Yuri of Goguryeo
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|Yuri of Goguryeo|
|Hangul||유리왕 or 유리명왕|
|Hanja||瑠璃王 or 瑠璃明王|
|Revised Romanization||Yuri-wang or Yurimyeong-wang|
|McCune–Reischauer||Yuri-wang or Yurimyŏng-wang|
|Hangul||해유리 or 유류 or 누리|
|Hanja||解類利 or 儒留 or 累利|
|Revised Romanization||Hae Yuri or Yuryu or Nuri|
|McCune–Reischauer||Hae Yuri or Yuryu or Nuri|
|Monarchs of Korea
King Yuri (? - 18 CE, r. 19 BCE - 18 CE) was the second ruler of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the eldest son of the kingdom's founder King Dongmyeongseong. As with many other early Korean rulers, the events of his life are known largely from the Samguk Sagi.
King Jumong proclaimed Yuri to be the Crown Prince of Goguryeo. Onjo and Biryu (the sons of So Seo-no) became insecure. So Seo-no took her sons and traveled south to found the kingdom of Baekje. Yuri became King upon Jumong's death later.
Han dynasty China, Goguryeo's neighbor, was overthrown by Wang Mang, who established the Xin Dynasty. Wang Mang sent a messenger to Goguryeo to ask for troops to assist in a conquest of the Xiongnu during 12 CE, the 31st year of his reign. Yuri rejected the request and instead attacked Xin.
He had six sons and among them were Hae-myeong, and Muhyul. Hae-myeong was proclaimed the crown prince of Goguryeo after the death of Dojul, who was King Yuri's eldest son, but Yuri found him to be too reckless and disobedient. Yuri replaced him with the younger son Muhyul in 14 CE, his son with the daughter of Songyang. Muhyul ruled later as King Daemusin of Goguryeo.
The poem of Yuri is said to have written for his favored concubine Chihui has survived to this day. It is titled as the Hwangjoga (황조가, 黃鳥歌, Song of the Yellow Bird).
King Yuri died in 18 CE, after ruling for 37 years. He was succeeded by his oldest remaining son, Muhyul, who became King Daemusin.
- Lady Ye.
- Unknown daughter of Songyang.
- Dojeol, Crown Prince (died 1 CE).
- Hae-myeong, Crown Prince (created 1 CE, deposed 14 CE).
- Muhyul, Crown Prince (created 14 CE), later King Daemusin of Goguryeo, (crowned around 18 CE).
- Yeojin, Prince (died 18 CE).
- Hae Se-ryu/Yeo-rang, Princess.
- Hae Saek-ju (?-48), later King Minjung of Goguryeo.
- Go Jae-sa, the head of the Go house of the Gyeru lineage, father of the King Taejo of Goguryeo.
Theories regarding King Yuri
In recent studies, some historians have made a series of observations regarding Goguryeo's establishment that led them to think of Yuri may not have been the son of Go Jumong, but an usurper.
The observations that led to this conclusion were Jumong's early death, the difference in surnames, Yuri's harsh behavior toward some of Jumong's most prized subjects, and the differences in the styles of rule. Jumong died at the age of 40, which is quite early compared to that of some of his successors and predecessors. Very few of the rulers of that time period died before the age of 40. The difference in surnames may signify dynastic change from the Go family to the Hae family.
Another startling point to consider is the fact that most of Jumong's most trusted subjects were exiled or resigned. An example is Hyeob-bo, who was among Jumong's first three followers. According to the first Goguryeo volume of the Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms (Samguk Sagi), Hyeob-bu continually disagreed with the way King Yuri continually left the palace to go on hunting trips and strongly urged the King to be more attentive to matters of the kingdom.
However, Yuri grew annoyed and forced Hyub-bo to resign from his office. However, this claim may be proven counteracted with the fact that not all of Jumong's subjects were removed. General Bu Bun-no and Oi served Goguryeo through most of King Yuri's reign and played active roles in the kingdom. Goguryeo under Yuri did not display the strict expansionist policy that existed under Jumong. A final observation is the mentioning of a broken sword in the legend.
Some historians have inferred that Yuri finding a piece of Jumong's broken sword and using it as a claim signifies the collapse of Jumong's regime, and Yuri's rise to the throne. Overall, the fact that Jumong died five months after the arrival of Yuri caused the suspicion of these select historians. However, this is merely a theory and no assumptions can be made.
- 《三国史记》：“三十三年 春正月 立王子无恤为太子 委以军国之事 秋八月 王命乌伊・摩离 领兵二万 西伐梁貊 灭其国 进兵袭取汉高句丽县”