Yusufzai (Pashtun tribe)
The Yūsufzai (Pashto: يوسفزی Yūsufzay, plur. يوسفزي Yūsufzī; Urdu/Persian: یوسف زئی), also called Yousafzai, Esapzay or Yūsufī, or anciently known as Ducae is one of the Sarbani Pashtun tribes. They are found in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan, and in some eastern parts of Afghanistan. Some Yusufzai lineages are settled in India, most notably in Andhra Pradesh's capital of Hyderabad city, and in the Rohilkhand region, many of whom form a part of the larger Rohilla community.
Yusufzai tribe is the largest tribe of Pakhtuns/Pashtuns. the Yusufzai tribe is also known The Tribe of The Brother of Prophet Hazrat Yousaf AS and the Son of Hazrat YaQoob name YAHUDA. According to Akhund Darweza, the Yusufzai originated in Kandahar, Afghanistan. In their migration eastward, they arrived in the Kabul area when it was ruled by the Turkic governor Ulugh Beg, who had succeeded his father Shahrukh Mirza in 1446.
When the Yusufzai spread into the area as far as Swat, their relationship with the local Dilazaks deteriorated and a long war ensued. After 20 years, under their leader Malik Ahmed Khan, the Yusufzai and allied clans(jadoon and uthmankhale) were able to push the Dilazaks eastwards towards the Hazara mountains east of the Indus River, at the battle of Katlang.
The tribe is mentioned as "Isapzais" by Alexander the Great in 330 BC. They are later mentioned by Babur in the 16th century. It is claimed that by the 1580s the Yusufzai numbered about 100,000 households. In general, they were uncooperative with the rule of Akbar who sent military forces under Zain Khan Koka and Raja Bir Bar to subdue them. In 1585 Raja Bir Bar was killed in fighting with the Yusufzai. It was not until about 1690 that they were fully brought within the realm of the Mughal Empire. Pir Baba, as the first emir. After Akbar Shah's death in 1857, Akhund Ghaffur assumed control of the state himself. The state lasted until the early 20th century under its religious leaders known as Akhunds of Swat, and later passed on to the last dynasty of Gujar/Safis, who ruled over the area now encompassing the present day Swat , District Buner ,(right side of Indus) district KohistanandShangla till 1969.
The Yusufzai are the predominant population in the districts of Swat, Buner, Shangla, Mardan, Malakand, Tor Ghar, Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Swabi in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. They are also living in Battagram and the Maloga village of the Oghi Tehsil of Mansehra.
In Afghanistan, they inhabit parts of the Kunar and Nangarhar provinces. In Balochistan, there is also a Yusufzai clan of the Dehwar tribe in the Mastung District which speak Brahui, and Persian with some mixture of Brahui words.
Some Yusufzai lineages are settled in India, especially in Andhra Pradesh's capital Hyderabad city, in the Rohilkhand region of northwestern Uttar Pradesh, in the Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh, in Gaya and the nearby Bihar, in Channapatna, Kadi, Ahmedabad, Baroda and the nearby Gujarat, in Maharashtra's Pune, Akola and Mumbai, and in Karnataka's Mysore and Bangalore. Many of the Yusufzai of Uttar Pradesh form a part of the larger Rohilla community.
- Khyber.ORG. Yusufzai. Retrieved on February 9, 2013.
- Ahmed, Khaled. "Daily Times - Leading News Resource of Pakistan". Daily Times. Retrieved 1 December 2012.
- John F. Richards, The New Cambridge History of India: The Mughal Empire (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. 50
- Haroon, Sana (2011). Frontier of Faith: Islam, in the Indo-Afghan Borderland. Hurst Publishers. p. 40. ISBN 1849041830. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press