Yusuf Adil Shah
|YUSUF ADIL SHAH|
|ADIL SHAHI EMPEROR|
|Full name||Abul Muzaffar Yusuf Adil Khan Sawi|
|Place of death||Gogi, Shahpur, District Gulbarga|
|Buried||In the campus of Great Sufi Saint Chandah Husaini of Gogi, Shahpur, District Gulbarga, 1510|
|Successor||Ismail Adil Shah|
|Consort to||Baboojee Khatoon or Poonji Khatoon Daughter of Mukund Rao of Indapur (Maratha accepted Islam)|
1) Ismail Adil Shah 2) Mariyam Sultana Wife of Burhan Nizam Shah-I 3) Khadeeja Sultana Wife of Shaikh Alauddin Imadul Mulq Berari4) Bibi Sati Wife of Ahmed Shah Ibn Mehmood Shah Bahmani
|Royal House||House of Osman|
|Dynasty||Adil Shahi Empire|
Yusuf Adil Shah (1459–1511), referred as Adil Khan or Hidalcão by the Portuguese, was the founder of the Adil Shahi dynasty that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur for nearly two centuries. As the founder of the newly formed Bijapur dynasty (as the Adil Shahi dynasty is also known), Yusuf Adil Shah is credited with developing the town of Bijapur and elevating it to significant status.
Legend of origin
The founder of the dynasty, Yusuf Adil Shah, was likely a Bahmani nobleman who originally was a Georgian slave purchased by Mahmud Gawan from Iran. According to the historian Mir Rafi-uddin Ibrahim-i Shirazi, or Rafi', Yusuf's full name was Sultan Yusuf 'Adil Shah Sawa or Sawa-i, the son of Mahmud Beg of Sawa in Iran, (Rafi' 36–38, vide Devare 67, fn 2). Rafi's history of the 'Adil Shahi dynasty was written at the request of Ibrahim Adil Shah II, and was completed and presented to the patron in AH 1017. The Indian scholar T.N. Devare mentioned that while Rafi's account of the Bahmani dynasty is filled with anachronisms, his account of the Adilshahi is "fairly accurate, exhaustive, and possesses such rich and valuable information about Ali I and Ibrahim II" (312). Rafi-uddin later became the governor of Bijapur for about 15 years (Devare 316).
Rafi's account is less well known than that of the popular historian Firishta, the author of the Nawras- nama, also known as the Gulshan-i Ibrahim. Rafi's account of the life of Yusuf 'Adil Shah directly contradicts a fanciful legend related by Firishta on the origins of the Adil Shahi dynasty. According to him, Yusuf Adil Shah is said to have been the son of Murad II, Ottoman sultan and caliph of Islam, who was succeeded by one of his sons, Mehmed II. After his accession, the new sultan is said to have ordered the execution by strangling of all his brothers, including Yusuf. Yusuf's mother contrived to save him by replacing him with a slave boy; she then arranged to have Yusuf conveyed to Persia. Yusuf eventually came to India, where he took service under the Bahmani ruler of the Deccan, ultimately becoming a personage of importance at the court of Mahmud II.
T.N. Devare found that other historians of the time, Mir Ibrahim Lari-e Asadkhani, and Ibrahim Zubayri, the author of the Basatin as-Salatin, favored Rafi's account and rejected this account provided solely by Firishta (Devare 67, fn 2). Devare observed that the work is "a general history of India from the earliest period up to Firishta's time written at the behest of Ibrahim Adil Shah II and presented to him in 1015 AH/1606 CE. It seems however that it was supplemented by the author himself as it records events up to AH 1033 (1626 CE). This is the most widely quoted history of the Adil Shahi, and it is the source of the story that Yusuf was an Ottoman prince" (Devare 272).
Despite the obvious fabrication of Yusuf's Ottoman origin, Firishta's account continues to be very popular today in Bijapur, although very few historians give any credence to this legend. The reason that prompted Firishta to fabricate this account is unknown, and especially curious given that he must have known of, if not been familiar with the account of his contemporary Rafi. Perhaps this story was added after the death of his patron, simply as a way of aggrandizing his patron, if not to gain attention.
Whatever may have been Yusuf's origins, the matter did not hamper his essaying a brilliant career. His bravery and personality raised him rapidly in the Bahmani sultan's favor, and resulted in his being appointed Governor of Bijapur.
In 1489, Yusuf took advantage of the decline of the Bahmani power to establish himself as an independent sultan at Bijapur. He waged war against the Vijayanagar empire, as also against Bijapur's Muslim neighbours. The Bijapur sultanate he founded was a formidable force for close to two centuries until it was finally defeated by Aurangzeb in 1686.
Adil Shah is personally responsible for building the imposing Citadel or Arkilla and the palace named Faroukh Mahal. Yusuf was a man of culture and invited poets and artisans from Persia, Turkey and Rome to his court. He was also an accomplished musician and scholar with deep religious tolerance that was reflected in art and architecture from this time.
Yusuf Adil Shah married Punji, the sister of a Maratha warrior. He died in 1511, shortly after the loss of Goa to the Portuguese governor Afonso de Albuquerque, in 1510. Yusuf left behind a strong if small state, one which persisted through two relatively chaotic centuries in a region rife with political ferment. He was succeeded by his son Ismail, who being a minor, was aided in his rule by a certain Kamal Khan.
Founder of the Dynasty
|Adil Shahi Rulers of Bijapur
Ismail Adil Shah
- Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (2012). Courtly Encounters: Translating Courtliness and Violence in Early Modern Eurasia. p. 101.
- Chaurasia, Radhey Shyam (2002). History of Medieval India: From 1000 A.D. to 1707 A.D. p. 101.
- India History
- Wakiyate Mamlakate Bijapur by Basheeruddin Dehelvi.
- Tareekhe Farishta by Kasim Farishta
- External Relation of Bijapur Adil Shahis.
Devare, T. N. A short history of Persian literature; at the Bahmani, the Adilshahi, and the Qutbshahi courts. Poona: S. Devare, 1961.