Zabrze

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Zabrze
Main Post Office
Main Post Office
Flag of Zabrze
Flag
Coat of arms of Zabrze
Coat of arms
Zabrze is located in Poland
Zabrze
Zabrze
Coordinates: 50°18′N 18°47′E / 50.300°N 18.783°E / 50.300; 18.783
Country  Poland
Voivodeship POL województwo śląskie flag.svg Silesian
County city county
Established thirteenth century
Town rights 1922
Government
 • Mayor Małgorzata Mańka-Szulik
Area
 • City 80.40 km2 (31.04 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • City 179,452[1]
 • Urban 2,746,000
 • Metro 4,620,624
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 41-800 to 41-820
Area code(s) +48 32
Car plates SZ
Website http://www.um.zabrze.pl/

Zabrze [ˈzabʐɛ] ( ) (English:/'zɑːbʒe/) (German: 1915-1945: Hindenburg O.S., full form: Hindenburg in Oberschlesien, 1905-1915: Zabrze, Silesian: Zobrze) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice. The west district of the Silesian Metropolis is a metropolis with a population of around 2 million. It is located in the Silesian Highlands, on the Bytomka river, a tributary of the Oder.

Zabrze is situated in the Silesian Voivodeship which was reformulated in 1999, previously it was in Katowice Voivodeship. It is one of the cities within the 2,7 million conurbation - Katowice urban area and in a greater Silesian metropolitan area populated by about 5,294,000 people.[2] The population of Zabrze as of June 2009, is 188,122.[3]

History[edit]

Fire station

Early history[edit]

Biskupice (Biskupitz), which is now a subdivision of Zabrze, was first mentioned in 1243 as Biscupici dicitur cirka Bitom. Alt-Zabrze was mentioned in 1295-1305 as Sadbre sive Cunczindorf (sive = or). In the Late Middle Ages, the local Silesian Piast dukes invited German settlers into the territory resulting in increasing German settlement. Zabrze became part of the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria in 1526, and was later annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia during the Silesian Wars. In 1774, the Dorotheendorf settlement was founded. When the first mine in Zabrze became operational in 1790, the town became an important mining center.

Early twentieth century[edit]

In 1905, the Zabrze commune was formed by the former communes Alt-Zabrze, Klein-Zabrze and Dorotheendorf. The Zabrze commune was renamed Hindenburg in 1915 in honor of Generalfeldmarschall Paul von Hindenburg. The name change was approved by King Wilhelm II on 21 February 1915.[4] During the plebiscite held after World War I, 21,333 inhabitants (59%) of the Hindenburg commune voted to remain in Germany, while 14,873 (41%) voted for incorporation to Poland.[4] In May 1921 the Third Silesian Uprising broke out and Hindenburg was captured by Polish insurgents, who held it until the end of the uprising.[4] When Upper Silesia was divided between Poland and Germany in 1921, the Hindenburg commune remained in Germany. It received its city charter in 1922. Just five years after founding Hindenburg became the biggest city in German Upper Silesia and the second biggest City in German Silesia after Breslau. In the March 1933 elections, most of the citizens voted for Nazi Party, followed by Zentrum and the Communist Party. Nazi politician Max Fillusch became the city's mayor and remained in the position until 1945.[5]

World War Two and aftermath[edit]

The town's synagogue, that had stood since 1872, was destroyed in the Kristallnacht pogroms of November 1938.[6] Following World War II, the city was assigned to Poland in 1945 and was renamed back to Zabrze on May 19, 1945. Most of the German inhabitants were expelled.

Politics[edit]

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Bytom/Gliwice/Zabrze constituency

  • Chojnacki Jan, SLD-UP
  • Dulias Stanisław, Samoobrona
  • Gałażewski Andrzej, PO
  • Janik Ewa, SLD-UP
  • Kubica Józef, SLD-UP
  • Martyniuk Wacław, SLD-UP
  • Okoński Wiesław, SLD-UP
  • Szarama Wojciech, PiS
  • Szumilas Krystyna, PO
  • Widuch Marek, SLD-UP

Sport[edit]

Economy[edit]

Like other towns in this populous region, it is an important manufacturing centre, having coal-mines, iron, wire, glass, chemical and oil works, breweries, etc.

Panorama of city
Zabrze Chimney Power Plant and Aleja Bohaterow Monte Cassino Street

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Zabrze is twinned with these cities:

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ Rocznik Demograficzny 2012
  2. ^ European Spatial Planning Observation Network (ESPON) [1]
  3. ^ Central Statistical Office, Warsaw 2009, "Population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division, as of June 30, 2009" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-12-31. 
  4. ^ a b c Historia - Hindenburg at the official website of Zabrze
  5. ^ Stadtkreis Zabrze at Geschichte on Demand website
  6. ^ Ghetto Fighters' House archives, Photo No. 55805: a memorial monument placed by the Zabrze municipality in 1998 to commemorate its Jewish community.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 50°18′N 18°47′E / 50.300°N 18.783°E / 50.300; 18.783