Yuri (百合?), also known by the wasei-eigo construction Girls' Love (ガールズラブ gāruzu rabu?), is a Japanese jargon term for content and a genre involving love between women in manga, anime, and related Japanese media. Yuri focuses on the sexual or the emotional aspects of the relationship, or both, the latter of which sometimes being called shōjo-ai by Western fans.
The themes yuri deals with have their roots in the Japanese lesbian literature of early twentieth century, with pieces such as Yaneura no Nishojo by Nobuko Yoshiya. Nevertheless, it is not until the 1970s that lesbian-themed works began to appear in manga, by the hand of artists such as Ryoko Yamagishi and Riyoko Ikeda. The 1990s brought new trends in manga and anime, as well as in dōjinshi productions, along with more acceptance for this kind of content. In 2003, the first manga magazine specifically dedicated to yuri, Yuri Shimai, was launched, and this was followed by its revival Comic Yuri Hime, which was launched after the former was discontinued in 2004.
Although yuri originated in female-targeted (shōjo, josei) works, today it is featured in male-targeted (shōnen, seinen) ones as well. Yuri manga from male-targeted magazines include titles such as Kannazuki no Miko and Strawberry Panic!, as well as those from Comic Yuri Hime's male-targeted sister magazine, Comic Yuri Hime S, which was launched in 2007.
Definition and semantic drift
The word yuri (百合?) literally means "lily", and is a relatively common Japanese feminine name. In 1976, Bungaku Itō, editor of Barazoku (薔薇族?, lit. rose tribe), a magazine geared primarily towards gay men, first used the term yurizoku (百合族?, lit. lily tribe) in reference to female readers in the title of a column of letters called Yurizoku no heya (百合族の部屋?, lit. lily tribe's room). It is unclear whether this was the first instance of this usage of the term. Not all women whose letters appeared in this short-lived column were necessarily lesbians, but some were and gradually an association developed. For example, the tanbi magazine Allan (アラン Aran?) began running a Yuri Tsūshin (百合通信?, "Lily Communication") personal ad column in July 1983 for "lesbiennes" to communicate. Along the way, many dōjinshi circles incorporated the name "Yuri" or "Yuriko" into lesbian-themed hentai (pornographic) dōjinshi, and the "zoku" or "tribe" portion of this word was subsequently dropped. Since then, the meaning has drifted from its mostly pornographic connotation to describe the portrayal of intimate love, sex, or the intimate emotional connections between women.
Japanese vs. Western usage
As of 2009, the term yuri is used in Japan to mean the depiction of attraction between women (whether sexual or romantic; explicit or implied) in manga, anime, and related entertainment media, as well as the genre of stories primarily dealing with this content. The wasei-eigo construction "Girls Love" (ガールズラブ gāruzu rabu?), occasionally spelled "Girl's Love" or "Girls' Love", or abbreviated as "GL", is also used with this meaning. Yuri is generally a form of fanspeak amongst fans, but its usage by authors and publishers has increased since 2005. The term "Girls Love", on the other hand, is primarily used by the publishers.
In North America, yuri has initially been used to denote only the most explicit end of the spectrum, deemed primarily as a variety of hentai. Following the pattern of shōnen-ai, a term already in use in North America to describe content involving non-sexual relationships between men, Western fans coined the term shōjo-ai to describe yuri without explicit sex. In Japan, the term shōjo-ai (少女愛?, lit. girl love) is not used with this meaning, and instead tends to denote pedophilia (actual or perceived), with a similar meaning to the term lolicon (Lolita complex). The Western use of yuri has broadened in the 2000s, picking up connotations from the Japanese use. American publishing companies such as ALC Publishing and Seven Seas Entertainment have also adopted the Japanese usage of the term to classify their yuri manga publications.
