|A.M. Makarov Yuzhny Machine-Building Plant|
Zenit-2 rocket ready for launch.Baykonur.
The A.M. Makarov Yuzhny Machine-Building Plant, or PA Yuzhmash (Ukrainian: Виробниче Об'єднання Південний Машинобудівний Завод імені А.М. Макарова; Russian: Производственное Объединение Южный Машиностроительный Завод имени А.М. Макарова; literally: Production Association Southern Machine-Building Plant named after A.M. Makarov) is a Ukrainian manufacturer of space rockets, agricultural equipment, buses, trolley buses, trams, wind turbines, and satellites. It is a large state-owned company located in Dnipropetrovsk.
Yuzhmash operated initially as "plant 586" in the Soviet Union. In 1954 Mikhail Yangel established the autonomous design bureau designated OKB-586, from the former chief designer's division of plant 586. Yangel had previously headed OKB-1 (today RKK Energiya) and was primarily a supporter of liquid fuel technology – unlike Sergei Korolev at OKB-1, who was a supporter of missiles using cryogenic fuels. To pursue development of ballistic missiles using storable liquid fuels, Mikhail Yangel had received authorization to convert the chief designer's division of the plant into an autonomous design bureau. Following this, OKB-586 was designated Yuzhnoye Design Bureau and plant 586 was renamed Yuzhnyy Machine-Building Plant in 1966, with an focus on the design and production of ballistic missiles. The plant was later renamed Yuzhnoye Machine-Building Production Association, or Yuzhmash; The design bureau is currently known as Pivdenne Design Bureau.
Missiles produced at Yuzhmash included the first nuclear armed Soviet rocket R-5M (SS-3 'Shyster'), the R-12 Dvina (SS-4 'Sandal'), the R-14 Chusovaya (SS-5 'Skean'), the first widely deployed Soviet ICBM R-16 (SS-7 'Saddler'), the R-36 (SS-9 'Scarp'), the MR-UR-100 Sotka (SS-17 'Spanker'), and the R-36M (SS-18 'Satan'). During the Soviet era, the plant was capable of producing of up to 120 ICBMs a year. In the late 1980s, Yuzhmash was selected to be the main production facility of the RT-2UTTKh Topol-M ICBM (SS-27 "Sickle B").
After the beginning of perestroika, demand for such production declined significantly, and Yuzhmash has been partly converted for civil machinery. Trolleybus models include the articulated YuMZ T1 (1992–1998) and its non-articulated brother, the YuMZ T2. The T2 continues to be produced alongside the more modern YuMZ E-186 which features a low floor cabin.
Pivdenmash is now one of the largest industrial enterprises in Ukraine. As of January 2003, Pivdenmash employed 13,000 workers. In 2001 it sold production worth 335.6 million hryvne ($62.7 million as of December 2001), although in 2002 its sales decreased to 122.1 million hryvne ($22.8 million as of December 2002). In addition to production facilities in Dnipropetrovsk, Pivdenne Production Association includes the Pavlohrad Mechanical Plant, which specialized in producing solid-fuel missiles. Pivdenmash's importance was further bolstered by its links to Ukraine's former President Leonid Kuchma, who worked at Pivdenmash between 1975 and 1992. He was the plant's general director from 1986 to 1991.
|This section requires expansion. (September 2012)|
- the R-5M - the Soviet Union's first nuclear armed missile
- the R-12 Dvina theatre ballistic missile
- the R-14 Chusovaya theatre ballistic missile
- the R-16 - the first widely deployed ICBM of the Soviet Union
- the R-36 ICBM (converted to Dnepr rocket)
Space Launch Vehicles
- Yuzhnoe Design Bureau - a major missile designer closely co-operating with Yuzhmash
- National Space Agency of Ukraine
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yuzhmash.|
- English-language home page
- Makarov Pivdennyy (Yuzhnyy) Machine-Building Plant at the Nuclear Threat Initiative