||This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (March 2008)|
|Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen|
|Launched||1 April 1963|
|Owned by||the States of Germany|
|Picture format||16:9 576i (SDTV)
|Broadcast area||National; also distributed in:
|Astra 19.2°E (Europe)||11.953 GHz Horizontal
SR: 27500 FEC: 3/4
SID: 28006 Video PID: 110 Audio PID: 120 Stereo, 125 Dolby Digital
|Astra 19.2°E (DVB-S2 HDTV) (Europe)||11.362 GHz Horizontal
SR: 22000 FEC: 2/3
SID: 11110 Video PID: 6110 Audio PID: 6120 Stereo, 6122 Dolby Digital
|Hot Bird (Europe, Middle East & North Africa)||11.054 GHz Horizontal
SR: 27500 FEC: 5/6
SID: 8011 Video PID: 570 Audio PID: 571
|Kabel Deutschland||Yes (SD and HD)|
|Cablecom (Switzerland)||Yes (SD and HD)
SD - Channel 006 (digital CH-D)
|Naxoo (Switzerland)||Channel 154|
|Ziggo (Netherlands)||Channel 611|
|YouSee (Denmark)||Channel 52|
Channel 44 (SD/HD)
Channel 44 (SD)
Channel 89 (HD)
|UPC Horizon||Watch live (Netherlands only)
Watch live (Switzerland only)
Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (English: Second German Television), usually shortened to ZDF, is a German public-service television broadcaster based in Mainz, Rhineland-Palatinate. It is run as an independent non-profit institution, which was founded by all federal states of Germany (Bundesländer). ZDF is financed by television licence fees and advertising revenues. The ZDF is well known for its famous TV formats heute (newscast; established in 1963) and Wetten, dass..? (entertainment show; established in 1981). Thomas Bellut, the current director general, was elected by the ZDF Television Council in 2011.
- 1 History
- 2 Finances
- 3 Transmission and reception
- 4 Other ZDF channels
- 5 Design
- 6 Administration
- 7 Membership
- 8 Programmes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the German Wikipedia. (August 2013)|
ZDF was founded in 1961 by interstate agreement, after the West German federal government's plan to set up a TV channel controlled by the federal government caused uproar. West Germany's constitution stipulated that regulation of culture and media was a compentency of the federal states (Bundesländer). The station began broadcasting from Eschborn near Frankfurt am Main on 1 April 1963, with a speech by the first director general (Intendant), Dr. Karl Holzamer. The channel broadcast its first programme in colour in 1967. In 1974, ZDF moved its base of operations to Mainz-Lerchenberg, after briefly being located in Wiesbaden. In 1960 the German postal service began constructing a transmitter chain for a second television network. This new network was to be broadcast on the UHF spectrum which required new reception equipment. For older receivers a converter was sold for about 80 DM (about $20 in 1961 dollars or about $150 in 2012 dollars). As with the earlier ARD television network, the location of the transmitters was carefully planned to ensure the entire country would be able to receive the programming. To test the transmitters and encourage the public to purchase UHF receivers the federal government allowed the ARD network to create a temporary secondary channel, ARD 2, which was broadcast daily from 8 PM to 10 PM. ARD 2 began broadcasting on 1 May 1961 in the transmission area of Hessischer Rundfunk and a month later expanded nationwide.
Interstate Agreement (Staatsvertrag)
Under the government of Konrad Adenauer, the Interior Ministry was to establish a federal TV network, the Deutschland-Fernsehen or "Germany-TV", to compete with the ARD. The SPD-led states of Hamburg, Bremen, Lower Saxony, and Hesse appealed to the Constitutional Court, which on 28 February 1961 in the First Broadcasting Judgment blocked the plan, declaring that all broadcasting powers belonged to the states. In March 1961 the states decided to establish independently of existing institutions a central nonprofit public television network. On 6 June 1961, the state premiers signed at a premiers' conference in Stuttgart the interstate agreement on the "establishment of the public institution Second German Television". On 1 December 1961, though not all states had ratified the agreement, it went into force in the states that had done so (Baden-Württemberg, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate). The last state, Bavaria, filed the instrument of ratification on 9 July 1962.
Election of the management
In the election of directors were party political considerations to the fore. A majority of the Union parties are allowed the Television to make a proposal from its own ranks, but for the election were cast from the ranks of the SPD required. Thus did one elfköpfiger election committee cast a balanced proposal: The Counsellor in the Foreign Office should be Gerhard Brand Director, the SPD should be allowed to determine the program director, who was also deputy director of the CDU and the FDP, the chief editor of the Administrative Director. Brand declined, whereupon the Committee could agree on a director, there were only a majority for Bruno Heck, but the secret ballot of Television Council on 27 February 1962 fell through. A new, now six-member committee then made four proposals: Hans Bausch, Berthold Martin, Karl and Wilhelm Holzamer Vaillant, co-owner of the RIVA-TV studios. The SPD members of the Television Board held all four candidates acceptable to the CDU members behagten not Bausch and Vaillant and it was decided by 16 votes to 13 between Holzamer and Martin. Holzamer was elected with 44 of 58 votes from the Television, with 9 against and 4 abstentions.
Since 1 January 2009, the licences fee in Germany for Radio, TV and New Media has been € 17,98 per month. These fees are not collected directly by ZDF but by the GEZ which is a common organisation of ARD, its members, ZDF and Deutschlandfunk. Every resident in Germany with a radio, TV or other relevant device (such as a computer or mobile phone with internet access) is obliged to pay this licence fee.