Among the first Japanese authors to produce works about love between women was Nobuko Yoshiya, a novelist active in the Taishō and Shōwa periods of Japan. Yoshiya pioneered in Japanese lesbian literature, including the early twentieth century Class S genre. These kinds of stories depict lesbian attachments as emotionally intense yet platonic relationships, destined to be curtailed by graduation from school, marriage, or death. The root of this genre is in part the contemporary belief that same-sex love was a transitory and normal part of female development leading into heterosexuality and motherhood. Class S stories in particular tell of strong emotional bonds between schoolgirls, a mutual crush between an upperclassman and an underclassman.
Around the 1970s, yuri began to appear in shōjo manga, presenting some of the characteristics found in the lesbian literature of the early twentieth century. This early yuri generally features an older looking, more sophisticated woman, and a younger, more awkward admirer. The two deal with some sort of unfortunate schism between their families, and when rumors of their lesbian relationship spread, they are received as a scandal. The outcome is a tragedy, with the more sophisticated girl somehow dying at the end. In general, the yuri manga of this time could not avoid a tragic ending. Ryoko Yamagishi's Shiroi Heya no Futari, the first manga involving a lesbian relationship, is a prime example, as it was "prototypical" for many yuri stories of the 1970s and 1980s. It is also in the 1970s that shōjo manga began to deal with transsexualism and transvestism, sometimes depicting female characters as manly looking, which was inspired by the women playing male roles in the Takarazuka Revue. These traits are most prominent in Riyoko Ikeda's works, including The Rose of Versailles, Oniisama e..., and Claudine...! Some shōnen works of this period feature lesbian characters too, but these are mostly depicted as fanservice and comic relief.
Some of these formulas began to weaken during the 1990s: manga stories such as Jukkai me no Jukkai by Wakuni Akisato, published in 1992, began to move away from the tragic outcomes and stereotyped dynamics. This stood side-by-side with dōjinshi works, which at the time were largely influenced by the immense popularity of Sailor Moon, the first mainstream manga and anime series featuring a "positive" portrayal of an openly lesbian couple. Furthermore, many of the people behind this show went on to make Revolutionary Girl Utena, a shōjo anime series where the main storyline focuses on a yuri relationship, which is widely regarded today as a masterpiece. Male-targeted works such as the Devilman Lady anime series, based on a homonym seinen manga by Go Nagai, began to deal with lesbian themes in a more "mature manner" too. The first magazines specifically targeted towards lesbians appeared around this period, containing sections featuring yuri manga. These stories range from high school crush to lesbian life and love, featuring different degrees of sexual content. It is at this point (the mid-1990s) that lesbian-themed works began to be acceptable.
The later 1990s brought Oyuki Konno's Maria-sama ga Miteru, which by 2004 was a bestseller among yuri novels. This story revisits what was being written at the time of Nobuko Yoshiya: strong emotional bonds between females, mostly revolving around the school upperclassman-underclassman dynamic, like those portrayed in Class S. Another prominent author of this period is Kaho Nakayama, active since the early 1990s, with works involving love stories among lesbians.
Around the early 2000s, the first magazines specifically dedicated to yuri manga were launched, containing stories dealing with a wide range of themes: from intense emotional connections such as that depicted in Voiceful, to more explicit school-girl romances like those portrayed in First Love Sisters, passing by realistic tales about love between adult women such as those seen in Rakuen no Jōken. Some of these subjects are seen in male-targeted works of this period as well, sometimes in combination with other themes, including mecha and science fiction. Examples include series such as Kannazuki no Miko, Blue Drop, and Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl. In addition, male-targeted stories tend to make extensive use of moe and bishōjo characterizations.
