|Yung Wing 容閎|
17 November 1828|
Nanping, Xiangshan, Guangdong, Qing Empire
|Died||21 April 1912
Yung Wing (simplified Chinese: 容闳; traditional Chinese: 容閎; pinyin: Róng Hóng; November 17, 1828 – April 21, 1912) was the first Chinese student to graduate from a U.S. university (Yale College in 1854). He was involved in business transactions between China and the United States and brought students from China to study in the United States on the Chinese Educational Mission. He became a naturalized American citizen, but his status was later revoked under the Naturalization Act of 1870.
Yung was the first Chinese student to graduate from a U.S. university, graduating from Yale College in 1854 and having been sponsored by Samuel Robbins Brown (1810–1880). He was a member of the Phi chapter of the Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity. After finishing his studies, Yung Wing returned to Qing Dynasty China and worked with western missionaries as an interpreter. In 1859, he accepted an invitation to the court of the Taiping rebels in Nanjing, but his proposals aimed at increasing the efficiency of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom were all eventually refused. In 1863, Yung Wing was dispatched to the United States by Zeng Guofan to buy machinery necessary for opening an arsenal in China capable of producing heavy weapons comparable with those of the western powers. The arsenal later became Jiangnan Shipyard.
Yung Wing was naturalized as an American citizen on October 30, 1852, and in 1876, he married Mary Kellogg, an American. They had two children: Morrison Brown Yung and Bartlett Golden Yung. At Yale's centennial commencement in 1876, Yung Wing received an honorary Doctor of Laws.
He persuaded the Qing Dynasty government to send young Chinese to the United States to study Western science and engineering. With the government's eventual approval, he organized what came to be known as the Chinese Educational Mission, which included 120 young Chinese students, to study in the New England region of the United States beginning in 1872. The Educational Mission was disbanded in 1881, but many of the students later returned to China and made significant contributions to China's civil services, engineering, and the sciences.
Yung Wing was a lifelong supporter of reform in China. He had followed the lead of the Guangxu Emperor, whom Yung described as the great pioneer of reform in China. The coup d'état of 1898 by the Empress Dowager Cixi aborted the reforms, and many of the reformers were decapitated. A price of $70,000 was placed on Yung's head and he fled Shanghai to Hong Kong. While in Hong Kong, he applied to the US Consul to return to the US. In a 1902 letter from the US Secretary of State John Sherman, Yung was informed that his US citizenship that he had held for 50 years was revoked and he would not be allowed to return to the United States. Through the help of friends, he was able to sneak into the United States in time to see his youngest son, Bartlett, graduate from Yale. He lived his remaining years in poverty in Hartford, Connecticut and died in 1912.
Recently with CERA research papers donated by Homer Lea and Charles Boothe at Hoover Institute. It appeared Yung was eager to become the futuristic leader of China. However, he was already 80 years old and had no connection with triads in China. Yung expressly was weary of K'ang Yau-wei and his possible style of commingling of CERA funds on his business.
Yung Wing's grave is located at Cedar Hill Cemetery outside Hartford, Connecticut.
- Gold, Martin (2012-07-04). Forbidden Citizens: Chinese Exclusion and the U.S. Congress : a Legislative History. The Capitol Net Inc. pp. 31–. ISBN 9781587332524. Retrieved 10 May 2013.
- Cornelia E. Brooke (January 1975). "National Register of Historic Places Registration: Sand Beach Church". New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
- Schiff, Judith Ann, "When East Met West," old Yale, November/December 2004
- Yung Wing, My Life in China and America, p.83, Henry Holt Co., New York, 1909
- Chu, T.K., 150 Years of Chinese Students in America, p.9, Harvard China Review, Spring 2004
- Edward J.M. Rhoads, Stepping Forth into the World the Chinese Educational Mission to the United States, 1872-81 (Hong Kong: Hong Kong Univ. Pr., 2011).
- Liel Leibovitz, Matthew I. Miller, Fortunate Sons : The 120 Chinese Boys Who Came to America, Went to School, and Revolutionized an Ancient Civilization (New York: W.W. Norton, 2011).
- For a comparative perspective on Yung Wing's Sino-American Educational Mission of the 1870s and Prosper Giquel's Sino-European Educational Missions of the same period see Steven A. Leibo's The SINO-EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL MISSIONS 1875-86 Asia Profile, vol. 16, no. 5 1988.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yung Wing.|
- The Yung Wing Project contains the transcribed text of Yung Wing's memoir My Life in China and America.
- My Life In China And America full text of Yung Wing's memoir at the Internet Archive.
- CEM Connections presents basic data and photos of the 120 students of the Chinese Educational Mission.
- The Red Dragon Scheme reveals the last chapter of Yung Wing's life.