Transmission and reception
As ZDF is a channel, not a network, the channel is broadcast throughout Germany, with no regional variations or affiliates, using a number of signal repeaters. ZDF transmitters broadcast a digital signal. Analog signals were gradually phased out, a process which lasted from 2002 to 2008. The ZDF group includes the main ZDF channel itself, 3sat, ZDFinfokanal (a topical information and news channel), KIKA (a children´s channel; daytime only), ZDFkultur (culture-oriented), ZDFneo (youth-oriented) and arte. ZDF does not run any transmitters itself. Throughout the analogue days, all ZDF transmitters were run by the Deutsche Bundespost which was later privatised as Deutsche Telekom's subsidiary T-Systems Media Broadcast. (This is in contrast to the other public German broadcaster, ARD, which owns its main transmitters.) ZDF was not previously allowed to use ARD's transmitters. ZDF uses both ARD and Telekom transmitters since changes to the law in the 1990s and since the digital switchover.
ZDF has also been relayed by cable since the days of the first cable pilot projects.
The first Europe-wide satellite broadcast via Astra 1C began in August 1993 during the Internationale Funkausstellung Berlin (IFA - "International Broadcasting Exhibition") in Berlin. In the same decade, these new technologies were used to enable digital broadcasting of ZDF. Today, ZDF is available free-to-air throughout Europe on Astra 19.2°E and Hot Bird (13 degrees East).
Other ZDF channels
ZDF also operates the channels KI.KA, Arte, 3sat and Phoenix in cooperation with other networks. Included in its digital offering, called ZDFvision are the channels ZDFneo (formerly ZDFdokukanal), ZDFinfo (formerly ZDFinfokanal), ZDFkultur (formerly ZDFtheaterkanal), all of which are transmitted in SD and HD. Today ZDF is one of Europe's largest television networks. A commercial subsidiary called ZDF Enterprises GmbH manages programme sales, acquisitions, international coproductions and a growing number of important activities in new media.
ZDF's animated station identity mascots, the Mainzelmännchen (a play on the words "Mainz" and "Heinzelmännchen"), created by Wolf Gerlach in 1963, quickly became popular and are still shown between commercials. In 1976 Otl Aicher, a graphic designer, created ZDF's corporate design. A new design for ZDF was created by Lee Hunt in February 2000.
Administratively ZDF is headed by a director general (Intendant), who is elected by the ZDF Television Council, the composition of which is in turn determined by "societally-relevant groups" named in the ZDF Treaty.
Directors General since the start of ZDF:
- 1963 - 1977: Karl Holzamer
- 1977 - 1982: Karl-Günther von Hase
- 1982 - 2002: Dieter Stolte
- 2002 - 2012: Markus Schächter
- since 2012: Thomas Bellut
The supervising board supervises the work of the intendant Markus Schächter. They pay special attention to the budget. The supervising board has 14 members:
- 5 representatives of the federal states
- 1 representative of the federal republic of Germany
- the other 8 members are not allowed to work for the government or other public entities.
The Television board supervises ZDF and authorizes the budget. They also elect the Director General. The Television board has 77 members:
- 16 representatives of each federal state
- 3 representative of the federal republic of Germany
- 12 representatives of the parties
- 2 representatives of the Protestant Churches
- 2 representatives of the Catholic Church
- 1 representative of the Central Council of Jews in Germany
- the remaining members are chosen by the representatives mentioned above.
ZDF became a full member of the European Broadcasting Union in 1963. It also has numerous individual cooperation agreements with broadcasters around the world. ZDF is a supporter of the Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) initiative (a consortium of broadcasting and Internet industry companies including SES, OpenTV and Institut für Rundfunktechnik) which promotes the establishment of an open European standard for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast TV and broadband multimedia applications with a single user interface.
ZDF's own programmes
- Aktenzeichen XY... ungelöst
- Borgia (Borgia: Faith and Fear), co-producers CANAL+ (France) and others
- Dance Academy (2010)
- Der Kommissar (cancelled)
- Derrick (cancelled)
- Die Deutschen
- Die größten Musical Hits (The Greatest Musical Hits)
- Ein Fall für Zwei
- Jack Holborn (miniseries for Christmas 1982)
- Lafer! Lichter! Lecker! (2006–2010)
- Markus Lanz (2008–2010)
- Maybrit Illner, a „Polit-Talk“, a political talkshow
- Mino (1986 Christmas miniseries)
- „heute“ (Newscast)
- Nicht nachmachen!
- Rock Pop Music Hall (cancelled)
- The Old Fox (Der Alte)
- Wetten, dass..?
- ZDF-Magazin (1969–1988)
Shown in ZDF
- Alfred J. Kwak
- The Bold And The Beautiful (Reich & Schön)
- Dog City
- Fraggle Rock (Die Fraggles)
- In Plain Sight (at ZDF neo)
- New Tricks
- Star Trek: The Next Generation (Raumschiff Enterprise: Das nächste Jahrhundert)
- Veronica Mars
- The Young And The Restless (Schatten der Leidenschaft)
Audience share (March 2008): 13.4%, from 14–49 years 7.1%.
- "European Benchmarking: Public Service Broadcasters in the Digital Era". Circom Regional. May 2002. p. 46. Retrieved 2009-07-19.
- "ZDF Unternehmen".
- "Historical US Dollars to German Marks currency conversion". UC Santa Barbara History Department. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "GEZ Gebührenübersicht".
- "ZDF Mainzelmännchen".
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