Sun Magazine published the yuri manga anthology magazine Yuri Shimai between June 2003 and November 2004 in quarterly installments, ending with only five issues. After the magazine's discontinuation, Comic Yuri Hime was launched by Ichijinsha in July 2005 as a revival of the magazine, containing manga by many of the authors who had had work serialized in Yuri Shimai. Like its predecessor, Comic Yuri Hime is also published quarterly. A sister magazine to Comic Yuri Hime named Comic Yuri Hime S was launched as a quarterly publication by Ichijinsha in June 2007. Unlike either Yuri Shimai or Comic Yuri Hime, Comic Yuri Hime S is targeted towards a male audience. Ichijinsha will start to publish light novel adaptations from Comic Yuri Hime works and original yuri novels under their shōjo light novel line Ichijinsha Bunko Iris, scheduled to begin on July 19, 2008. Some Japanese lesbian lifestyle magazines contain manga sections, including the now-defunct magazines Anise (1996–97, 2001–03) and Phryné (1995). Carmilla, an erotic lesbian publication, released an anthology of lesbian manga called Girl's Only. Additionally, Mist (1996–99), a ladies' comic manga magazine, contained sexually explicit lesbian-themed manga as part of a section dedicated to lesbian-interest topics.
The first company to release lesbian-themed manga in North America was Yuricon's publishing arm ALC Publishing. Their works include Rica Takashima's Rica 'tte Kanji!?—which in 2006 was course material for Professor Kerridwen Luis' Anthropology 166B course at Brandeis University—and their annual yuri manga anthology Yuri Monogatari; both were first released in 2003. The latter collects stories by American, European, and Japanese creators, including Akiko Morishima, Althea Keaton, Kristina Kolhi, Tomomi Nakasora, and Eriko Tadeno. These works range from fantasy stories to more realistic tales dealing with themes such as coming out and sexual orientation. Besides ALC Publishing, the Los Angeles-based Seven Seas Entertainment has also incurred in the genre, with the English version of well known titles such as the Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl manga and the Strawberry Panic! light novels. On October 24, 2006, Seven Seas announced the launch of their specialized yuri manga line, which includes works such as the Strawberry Panic! manga, The Last Uniform, and Comic Yuri Hime's compilations such as Voiceful and First Love Sisters.
These lists display stories according to the role yuri plays in them. The first list shows series in which interpersonal attraction between females and/or lesbian themes or tropes play a central role in their storylines; most of which are labeled by publishers as yuri. The second list contains stories in which the same subjects are used mostly for comic relief, as fanservice, subtext, or for character development in a larger, sometimes unrelated context; these are generally recognized by the fandom as to contain prevalent elements of yuri (even if the series is not marketed as such).
Yuri as a central element
- 12 Days
- Akai Ito
- Akatsuki-iro no Senpuku Majo
- Anata to Scandal
- Blue Drop
- Candy Boy
- Devil Lady
- El Cazador de la Bruja
- First Love Sisters
- Girl Friends
- Girls' Life
- Girls' Revolution
- Inugami-san to Nekoyama-san
- Iono-sama Fanatics
- Kannazuki no Miko
- Kashimashi: Girl Meets Girl
- Kuchibiru Tameiki Sakurairo
- Love My Life
- Maria-sama ga Miteru
- Miyuki-chan in Wonderland
- Oniisama e...
- Read or Dream
- Revolutionary Girl Utena
- Sakura Trick
- Sasameki Koto
- Shiroi Heya no Futari
- Shōjo Sect
- Sono Hanabira ni Kuchizuke o
- Steel Angel Kurumi 2
- Strawberry Panic!
- Strawberry Shake Sweet
- Stray Little Devil
- Sweet Blue Flowers
- The Last Uniform
- The Sword of Paros
- Yami to Bōshi to Hon no Tabibito
Yuri as a secondary element
- Ace o Nerae!
