.’ Now is the time for Koreans to learn and wait.”[9]

Japanese Support[edit]

Yun’s reversal in opinion took an even larger turn from his previous nationalistic rhetoric when he began supporting the Japanese war efforts during WWII. He urged the young men of Korea to help the Japanese to victory by assisting in the war effort. He celebrated as the Japanese pushed Western imperialist powers out of Asia.[13] According to Yun the Korean people’s part in the Japanese Empire them opportunity and access to education and resources they previously never had. Yun said, “The intellectuals of Korea today all realize that destiny of the Korean people can be promoted by becoming one with the Japanese people and that Manchuria and North China have opened up a field for the development of the Korean people never before dreamed of.”[9]

Asia-Pacific War time[edit]

In 1936, outbreak of 'case of Suyang club'. he was all related person personal reference, release. that thim, he was endeavor of Ahn Chang-ho's acquittal, also Ahn Chang-ho's file a petition. but refused of Japanese Government-General of Korea. In 1938, outbreak of 'case of Heungeup club'. he was all related person personal reference and release. the Japanese colonial era, he was strongly deny to Japanese rule, he was more Japanese government and Governor-general auspices event. In 1940, he was come to book for reason of event absent from Japanese Government-General of Korea.

In 1939, Japanese Government-General of Koreas order Japanese Sōshi-kaimei. Yun was go to propose for postpone order, because Korean nationals emotion. Japanese Government-General of Korea for that's acceptable, Japanese Government-General of Korea was next years postpones. In May 1940, his familys was Japanese Government-General of Korea conference for Sōshi-kaimei decision. his family name for Ito(이토;伊東). also coercive distraint Sōshi-kaimei for him, Ito Chikho.

later 1910 Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910s, meanwhile he was non-attendance and boycott for Japanese event and more official function, memorial day. In 1940s he was finally come to book for Japanese Government-General of Korea. also he was surveillance, internally investigated. In 1943 he was appoint to advisor of Japanese Government-General of Koreas Privy Council(중추원;中樞院), they enforced to their demands.

Death[edit]

In 1945, He was elected to the House of Councillors of Imperial Japan (貴族院議員).[14] However, Korea achieved independence from Japanese occupation by the Surrender of Japan, he was criticized of some unspecified peoples. because late Japanese colonial rule time, he was Japanese cooperation. he was opprobrium to emotional popular, he refutation also arguments.

In October 1945, he was send to two letter 'An OldMan's Ruminations' by John Hadge and Syngman Rhee, Kim Gu. but he did not receive a response. In November 1945, he returned to Korea, and died GoryeoJeong in Kaesong in December. (It is alleged by some that he committed suicide, although there is no evidence to support this.) his aged 80.

Yun Chi-ho was the uncle of Yun Bo-seon, who was President of South Korea in 1960 and Yun Il-seon, a first Korean pathologist and anatomist.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Korean spelling for Sitdown is old man
  2. ^ a b c d e Clark, Donald N. Yun Ch'i-ho (1864-1945): “Portrait of a Korean Intellectual in an Era of Transition”. Source: Occasional Papers on Korea, No. 4 (September 1975),pp 37-42, 46-50, 54-56, 57, 58
  3. ^ a b c Chandra, Vipan. “Imperialism, Resistance, and Reform in Late Nineteenth-Century Korea: Enlightenment and the Independence Club”. (1988) Regents of the University of California ISBN 0-912966-99-8, pp 89-91, 137, 172
  4. ^ a b Caprio, Mark (2007). "Loyal Patriot? Traitorous Collaborator? The Yun Ch'iho Diaries and the Question of National Loyalty." Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, Volume 7, Number 3.
  5. ^ a b c "100 Koreans Freed; But Baron Yun Chi-ho and Other Prominent Men Are Found Guilty," New York Times. March 21, 1913.
  6. ^ a b c "Changing Sides," National Geographic. July 2003.
  7. ^ Loftus, Mary J. "A Search for Truth; Yun Chi-Ho's Legacy is Rediscovered by his Great-granddaughter," Emory Magazine, Vol 80, No. 1, Spring 2004).
  8. ^ Schmid, Andre. “Korea Between Empires”. (2002) Columbia University Press ISBN 0-231-12538-0 pp. 47, 49, 76, 112
  9. ^ a b c d e Yun, Chi-ho. "Yun Chi-Ho's Diaries". Vol I-X. 1975 National History Compilation Committee. Seoul, Korea
  10. ^ Neff, Robert D. “Korea through Western Eyes”. (2009) Seoul National University Press. ISBN 978-89-521-1003-9 03900 pp 137
  11. ^ The Yun Chi-ho's Diary The Munhwa 2001.02.21
  12. ^ Chung, Henry. (1921). The Case of Korea, p. 42.
  13. ^ Kim, Hyung-chan. “Portrait of a Troubled Korean Patriot: Yun Ch'i-ho's Views of the March First Independence Movement and World War II”. Korean Studies, Volume 13, 1989, pp. 76-91 (Article) Published by University of Hawai'i Press. DOI: 10.1353/ks.1989.0014
  14. ^ (Korean) Yun Chi-ho, Naver Encyclopedia

References[edit]

  • Caprio, Mark (2007). "Loyal Patriot? Traitorous Collaborator? The Yun Ch'iho Diaries and the Question of National Loyalty." Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, Volume 7, Number 3.
  • Chandra, Vipan. “Imperialism, Resistance, and Reform in Late Nineteenth-Century Korea: Enlightenment and the Independence Club”. (1988) Regents of the University of California ISBN 0-912966-99-8, pp 89–91, 137, 172
  • Clark, Donald N. Yun Ch'i-ho (1864-1945): “Portrait of a Korean Intellectual in an Era of Transition”. Source: Occasional Papers on Korea, No. 4 (September 1975),pp 37–42, 46-50, 54-56, 57, 58
  • Kim, Hyung-chan. “Portrait of a Troubled Korean Patriot: Yun Ch'i-ho's Views of the March First Independence Movement and World War II”. Korean Studies, Volume 13, 1989, pp. 76–91 (Article) Published by University of Hawai'i Press. DOI: 10.1353/ks.1989.0014
  • Neff, Robert D. “Korea through Western Eyes”. (2009) Seoul National University Press. ISBN 978-89-521-1003-9 03900 pp 137
  • Schmid, Andre. “Korea Between Empires”. (2002) Columbia University Press ISBN 0-231-12538-0 pp. 47, 49, 76, 112
  • Yun, Chi-ho. "Yun Chi-Ho's Diaries". Vol I-X. 1975 National History Compilation Committee. Seoul, Korea

External links[edit]