Zadok the Priest

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For the actual High Priest, see Zadok.

‘Zadok the Priest’ (HWV 258) is a coronation anthem composed by George Frideric Handel using texts from the King James Bible. It is one of the four Coronation Anthems that Handel composed for the coronation of George II of Great Britain in 1727,[Note 1] and has been sung at every subsequent British coronation, traditionally performed during the sovereign's anointing.

Text[edit]

Part of the traditional content of British coronations, the texts for all four anthems were picked by Handel—a personal selection from the most accessible account of an earlier coronation, that of James II in 1685.[1] The text is derived from the biblical account of the anointing of Solomon. These words have been used in every English, and later British, coronation since that of King Edgar at Bath Abbey in 973.[2] An earlier setting had been written by Henry Lawes for the coronation of King Charles II.[3]

At the coronation itself on 11 October 1727, the choir of Westminster Abbey sang Zadok the Priest in the wrong part of the service; they had earlier entirely forgotten to sing one anthem and another ended "in confusion".[4]

Full text[edit]

After 1 Kings 1:38–40

Zadok the Priest, and Nathan the Prophet anointed Solomon King.
And all the people rejoiced, and said:
God save the King! Long live the King!
May the King live for ever,
Amen, Allelujah.

Structure[edit]

Zadok the Priest is written for SS-AA-T-BB chorus and orchestra (two oboes, two bassoons, three trumpets, timpani, strings, continuo). The music prepares a surprise in its orchestral introduction through the use of static layering of soft string textures followed by a sudden rousing forte tutti entrance, augmented by three trumpets.

The middle section "And all the people rejoic'd, and said" is an imitatory dance in 3/4 time, with the choir singing chordally and a dotted rhythm in the strings.

The final section "God save the King", etc. is a return to common time (4/4), with the "God save the King" section heard chordally, interspersed with the Amens incorporating long semiquaver runs, taken in turn through the six voice parts (SAATBB) with the other parts singing quaver chords accompanying it. The chorus ends with a largo plagal cadence on "Allelujah".

Other uses[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The other Coronation Anthems Handel composed are: The King Shall Rejoice, My Heart is Inditing and Let thy Hand be Strengthened.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.classicalarchives.com/work/11746.html#tvf=tracks&tv=about
  2. ^ "Guide to the Coronation Service", Westminster Abbey website (London, U.K.: Dean and Chapter of Westminster), 2009, retrieved 2009-08-20, "Meanwhile the choir sings the anthem Zadok the Priest, the words of which (from the first Book of Kings) have been sung at every coronation since King Edgar’s in 973. Since the coronation of George II in 1727 the setting by Handel has always been used." 
  3. ^ Sadie, Julie Anne (1990), Companion to Baroque Music, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-21414-5 (p. 297)
  4. ^ Lambeth Palace Library Research Guide: Sources for the Coronation – George II, MS 1079b (p. 7)
  5. ^ Royal Wedding Frederik & Mary – Zadok the Priest. YouTube. May 14, 2004. Retrieved May 2, 2012. 

External links[edit]