- Agent Aika
- Air Master
- Azumanga Daioh
- Battle Athletes Victory
- Best Student Council
- Bubblegum Crisis
- Burst Angel
- Cardcaptor Sakura
- Confidential Confessions
- Cosplay Complex
- Cutie Honey
- Doki Doki School Hours
- Excel Saga
- Family Complex
- Fight! Iczer One
- Girls Bravo
- Hanaukyo Maid Team: La Verite
- He Is My Master
- High School Girls'
- I My Me Strawberry Eggs
- Ikki Tousen
- Koihime Musō
- Lady Snowblood
- Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha
- Maria Holic
- Najica Blitz Tactics
- Negima!: Magister Negi Magi
- Ninja Nonsense
- Project A-ko
- Puella Magi Madoka Magica
- Puni Puni Poemy
- Queen's Blade
- Rakka Ryūsui
- Red Garden
- RG Veda
- R.O.D the TV
- S.S. Astro
- Sailor Moon
- Sakura no Sono
- Sasami: Magical Girls Club
- Seraphim Call
- Shattered Angels
- Stellvia of the Universe
- Steel Angel Kurumi
- Stratos 4
- Strawberry Marshmallow
- Strike Witches
- Sukeban Deka
- Tactical Roar
- The Rose of Versailles
- Toaru Kagaku no Railgun
- Touka Gettan
- Ultimate Girls
- Uta Kata
- Vampire Princess Miyu
- Venus Versus Virus
- Yokohama Kaidashi Kikō
Notes and references
- Brown, Rebecca (2005). "An Introduction to Yuri Manga and Anime (page 1)". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-19. Retrieved 2008-01-18.
- Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Maya's Funeral Procession / Maya no Souretsu". Okazu. Retrieved 2008-02-28.
- Morishima, Akiko (January 2008). "YurixYuri Kenbunroku". Comic Yuri Hime (in Japanese) (11). ASIN B00120LP56.
- Charlton, Sabdha. "Yuri Fandom on the Internet". Yuricon. Retrieved 2008-01-13.
- "Joseidōshi no LOVE wo egaita, danshi kinsei no "Yuri būmu" gayattekuru!?" (in Japanese). Cyzo. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- Friedman, Erica. "What is Yuri?". What are Yuri and Shoujoai, anyway?. Yuricon and ALC Publishing. Archived from the original on 6 April 2005. Retrieved 20 May 2005.
- Fujimoto, Yukari (1998). Watashi no Ibasho wa Doko ni Aruno? (Where do I belong?) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Gakuyo Shobo. ISBN 4-313-87011-3.
- "Interview: Erica Friedman (page 2)". Manga. About.com. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
- Tsuchiya, Hiromi (March 9–12, 2000). "Yoshiya Nobuko’s Yaneura no nishojo (Two Virgins in the Attic): Female-Female Desire and Feminism". Homosexual/Homosocial Subtexts in Early 20th-Century Japanese Culture (San Diego, CA: Abstracts of the 2000 AAS Annual Meeting). Retrieved 2008-02-24.
- "Maria-sama ga Miteru to Yuri Sakuhin no Rekishi" (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2008-02-16. Sources: Watashi no Ibasho wa Doko ni Aruno? by Yukari Fujimoto (ISBN 4313870113), Otoko Rashisa to Iu Byōki? Pop-Culture no Shin Danseigaku by Kazuo Kumada (ISBN 4833110679), and Yorinuki Dokusho Sōdanshitsu (ISBN 978-4860110345).
- "Yuri Shimai". ComiPedia. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
- "Comic Yuri Hime". ComiPedia. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
- "Ichijinsha's info about Comic Yuri Hime S" (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
- "Yurizoku no heya (lily tribe's room)". Barazoku (Rose tribe) (in Japanese): 66–70. November 1976. After this first column, Yurizoku no heya appeared sporadically through the mid-1980s.
- Welker, James (2008). "Lilies of the Margin: Beautiful Boys and Queer Female Identities in Japan". In Fran Martin, Peter Jackson, Audrey Yue. AsiaPacifQueer: Rethinking Genders and Sexualities. University of Illinois Press. pp. 46–66. ISBN 978-0-252-07507-0.
- "Interview: Erica Friedman (page 1)". Manga. About.com. Retrieved 2008-05-17.
