Забайкальский край (Russian)
|— Krai —|
|Economic region||East Siberian|
|Established||March 1, 2008|
|Government (as of August 2010)|
|- Governor (acting)||Konstantin Ilkovsky|
|- Legislature||Legislative Assembly|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|- Total||431,500 km2 (166,600 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||2.57 /km2 (6.7 /sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||YAKT (UTC+10:00)|
Zabaykalsky Krai (Russian: Забайкальский край, IPA: [zəbɐjˈkalʲskʲɪj kraj], lit. Transbaikal krai) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) that was created on March 1, 2008 as a result of a merger of Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug, after a referendum held on the issue on March 11, 2007. The administrative center of the krai is located in the city of Chita. Population: 1,107,107 (2010 Census).
Ravil Geniatulin, the Governor of Chita Oblast, was elected Governor of Zabaykalsky Krai on February 5, 2008 by the majority of the deputies of both Chita Oblast Duma and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug Duma. He assumed the post on March 1, 2008.
The krai is located within the historical region of Transbaikalia.
The krai has extensive international borders with China (998 km) and Mongolia (868 km) and internal borders with Irkutsk and Amur Oblasts, as well as with the Republic of Buryatia and the Sakha Republic.
The first traces of human presence in the area dates to 150-35 million years ago. Early evidence was found on the surface of ancient river gravels Gyrshelunki (tributary of the Khilok River) near the city of Chita, near Ust-Menza on the Chikoy River.
Slab Grave cultural monuments are found in northern, central and eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, north-western China, southern, central-eastern and southern Baikal territory. The people of Slab Grave culture were Mongols.
The Xiongnu Empire (209 BC-93 CE) governed territory of modern Zabaykalsky Krai and Mongolian scholars prove that the Xiongnu was Mongolic state but some scholars prove that it was Turkic state.
The Merkit (Mongolian: Mergid "skillful/wise ones") was one of the five major tribal confederations (khanlig) in the Mongolian plateau in the 12th century. The Merkits lived in the basins of the Selenge River and lower Orkhon River.After a struggle that took over two decades, they were defeated in 1200 and incorporated into the Mongol Empire formed by Genghis Khan. By the time he had united the other Mongol tribes and was given the title "Chinggis Khan" in 1206, the Merkits seem to have disappeared as a separate ethnic group. Those who survived were most likely absorbed by other Mongol tribes, such as the Oirats and others who fled to Kypchaks mixed with them. After the fall of the Yuan Dynasty, they were a clan of a banner in Northern Yuan.
Jalayir is one of the Darligin Mongol tribes according to Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami' al-tawarikh and they lived along the Shilka and Onon Rivers. After the Mongol conquest in the 13th century many Jalayirs spread over Central Asia and the Middle East. Jalayirs are one of the founding tribes of Mongolia's largest ethnic group Khalkha. Smaller clans named Jalayir are also found among the Southern Mongols in China. The Jalayirs who stayed in Central Asia under the rules of Genghis Khan's older sons' descendants eventually adopted Turkic language.
The Tayichiud (Cyrillic: Тайчууд) was one of the three core tribes in the Khamag Mongol Khanate of Mongolia during the 12th century and they lived in the southern part of the krai. Zabaykalsky Krai and Mongolian Khentii Province were core region of the Khamag Mongol Khanate.
In the 17th century, some or all of Mongolic Daurs lived along the Shilka, upper Amur, and on the Zeya River. They thus gave their name to the region of Dauria, also called Transbaikal, now the area of Russia east of Lake Baikal. Facing the Russian expansion in the Amur region, between 1654 and 1656, during the reign of Shunzhi Emperor, the Daurs were forced to move southward and settle on the banks of the Nen River, from where they were constantly conscripted to serve in the banner system of the Qing emperors. Territory of modern Zabaykalsky Krai was part of Mongolic Xianbei state (93-234), Rouran Khaganate (330-555), Mongol Empire (1206-1368) and Northern Yuan (1368-1691) until 1691.
Preliminary work on the unification of the Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug was started at the level of regional authorities in April 2006. The governor of the Chita region Ravil Geniatulin, mayor of the Aga Buryat Autonomous Zhamsuev Bair, head of the regional parliament Anatoly Romanov and Dashi Dugarov sent a letter to the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, and November 17, 2006, he supported the initiative. 
Referendum on unification took place 11 March 2007. In the Chita region answered "Yes" to the question:
"Do you agree that the Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug merged into a new entity of the Russian Federation - the Zabaykalsky Krai, which included Agin-Buryat Autonomous Area will be an administrative-territorial unit with special status, defined by the charter of the province in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation?"
In the Chita Oblast 90.29% (535,045 voters) of the voters voted for the union versus - 8.89% (52,698 voters) who voted against it. 72.82% of the electorate participated. In the Aga Buryat Autonomous Region 94% (38,814 voters) voted for the union versus - 5.16% (2129 voters) 82.95% of the electorate voters participated.
July 23, 2007, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a federal constitutional law "On Establishement in the Russian Federation of a new subject of the Russian Federation in the merger of Chita Oblast and Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug", adopted by the State Duma on July 5, 2007. and approved by the Federation Council on July 11, 2007.
The population was mostly Russians and Buryats, along with some Ukrainians and a few Evenks. There were 1,000 Jews in the regional capital. According to the 2010 Census, Russians made up 89.9% of the population while Buryats were 6.8%. Other significant groups were Ukrainian (0.6%), Tatars (0.5%), Belorussian (0.2%), Azeri (0.18%), Evenks (0.1%). 19,981 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
- Births: 16,652 (14.84 per 1000; 14.87 in urban areas and 14.79 in rural areas).
- Deaths: 16,186 (14.42 per 1000; 14.42 in urban areas and 14.44 in rural areas).
- Natural Growth Rate: 0.04% per year (0.05% in urban areas and 0.04% in rural areas).
- Births: 17,809 (15.9 per 1000)
- Deaths: 16,053 (14.3 per 1000)
- NGR: 0.16%
- Net Immigration: -3,621
- Vital statistics for 2012
- Births: 17 706 (16.1 per 1000)
- Deaths: 14 310 (13.0 per 1000) 
- Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.89 | 2010 - 1.87 | 2011 - 1.87 | 2012 - 2.00 | 2013 - 2.02(e)
As of a 2012 official survey 24.6% of the population of Zabaykalsky Krai adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 6.25% to Buddhism, 6% declares to be generically unaffiliated Christian (excluding Catholic and Protestant), 2% follows other Orthodox Churches. In addition, 28% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 17% to be atheist, and 16.15% follows other religion or did not give an answer to the survey.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zabaykalsky Krai.|
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- Kremlin's Official website. Konstantin Ilkovsky has been appointed Acting Governor of the Trans-Baikal Territory
- Charter, Article 21.2
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- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
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- Законодательное Собрание Забайкальского края. Закон №125-ЗЗК от 17 февраля 2009 г. «Устав Забайкальского края». (Legislative Assembly of Zabaykalsky Krai. Law #125-ZZK of February 17, 2009 Charter of Zabaykalsky Krai. ).