- "Comic Yuri Hime official website" (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved 2008-01-19. Ichijinsha classifies their yuri manga publication Comic Yuri Hime as a "Girls Love" comic magazine.
- Miyajima, Kagami (April 4, 2005). Shōjo-ai (in Japanese). Sakuhinsha. ISBN 4-86182-031-6.
- "ALC Publishing". Yuricon. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
- "Yuri on the Seven Seas!". Seven Seas Entertainment. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
- Suzuki, Michiko (August 2006). "Writing Same-Sex Love: Sexology and Literary Representation in Yoshiya Nobuko's Early Fiction". The Journal of Asian Studies 65 (3): 575. doi:10.1017/S0021911806001148. Retrieved 2008-01-23.
- Robertson, Jennifer (August 1992). "The Politics of Androgyny in Japan: Sexuality and Subversion in the Theater and Beyond". American Ethnologist (3 ed.) 19 (3): 427. doi:10.1525/ae.1992.19.3.02a00010. JSTOR 645194.
- Dollase, Hiromi (2003). "Early Twentieth Century Japanese Girls' Magazine Stories: Examining Shōjo Voice in Hanamonogatari (Flower Tales)". The Journal of Popular Culture 36 (4): 724–755. doi:10.1111/1540-5931.00043. ISSN 0022-3840. OCLC 1754751.
- Natsume, Fusanosuke (1999). Manga no Yomikata (How to read manga). Tokyo: Takarajimasha.
- Schodt, Frederik (1996). Dreamland Japan: Writings on Modern Manga. Berkeley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1-880656-23-5.
- Welker, James (2006). "Drawing Out Lesbians: Blurred Representations of Lesbian Desire in Shōjo Manga". In Chandra, Subhash. Lesbian Voices: Canada and the World: Theory, Literature, Cinema. New Delhi: Allied Publishers Pvt. ISBN 81-8424-075-9.
- Thorn, Matt. "Unlikely Explorers: Alternative Narratives of Love, Sex, Gender, and Friendship in Japanese "Girls'" Comics". Archived from the original on 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
- Welker, James (2006). "Beautiful, Borrowed, and Bent: "Boys' Love" as Girls' Love in Shōjo Manga". Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 31 (3): 841. doi:10.1086/498987.
- Subramian, Erin. "Women-loving Women in Modern Japan". Yuricon. Retrieved 2008-01-23.
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- Ebiharai, Akiko (2002). "Japan's Feminist Fabulation: Reading Marginal with Unisex Reproduction as a Key Concept". Genders Journal (36). Retrieved 2008-02-17.
- "Shōjo Yuri Manga Guide". Yuricon. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- Hayama, Torakichi. "What is Doujin?". Akiba Angels. Archived from the original on 2008-03-07. Retrieved 2008-03-07.
- Friedman, Erica (2007). "Erica Friedman's Guide to Yuri". AfterEllen.com. Archived from the original on 2012-12-08. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
- Huxley, John. "The Devil Lady Review". Anime Boredom. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- Welker, James; Suganuma, Katsuhiko (January 2006). "Celebrating Lesbian Sexuality: An Interview with Inoue Meimy, Editor of Japanese Lesbian Erotic Lifestyle Magazine Carmilla". Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context (12). Retrieved 2008-01-30.
- "ALC Publishing announces yuri manga Works by Eriko Tadeno". Active Anime. Archived from the original on 2008-06-11. Retrieved 2008-02-24.Works by Eriko Tadeno is an anthology of four stories and three short gag comics that were originally published in Phryné, Anise and Mist magazines.
- Azuma, Erika (June 2004). Yorinuki Dokusho Sōdanshitsu (in Japanese). Hon no Zasshisha. ISBN 978-4-86011-034-5.
- "Esu toiu kankei". Bishōjo gaippai! Wakamono ga hamaru Marimite world no himitsu (in Japanese). Excite. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2008-03-05.
- "Newtype USA Reviews Voiceful and First Love Sisters Vol. 1". Seven Seas Entertainment. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- "Rakuen no Jōken" (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved 2008-02-28.
- Rasmussen, David. "Kashimashi Review". Anime Boredom. Retrieved 2008-02-28.
- Santos, Carlo (2008-02-05). "Right Turn Only!!". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2008-02-28.
- Beveridge, Chris. "Kannazuki No Miko Review". AnimeOnDVD.com. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
- "Yuri anime & gemu daitokushū". Comic Yuri Hime S (in Japanese) (2). September 2007. ASIN B000VWRJGU.
- "Comic Yuri Hime S". ComiPedia. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
- "Ichijinsha Bunko Iris" (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
- "Girl's Only listing at Amazon.co.jp" (in Japanese). Amazon.co.jp. Retrieved 2008-01-30.
- Font, Dillon. "Pro Amateur Comics – Yuri Doujinshi Rica 'tte Kanji!?". Animefringe. Retrieved 2008-01-24.
- "Yuri Manga in Anthropology Course". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2008-02-23.
- Luis, Kerridwen (December 20, 2005). "Syllabus Draft" (PDF). Unbounded Desires: A Cross-Cultural Look at Non-Heteronormative Sexualities Anth 166B (Brandeis University). Archived from the original on 2008-06-09. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
- "ALC Publishing Presents Yuri Manga Anthology Yuri Monogatari 4". ComiPress. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- Thompson, Jason. "Falling for Manga! Part 1: A Quick-hit Guide to Autumn 2007's Hottest Manga". OtakuUSA. Retrieved 2008-02-20.
- Sparrow, A. E. "12 Days Review". IGN. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
- Morishima, Akiko (April 2007). "YurixYuri Kenbunroku". Comic Yuri Hime (in Japanese) (8). ASIN B000PAAJN8.
- "Comic-Con International 2007: Seven Seas". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2007-11-20.
- "Blue Review". DVD Vision Japan. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
- "Yuri anime & gemu tokushū". Comic Yuri Hime (in Japanese) (9). July 2007. ASIN B000TCTTCY.
- "Yuri Hime Scoop Land". Comic Yuri Hime S (in Japanese) (4). March 2008. ASIN B0015S8XLO.
- "Seven Seas Licenses Saburouta's Yuri Manga Citrus". Anime News Network. January 31, 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
- Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Chirality". Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: El Cazador, End of Season Review". Retrieved 2007-11-14.
- Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Girl Friends, Volume 1". Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- "Inugami-san to Nekoyama-san Yuri Manga Gets Anime". Anime News Network. January 17, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- "Iono the Fanatics" (in Japanese). MooNPhase. Archived from the original on 2008-01-05. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- Yuri Hime editorial department, ed. (2008). "Yuri Works Catalog". Yuri Works File (in Japanese). Tokyo: Ichijinsha. ISBN 978-4-7580-7015-7.
- "Media Blasters Adds Kishi's Maka-Maka Color Yuri Manga". Anime News Network. 2008-06-23. Retrieved 2008-06-23.
- Hairston, Marc (2006). "The Yin and Yang of Schoolgirl Experiences: Maria-sama ga miteru and Azumanga Daioh". Mechademia: An Annual Forum for Anime, Manga, and the Fan Arts 1: 177–180. Retrieved 2008-04-06.
- Friedman, Erica; members of the Yuricon Mailing List. "Yuri 101". Yuricon. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
- Friedman, Erica (May 30, 2011). "Revolutionary Girl Utena Anime Box Set – Disk 1 (English)". Okazu. Retrieved June 2, 2011.
- "Tachi's Yuri 4-panel Manga Sakura Trick Gets TV Anime". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2013-08-12.
- "Sasameki Koto Yuri Manga Gets TV Anime Green-Lit". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- Friedman, Erica. "Shōjo Sect". Okazu. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- "その花びらにくちづけを" [Sono Hanabira ni Kuchizuke o] (in Japanese). a1c. Retrieved March 24, 2013.
- Lau, Enoch. "Steel Angel Kurumi 2 Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
- Chavez, Eduardo M. "Stray Little Devil Vol 4 Review". AnimeOnDVD.com. Retrieved 2008-01-07. "SLD is unorthodox in the way it almost has created a yuri story in the realm of knight and wizard filled fantasy."
- "Takako Shimura's Aoi Hana Yuri Manga Gets TV Anime". Anime News Network. 2009-03-06. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- Drazen, Patrick (October 2002). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation. Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 98–100. ISBN 1-880656-72-8. OCLC 50898281.
- Tiu, Diane. "Yami to Bōshi to Hon no Tabibito Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-22.
- ".hack//Sign Review". CAA: Christian Anime Alliance. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18. Retrieved 2007-12-05. "During the anime the characters Tsukasa and Subaru fall in love. (...) Later on in the series it’s learned that Tsukasa is a girl ([at first] Tsukasa doesn't even know this because his memory was fragmented ever since he was confined in the world). But when they do find out, Subaru does still seem to have feelings for him/her."
- Friedman, Erica. "Aim for the Ace". Okazu. Retrieved 2007-11-14.
- "Agent Aika Final Battle Review". DVD Vision Japan. Retrieved 2009-07-28. "We do get two pairs of women kissing, but it's not what you are hoping for. One kiss between the two Delmo leaders is almost all off camera. The other is Aika kissing a woman she thinks is a man."
- Beard, Jeremy A. "Air Master Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-28., Tucker, Derrick L. "Air Master Review". THEM Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
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- Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Bakuretsu Tenshi, Volume 1".
"Yuri Manga: Bakaretsu Tenshi, Volume 2".
"Yuri Manga: Bakaretsu Tenshi, Volume 2". Okazu. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
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- "Confidential Confessions Volume 4". Tokyopop. Archived from the original on 2008-05-06. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- Crocker, Janet. "Cosplay Complex Review". Animefringe. Retrieved 2007-12-01. "Jenny, a rabid Italian lesbian with cat fangs who loves Athena."
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- Gilvear, Kevin. "Girls Bravo Volume 1 Review". DVD Times. Retrieved 2007-12-03. "Further examples come later when Kirie runs into Kosame in episode 4, and thus we get another character insight when we learn that Kosame is a lesbian and fancies Kirie."
- Beveridge, Chris. "Godannar Vol. #5 Review". AnimeOnDVD.com. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- Toole, Mike. "Hanaukyo Maid Team: La Verite vols. 1–3 Review". Anime Jump. Archived from the original on 2007-11-07. Retrieved 2007-12-04. "The maids are rounded out by Yashima, a security maid with dark skin, a speech impediment, and a lesbian crush on Konoe."
- Friedman, Erica (February 12, 2008). "He is My Master Manga, Volume 1 (English)". Retrieved 2008-04-22.
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- "Lady Snowblood Review". RPGnet. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- Friedman, Erica. "Loveless". Okazu. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- Friedman, Erica. "Nanoha". Okazu. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- "Maria Holic Manga Confirmed to Get TV Anime". Anime News Network. 2008-08-07. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
- "Maze TV". T.H.E.M. Anime Reviews. Retrieved 2009-07-26. "Solude is exactly like Fuuko-chan from Flame of Recca (or heck, Asagiri Priss, weaponry-wise), with the lesbian bent of Akane from KOR."
- Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Mnemosyne 2". Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- Divers, Allen. "Najica Blitz Tactics DVD 1 Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2007-11-28. "Yes, this show is full of panty shots, upskirt camera angles and a slight lesbian overtone."
- Friedman, Erica. "Negima". Okazu. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
- Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Ninja Nonsense, Volume 4 (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
- Anderson, Matthew. "Project Ako Review". DVD Vision Japan. Retrieved 2007-11-28. "Yes, Bko is a lesbian, in love with Cko, and all of the people on the ship were women."
- Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Network News – December 17, 2011". Okazu. Retrieved 2011-11-17. "Yuri Anime; The English dubbed trailer for the Mahou Shoujo Madoka Magica anime release is up for your viewing pleasure."
- Smith, Lesley. "Puni Puni Poemy Review". DVD Times. Retrieved 2007-11-28.
- Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Queen's Blade Anime, Volume 1 (English)". Okazu. Retrieved 2011-02-07.
- Erica Friedman (2006-12-06). "Yuri Manga: Rakka Ryuusui". Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- Friedman, Erica (April 19, 2007). "Yuri Manga: Red Garden, Volume 1". Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- "R.O.D the TV Review". Anime-Planet. Retrieved 2007-12-04.
- "S.S. ASTRO: Asashio Sogo Teachers’ ROom by Negi Banno". Yen Press. Retrieved 2008-09-26.
- Welker, James. "From The Cherry Orchard to Sakura no Sono: Translating Sexual Identities". Australian National University. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
- Brienza, Casey (2009-01-02). "Sasami: Magical Girls Club Review". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2009-07-23. "Probably the most annoying recurring interaction is An-An's puppy love infatuation with Tsukasa."
- Frost, Marc. "Seraphim Call Review". Asian-Stuff. Archived from the original on 2008-05-11. Retrieved 2008-03-18. "Some scenes of girls in bathing suits and lingerie. Lesbian themes."
- Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Manga: Kyoshiro to Towa no Sora, Volume 2". Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- "Steel Angel Kurumi Vol. 1 – Angel On My Shoulder Review". Otaku Review. 2004-10-08. Retrieved 2009-07-28. "and the rival maid who is a lesbian."
- Beveridge, Chris. "Stratos 4 Vol. #3 Review". AnimeOnDVD.com. Retrieved 2007-11-20. "It's a military show that's not a military show (...) with an aliens invasion storyline that's tied to lesbianism and consuming mass quantities of food."
- Friedman, Erica (February 12, 2009). "Strike Witches Anime". Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- Friedman, Erica (March 3, 2004). "Yuri Manga: Sukeban Deka". Retrieved 2008-05-19.
- Tran, Can. "Anime Review of Tactical Roar". GroundReport. Retrieved 2008-02-04.
- Shamoon, Deborah (2007). "Revolutionary Romance: The Rose of Versailles and the Transformation of Shōjo Manga". In Lunning, Frenchy. Networks of Desire. Mechademia 2. University of Minnesota Press. p. 8, pp.10–11. ISBN 978-0-8166-5266-2.
- Friedman, Erica. "Another Anime With Yuri In It: Touka Gettan". Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- Jones, Tim. "Ultimate Girls Review". THEM Anime. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- Friedman, Erica. "Yuri Anime: Uta-Kata Revisited". Okazu. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- Napier, Susan J. (1998). "Vampires, Psychic Girls, Flying Women and Sailor Scouts". In Martinez, Dolores P. The Worlds of Japanese Popular Culture: Gender, Shifting Boundaries and Global Culture. Cambridge University Press. pp. 97 and p.107. ISBN 0-521-63128-9.
- "Venus Versus Virus Ultimate Guide". Seven Seas Entertainment. Retrieved 2007-12-08. "There is no explicit yuri content in the manga, but the pages are full of subtext."
- "ゆるゆり" [YuruYuri] (in Japanese). Ichijinsha. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- Nagaike, Kazumi (September 30, 2010). "The Sexual and Textual Politics of Japanese Lesbian Comics: Reading Romantic and Erotic Yuri Narratives". Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies (Oita University Center for International Education and Research). Archived from the original on July 18, 2013. Retrieved July 18, 2013.
- Shōjo-ai Archive
- Small Call List of all the yuri-related dōjinshi circles present in Comiket since 2001. (Japanese)
- Yuribu Group of one-hundred yuri dōjinshi circles that will be present in Comitia 84. (Japanese)